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This Edition is limited to five hundred 
copies, of which this is No. ..J? /.<?..... 










Corresponding Member of thf French Institute 






Copyright, 1885, 1887, by 
Charles Scribner's Sons 



To Face 


Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Bonssod, Valadon f-r Co., Paris 18 


Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Boiissod, Valadon & Co., Paris . 60 


Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Boussod, Valadon Sr Co., Paris . 6? 


Photogravure from the original by Messrs. BoussoJ, Valadon Sr Co., Paris . 172 


Photogravure from the original by Messrs. "Nichols & Hatuiy, New York . 259 


Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Boiissod, Valadon & Co., Paris . 266 

7 . TRUTH 

Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Boiissod, Valadon & Co., Paris . 304 



Etching by H. P. Share . . .... 350 



Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Nichols Sr Handy, New York 


Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Bonssod, l/aladon Sr Co., Paris . 414 

n. THE WHITE GIRL nfttf 

Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Nichols Sr Handy, New York 4 2 7 


Etching by Paul Adolphe Rajon 

***The publishers are indebted for permission to reproduce the faint ings in this 
list to Messrs. Thomas Agnew Sr Sons, London (for Holman Hunt's THE SHADOW 
OF DEATH); to H. Lefcvre (for Alma-Tadema' s IN THE TEPIDARIUM); to A. Lucas, 
Esq., London (for Long's THISBE); to the Corcoran Gallery, Washington (for Leroux's 
THE VESTAL TUCCIA); to Thomas D. Whistler, Esq., Baltimore ( for Whistler's THE 
WHITE GIRL); to the French Government for copies made in the Luxembourg gallery. 



1. RAINBOW Rubens Louvre, Paris. 4 

2. RAPHAEL LEAVING TOBIAS . . .Rembrandt Louvre, Paris. 12 

3. READING THE WILL Sir David Wilkie New Munich Gallery. 14 

4. REBEKAH AND ELIEZEK Murillo Madrid Museum . 14 

5. REBEKAH AND ELIEZER Nicolas Poussin Louvre, Paris. 15 

6. REBEKAH AND ELIEZEK Paolo Veronese (?) Louvre, Paris. 16 

7. RENT DAY Sir Dauid Wilkie John Chapman, England. 26 

8. RESURRECTION AnnibdLe Carracci Louvre, Paris . 28 

9. RESURRECTION Pietro Perucjino Vatican, Rome. 29 

10. RESURRECTION Rqffaelino del Garbo Florence Academy . 29 

11. RINALDO AND AflMiDA Domenichiuo Louvre, Paris. 47 

12. ROCH, ST., GIVING ALMS. . . . Annibale Carracci Dresden Gallery. 57 

13. ROMUALD, ST., VISION OF. . . Andrea Sacchi Vatican, Rome. 65 

14. RUBENS AND ISABELLA BRANDT. Rubens Munich Gallery. 85 


F Rubens .... Blenheim Palace, England . 86 


16. RUBENS'S SONS Rubens Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 86 

17. SABINES, RAPE OF THE Luca Giordano. Dresden Gallery. 96 

18. SABINES, RAPE OF THE Nicolas Poussin Louvre, Paris. 97 

19. SABINE WOMEN Louis David Louvre, Paris . 98 

20. SEVEN SACRAMENTS ........ Nicolas Poussin Bridgewater House, London . 100 

21. SALOME Guercino Louvre, Paris . 106 

22. SAMSON AND DELILAH Anton van Di/ck Vienna Museum. 108 

23. SAMSON AND DELILAH Rembrandt Cassel Gallery . 109 

24. SAMUEL APPEARING TO Suji.Saluator Rosa Louvre, Paris. 110 

25. SAPPHIRA, DEATH OF Nicolas Poussin Louvre, Paris. 114 

26. SASKIA VAN ULENBURGH Rembrandt Cassel Gallery . 116 

27. SATYR AND PEASANT Jacob Jordaens Old Pinakothek, Munich. 118 

28. SAVIOUR, THE Titian Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 119 

29. SCHOOL OF ATHENS Raphael Vatican, Rome . 144 

30. Scio, MASSACRE OF Eugene Delacroix. Louvre, Paris. 158 

31. SCIPIO, CONTINENCE OF Primaticcio Louvre, Paris . 159 

32. SEBASTIAN, ST , Anton van Dyck Louvre, Paris . 163 

33. SEBASTIAN, ST Guido Reni Louvre, Paris . 163 

34. SEBASTIAN, ST Antonio Pollajuolo National Gallery, London . 164 




35. SHEPHERDS, ADORATION OF. .Anton Raphael Menys. ............ Madrid Museum. 174 

36. SHEPHERDS, ADORATION OF . . Nicolas 1'owssin .................. Munich Gallery . 175 

37. SIBYLS ................... Raphael ............ Santa Maria della Pace, Rome. 179 

38. SIDDONS AS THE TRAGIC MusE.Sir Joshua Reynolds ..... Grosvenor House, London. 180 

39. SILENUS, TRIUMPH OF ...... Rubens ................. National Gallery, London. 184 

40. SIMPLICITY ................ Sir Joshua Reynolds ........ E. F. Watson, England. 188 

41. SNAKE IN THE GRASS ....... Sir Joshua Reynolds ...... National Gallery, London. 195 

42. SOCRATES, DEATH OF ...... Louis David ............. . . .Marquise de Vtrac. 198 

43. SOLOMON, JUDGMENT OF. ... Nicolas 1'oustsin ........... ....... Louvre, Paris . 202 


n ( Rembrandt .............. ... Amsterdam Museum . 205 


45. SPALATRO ................ Washington Allston ....... H 11. Bishop, New York . 208 

46. SPASIMO DI SICILIA ........ Raphael ........................ Madrid Museum . 210 

47. STEPHEN, ST., MARTYRDOM OF. Charles Lebrun ..................... Louvre, Paris. 220 

48. STRAWBERRY GIRL ......... Sir Joshua Reynolds. ..Sir Richard AVallace, London. 235 

49. SUPPER AT EMMAUS ........ Titian ............................ Louvre, Paris . 242 

50. SUPPER AT EMMAUS ........ Paolo Veronese ..................... Louvre, Paris . 243 

51. SUSANNA ................. Lodovico Garracci ....... National Gallery, London. 244 

52. SUSANNA ................. Tintoretto ......................... Louvre, Paris . 245 

53. SUSANNA ................. Paolo Veronese .................. Madrid Museum . 24(! 


I Bartholomew van der Heist. . . .Amsterdam Museum. 250 
ERS .............. ) 

55. THOMAS, ST., INCREDULITY OF . Cima da Coneyliano .............. Venice Academy. 26C 

56. THOMAS, ST., INCREDULITY OF. Guercino ......................... Vatican, Rome. 2C7 

57. THOMAS, ST., INCREDULITY OF . Cecchino del Salviati ................ Louvre, Paris . 267 


\ Ginho Romano ..................... Louvre, rans. 28o 

UMPH OF .......... ) 

59. TOBIAS AND THE ANGEL ..... Salvator Rosa ...................... Louvre, Paris. 286 

60. TRANSFIGURATION .......... Lodovico Carraci-i ................ Bologna Gallery . 291 

61. TRANSFIGURATION .......... Raphael .......................... Vatican, Rome. 292 

62. TRIBUTE MONEY ........... Titian .......................... Dresden Gallery. 290 

63. TRIBUTE MONEY ........... Valentin .......................... Louvre, Paris. 297 

64. TRINITY, ADORATION OF THE . Albrecht Diirei- .................. Vienna Museum. 298 

65. TRINITY, DISPUTE OF THE. . .Andrea del Sarto ........... Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 299 

66. TWELFTH NIGHT .......... Jacob Jordaens .................. Vienna Museum . 309 

67. UGOLINO ................. Sir Joshua Reynold.-* ......... Knole Park, England . 311 

68. URSULA, ST., EMBARKATION OF. Claude Lorrain .......... National Gallery, London. 

69. URSULA, ST., HISTORY OF. . . Vittore Garpaccio. . . .Venice Academy. 317 

70. VENUS AND ADONIS ........ Guercino .............. . .Dresden Gallery. 

71. VENUS AND ADONIS ........ Ruben* ................ Hermitage, Si Petersburg. 

72. VENUS AND ADONIS ........ Titian ............... .Madrid Museum. 

73. VENUS ANADYOMENE. ....... Titian ............... Bridgewater House, London . 

74. VENUS, BIRTH OF ......... Sandra Botticelli ...... . . Uffizi, Florence . 

75. VENUS AND CUPID ......... Titian ................... Palazzo Borghese, Rome. 

76. VENUS, FESTIVAL OF ....... Rubens ......................... Vienna Museum. 342 



77. VENUS, TOILET OF Francesco Album Louvre, Paris. 343 

78. VENUS, TOILET OF Titian Cobbam Hall, England . 344 

79. VENDS OF THE TRIBUNE . . . Titian Uffizi, Florence . 345 

80. VENUS AND VULCAN Giulio Romano Louvre, Paris . 346 

81. VENUS AND VULCAN Anton van Dyc/e Louvre, Paris. 346 

82. VILLAGE BRIDE Jean Ilaptiste Greuze Louvre, Paris. 368 

83. VILLAGE FESTIVAL David Teniers, younger .Vienna Museum. 369 

84. VILLAGE POLITICIANS Sir David Willcii; Earl of Mansfield, England. 370 

85. VIRGIN, BIRTH OF THE Annibale Garracci Louvre, Paris. 375 

86. VIRGIN, BIRTH OF THE Murillo Louvre, Paris. 376 

87. VIRGIN, CORONATION OF THE. Raphael Vatican, Eonie. 377 

88. VIRGIN, CORONATION OF THE. Velasquez Madrid Museum . 378 

89. VIRGIN, DEATH OF THE Michelangelo da Caravaggio Louvre, Paris . 379 

90. VIRGIN, EDUCATION OF THE. Rubens Antwerp Museum. 380 

91. VIRGIN, MARRIAGE OF THE. Raphael Brera, Milan . 381 

92. VISITATION Mariotto Albertinelli Uffizi, Florence. 383 

93. VISITATION Sebastian del Piombo Louvre, Paris . 383 

94. VISITATION .Raphael Madrid Museum. 384 

95. VISITATION Rubens Antwerp Cathedral . 384 

96. VULCAN, FORGE OF Velasquez Madrid Museum . 399 

97. WAR, HORRORS OF Rubens Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 406 

98. WATER CARRIER Velasquez Apsley House, London . 410 

99. WATERING PLACE Philips Wouwerman Munich Gallery. 411 

100. WILLIAM, ST Guercino Bologna Gallery . 434 

101. WOLFE, DEATH OF Benjamin West Grosvenor House, London . 443 

102. WOMAN TAKEN IN ADULTERY. Nicolas Poussin Louvre, Paris. 444 

103. WOMAN TAKEN IN ADULTERY. Tintoretto Dresden Gallery . 445 

104. YOUNG BULL Paul Potter. Hague Museum . 458 

105. ZANOBIUS, ST Ridolfo Ghirlandajo Uffizi, Florence . 460 

106. ZINGARELLA, LA Correggio Naples Museum . 468 




1. Bahl, Karl 3 37. Romney, George 65 

2. Eamberg, Arthur Georg von 5 38. Roncalli, Cristofano 66 

3. Raoux, Jean 6 39. Roos, Johann Heinrich 67 

4. Raphael 7 40. Rosa, Salvator 69 

5. Rapin, Alexandra 12 41. Rosenstand, Vilhelm Jakob 71 

6. Rasmussen, Carl 13 [ 42. Rosenthal, Toby Edward 72 

7. Raupp, Karl 13 43. Rossetti, Gabriel Charles Dante . . 73 

8. Regnault, Alexandre Georges Henri 18 44. Rosso, H 74 

9. Regnault, Jean Baptiste 19 45. Rottenhainmer, Johann 75 

10. Reinhart, Johann Christian 21 46. Rottmauii, Karl 76 

11. Rembrandt van Rhyn 22 47. Rousseau, Philippe 78 

12. Renouf, fimile 25 48. Rousseau, Pierre Eticnne Theodore 78 

13. Restout, Jean, younger 28 49. Rubens, Peter Paul 81 

14. Rethel, Alfred 31 50. Rugendas, Georg Philipp 87 

15. Reynolds, Sir Joshua 33 51. Rump, Christian Gottfred 90 

16. Rhomberg, Hanno 35 

17. Ribot, Augustin Th6odule 37 ! 52. Sacchi, Andrea 99 

18. Richards, William Trost 39 53. Saenredam, Pieter 100 

19. Richmond, George 40 54. Saft-Leven, Herman 101 

20. Richomme, Jules 40 , 55. Saint-Pierre, Gaston Casimir 103 

21. Richter, Adrian Ludwig 41 j 56. Salai, Andrea 104 

22. Richter, Gustav Karl Ludwig 42 ' 57. Salentin, Hubert 

23. Ridinger, Johann Elias 43 58. Salimbeni, Ventura 104 

24. Rieclel, August 43 59. Salviati, Cecchino del 107 

25. Riefstahl, Wilhelm 44 60. Sandrart, Joachim von 

26. Riepenhausen, Johann 45 ' 61. Santerre, Jean Baptiste . 

27. Rigaud, Hyacinthe 46 62. Sargent, John S 

28. Riviere, Briton 51 63. Sarto, Andrea del 

29. Robert, Louis Leopold 53 64. Sassoferrato, H 

30. Robert-Fleury, Tony 55 ' 65. Schadow, Friedrich Wilhelm von . 

31. Roberts, David 55 66. Schalcken, Godfried .... 

32. Roed, Jorgen 58 67. Schefler, Ary. . . . 

33. Roelas, Juan de las 59 68. Schelfhout, Andreas 

34. Roll, Alfred Philippe 60 69. Schendel, Petnis van. . 

35. Romanelli, Giovanni Francesco ... 62 70. Schiavone, Andrea . . 

36. Rombouts, Theodoor 64 71. Schidone, Bartolommeo . 


72. Schinkel, Karl Friedricli 

73. Schinner, Johann Wilhelm 

74 Schleich, Eduard 

75. Schlosser, Karl 

76. Schmid, Mathias 

77. Schmidt, Willem Hendrik 

78. Schnorr von Karolsfeld, Julius . 

79. Scholtz, Julius 

80. Schongauer, Martin 

81. Schotel, Johannes Christianus . . 

82. Schrader, Julius 

83. Schraudolph, Claudius, younger . 
84 Schraudolph, Johann 

85. Schreyer, Adolf 

86. Schrodter, Adolf 

87. Schut, Cornelis 

88. Schwartz, Frans 

89. Schwind, Moritz von 

90. Scorel, Jan van 

91. Seel, Adolf 

92. Sell, Christian 

93. Selleny, Josef 

94. Semini, Andrea 

95. Shee, Sir Martin Archer 

96. Shirlaw, Walter 

97. Sigalon, Xavier 

98. Signorelli, Luca 

99. Sirani, Giovanni Andrea 

100. Skovgaard, Peter Kristian 

101. Slingelandt, Pieter Cornelisz van. 

102. Smillie, George Henry 

103. Smillie, James David 

104. Smirke, Robert 

105. Snayers, Peeter 

106. Snellinck, Jan 

107. Snyders, Frans 

108. Sodoma, H 

109. Sohn, Karl Ferdinand 

110. Sohn, Wilhelm 

111. Solimena, Francesco 

112. Sonne, Jorgen Valentin 

113. Sorensen, Carl Frederik 

114. Sorgh, Hendrik Maertensz 

115. Spada, Lionello 

116. Spaendonck, Gerardus van 

117. Spagnoletto, Lo 

118. Spangenberg, Gustav Adolf . . . 


. 13? 
. 133 

119. Spitzweg, Karl 212 

120. Spranger, Bartholomeus 213 

121. Stanfield, William Clarkson 216 

122. Steen, Jan 219 

123. Steen wyck, Hendrik van, younger. 221 
124 Steffeck, Karl 222 

125. Steinle, Eduard 224 

126. Stella, Jacques 225 

127. Stevens, Alfred 227 

128. Stevens, Joseph 228 

129. Stewart, Julius L 228 

130. Stone, Marcus 231 

131. Storey, George Adolphus 232 

132. Stothard, Thomas 233 

133. Strozzi, Bernardo 237 

134. Stuart, Gilbert 238 

135. Subleyras, Pierre 240 

136. Sully, Thomas 242 

137. Sylvestre, Joseph Noel 249 

138. Tassaert, Nicolas Francis Octave 254 

139. Teniers, David, elder 256 

140. Teniers, David, younger 257 

141. Terburg, Gerard 259 

142. Testa, Pietro 261 

143. Testelin, Henri 262 

144. Thumann, Paul 272 

L45. Tiarini, Alessandro 273 

146. Tibaldi, Pellegrino 273 

147. Tidemand, Adolf 274 

148. Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista 275 

149. Tiutoretta, La 278 

L50. Tintoretto, Jacopo 278 

151. Titian 282 

152. Tournieres, Robert Levrac 291 

153. Trayer, Jean Baptiste Jules 293 

154. Trumolliere, Pierre Charles 294 

155. Troost, Cornelis 301 

.56. Troy, Jean Franjois de 302 

.57. Troyon, Constant 303 

158. Trumbull, John 304 

.59. Tura, Cosimo 306 

.60. Turchi, Alessandro 306 

161. Turner, Joseph Mallord William . 307 

.62. Uden, Lucas van 310 

163. Ulft, Jacob van der 312 

64. Utrecht, Adriaen van. . .317 



165. Vaenius, Otho 

166. Vaga, Perino del 

167. Valdes Leal, Juan de 

168. Valentin, Le 

169. Vargas, Louis de 

170. Vasari, Giorgio 

171. Vayson, Paul 

172. Vedder, Elihu 

173. Veit, Philipp 

174. Velasquez, Diego Kodriguez de 

Silva y 

176. Velde, Adriaan van de 

176. Velde, Willem van de 

177. Venneraan, Charles Ferdinand. . . 

178. Verboeckhoven, Eugene Joseph . . 

179. Verdier, Francois 

180. Vereschagin, Basil 

181. Verhaghen, Pierre Joseph 

182. Verheyden, Franciscus 

183. Verkolje, Jan 

184 Verkolje, Nicolaas 

185. Vermehren, Johan Fredrik 

186. Vernet, Antoine Charles Horace . 

187. Vernet, Claude Joseph 

188. Vernet, Emile Jean Horace 

189. Veronese, Paolo 

190. Verrocchio, Andrea del 

191. Verschuur, Wouterus 

192. Vibert, Jehan Georges 

193. Vien, Joseph Marie 

194. Vinci, Leonardo da 

195. Vollon, Antoine 

196. Volterra, Dauiele da 

197. Voltz, Friedrich 

198. Voltz, Ludwig 

199. Vos, Cornelis de 

200. Vos, Marten de 

201. Vos, Simon de 

202. Vouet, Simon 

203. Vuillefroy, Dominique Felix de . . 

204. Waldmtlller, Ferdinand Georg. . . 

205. Walker, Frederick 

206. Wappers, Gustaaf 

207. Ward, Edward Matthew 

208. Ward, James 

209. Waterhouse, John William 


319 210. 

320 211. 

322 212. 

322 213. 













































































Watteau, Antoine 412 

Watts, George Frederick 413 

Wauters, Emile 414 

Weeuix, Jan 417 

Weerts, Jean Joseph 417 

Weir, John Ferguson 418 

Weir, Julian Aldeu 418 

Weir, Robert Walter 419 

Wells, Henry Tamvorth 420 

Wencker, Joseph 421 

Werff, Adriaau van der 421 

Werner, Anton Alexander von . . . 423 

Werner, Fritz 423 

Werner, Karl 424 

West, Benjamin 425 

Weyden, Bogier van der 426 

Whistler, James Abbott McNeill . 427 

Whittredge, Worthington 428 

Wiertz, Antoine Joseph 429 

Wilkie, Sir David 432 

Willroider, Joseph 436 

Wilson, Richard 436 

Winterhalter, Franz Xaver 438 

Wislicenus, Hermann 439 

Wit, Jacob de 439 

Wolgemuth, Michael 444 

Woods, Henry 447 

Worms, Jules 448 

Wouwerman, Philips 449 

Yeames, William Frederick 455 

Yon, Edmond Charles 457 

Yvon, Adolphe 458 

Zegers, Geeraard 461 

Zeitblom, Bartholomaus 462 

Zelotti, Giambattista 462 

Zichy, Michael von 464 

Zick, Januarius 464 

Ziem, Felix .465 

Zimmermann, Ernst 467 

Zimmermann, Reinhard Sebastian 468 

Zucchero, Federigo 

Zucchero, Taddeo 

ZOgel, Heinrich 

Zurbarau, Francisco 472 



1. Rabe, Edmund 

2. Raoux, Jean 

3. Raphael 

4. Ravesteyn, Jan van 

5. Recco, Giuseppe 

6. Regnault, Jean Baptiste 

7. Rembrandt van Rhyn 

8. Restout, Jean 

9. Rhomberg, Joseph Anton 

10. Ricci, Camillo 

11. Ricci, Sebastiano 

12. Richard, Fleury Fra^ois 

13. Richardson, Jonathan 

14. Ridinger, Johaun Elias 

15. Riedel, August 

16. Riepenhausen, Franz and Johann . 

17. Rigaud, Hyacinthe 

18. Ring, Pieter de 

19. Rizi, Francisco 

20. Robert, Hubert 

21. Robert, Louis Leopold 

22. Robert-Fleury, Joseph Nicolas .... 

23. Roepel, Koenraad 

24. Rombouts, Theodoor 

25. Romeyn, Willem 

26. Rondani, Francesco Maria 

27. Roos, Johann Heinrich 

28. Roos, Johann Melchior 

29. Roqueplan, Joseph Flienne Canrille 

30. Rosa, Salvator 

31. Rotteuhammer, Johann 

32. Rottmann, Karl 

33. Rubens, Peter Paul 

34. Rugendas, Georg Philipp 

35. Ruisdael, Jacob van 

36. Ruisdael, Salomon van 

37. Russ, Karl.. 











































































Ruthart, Karl 92 

Ruysch, Rachel 93 

Ryckaert, David 93 

Ryckere, Bernaard de 94 

Rysbrack, Peeter 94 

Sacchi, Andrea 99 

Saft-Leven, Herman 101 

Sandrart, Joachim von Ill 

Santerre, Jean Baptiste 113 

Sarto, Andrea del 116 

Savery, Roelant 119 

Schadow, Felix 120 

Schadow, Friedrich Wilhelm von . 121 

Schaffuer, Martin 122 

Schalckeu, Godfried 123 

Schiiufelin, Hans Leonhard 124 

Scheffer, Ary 126 

Scheits, Mathias 127 

Schelver, August Franz 127 

Schiavone, Andrea 130 

Schirmer, Johann Wilhelm 134 

Schloepke, Theodor 136 

Schnitzler, J. Michael 139 

Schnorr von Karolsfeld, Julius 140 

Schoeff, J 141 

Schongauer, Martin 142 

Schorn, Karl 146 

Schrader, Julius 147 

Schreyer, Adolf 148 

Schrodter, Adolf ... 149 

Schumacher, Karl Georg Christian 152 

Scorel, Jan van 160 

Seeger, Karl Ludwig 165 

Seehas, Christian Ludwig 166 

Seghers, Daniel 167 

Seibold, Christian 168 






























Siberechts, Jan 

Sigalon, Xavier 

Sirani, Giovanni Andrea 

Slingelandt, Pieter Cornelisz van . 

Snellinck, Jan 

Snyders, Frans 

Snyers, Peeter 

Soggi, Niccolo 

Spranger, Bartbolomeus 

Stalbemt, Adriaen van 

Staveren, Joban Adriaensz van . . . 

Steen, Jan 

Steenwyck, Hendrik van, elder . . 
Steenwyck, Hendiik van, younger 

Stella, Jacques 

Stilke, Hermann 

Stoop, Dirk 

Stork, Abraham 

Stothard, Thomas 

Streek, Juriaan van 

Streek, Hendrik van 

Stry, Abraham van 

Sturm, Fritz 

Stunner, Karl 

Subleyras, Pierre 

Suhrlandt, Johann Heinrich 

Suhrlandt, Eudolf Friedrich Karl 

Suvee, Joseph Beuoit 

Swanevelt, Herman 

Swart, Jan 

Swebach, Jacques Frauyois Joseph 

Taunay, Nicolas Antoine . . . 

Tempesta, Antonio 

Teniers, David, elder 

Teniers, David, younger . . . 

Terburg, Gerard 

Testa, Pietro 

Testeliu, Henri 

Thiele, Johaun Alexander . . 

Thielen, Jan Philip van 

Thulden, Theodorus van. . . 

Thys, Peeter 

Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista. 

Tilborch, Egidius 

Tilens, Jan 

Tischbeiu, August Anton . , 

I V.I 




120. Tischbein, Johann Heitirich 

1 V .1 





121. Titian 

122. Tobar, Alouso Miguel de 

123. Tocque, Louis 

124. Tol, Dominican van . 

125. Toorenvliet, Jacob 

126. Touruieres, Robert Levrac 

127. Tromolliere, Pierre Charles 

128. Troy, Jeau Francois de 

129. Uden, Lucas van 

130. Ulft, Jacob van der 

131. Utrecht, Adriaeu van 

132. Vaccaro, Andrea 

133. Vadder, Lodewyck de 
134 Vaillant, Wallerant 

135 Valckenborch Marteu van 

136. Valentin, Le 

137. Velasco, Luis do 

138. Velasquez, Diego Rodriguez de 
Silva y 

139 Velde Adriaan van de 

140 Velde Esaias van de . ... 

141 Velde Willeiu van dc 

142. Verboeckhoven, Eugene Joseph . . 
143 Verboeckhoven Louis 

145 Verdier Francois 

146 Verelst Pieter 

148 Verhie tr t Tobias 


149 Verlat Charles 

151. Vernet, Antoine Charles Horace . 
152 Vornct Claude Joseph 


154. Verschaeren, Joannes Antouius . . 
155 Verschurin^h Heiulrik 

i ^o Vi^n .Tn<wnh TMarie . . . . 

mVinM.- TVvnus Djivicl 

162. Vinne, Vincent Laureusz van der. 
1 fi3 Vivien. Josenh . . 



164. Vliet, Hendrik Cornelisz van 387 

165. Voelcker, Gottfried Wilhelm 388 

166. Vois, Arie de 389 

167. Vollmer, Adolf 390 

168. Vos, Cornelis de 394 

169. Vos, Marten de , 394 

170. Vos, Paulus de 395 

171. Vos, Simon de 395 

172. Vouet, Simon 396 

173. Vries, Adriaan de 397 

174. Vries, Eoelof de 397 

175. Vroom, Hendrik Corneliszen .... 398 

176. Vuillefroy, Dominique Fulix de . . 399 

177. Wael, Cornelis de 400 

178. Wagenbaur, Max Joseph 401 

179. Walscapele, Jacob 404 

180. Waterloo, Anthonie 411 

181. Watteau, Antoine 412 

182. Weenix, Jan Baptista 416 

183. Weenix, Jan 417 

184. Weerts, Jean Joseph 417 

185. Wegelin, Adolf 417 

186. Weller, Theodor Leopold 420 

187. Werff, Adriaan van der 422 

188. Werff, Pieter van der 422 

189. West, Benjamin '. . . 425 

190. Wicar, Jean Baptiste 428 

191. Wildens, Jan 431 

192. Wilkie, Sir David 432 

193. Willaerts, Abraham 432 

194. Willaerts, Adam 433 

195. Wilson, Eiehard 437 

196. Winghe, Jodocus van 438 

197. Witte, Emanuel de 440 

198. Wouwerman, Philips 450 

199. Wyck, Thomas 453 

200. Wynants, Jan 454 

201. Wytman, Matheus 455 

202. Ykens, Peeter 457 

203. Zeemau, Reinier 461 

204. Ziegler, Jules 465 

205. Zurbaran, Francisco 472 



Acad., Academy. 

A.N.A., Associate of the National Academy. 

A.R.A., Associate of the Royal Academy. 

A.RH.A, Associate of the Royal Hiber- 
nian Academy. 

A.R.S.A., Associate of the Royal Scottish 

C. & C., Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

Cat., Catalogue. 

Ch., Church. 

Col., Collection. 

Gal., Gallery. 

H., Height. 

ib., ibidem. 

id., idem. 

Insi, Institute. 

L. of Honour, Legion of Honour. 

Mus., Museum. 

N.A., National Academy or Academician. 

Nat. Gal., National Gallery. 

Pal., Palace, Palais, Palazzo. 

R, Royal. 

R.A, Royal Academy or Academician. 

R.H.A, Royal Hibernian Academy or 

R.S.A., Royal Scottish Academy or Acad- 

S., San, Santa. 

SS., Santi, Sante. 

S. M., Santa Marin. 

St., Saint. 

W. & W., Woltmann and Woermann. 

* * 

Words in italics Indicate the alphabetical placa of articles on tlie subjects 




AAB, GEORG, born in Vienna in 1821, 
died there, Dec. 31, 1885. Portrait, 
figure, and miniature painter, pupil 
of Vienna Academy ; worked in 1841-46 in 

Sir D. W. ; Art Journal (London, 1877), 

RABE, EDMUND, born in Berlin, Sept 
2, 1815. Genre and animal painter, pupil 

Pesth ; visited Munich, and settled in Vi- j of Berlin Academy and of Franz KrQger ; 
enna, where he has had great success with visited in 1835 Dresden, Prague, Nurem- 
ideal figures and heads, and for many years berg, and the Baltic Coast, in 1841-42 the 
was the favourite portrait painter of the Netherlands, Paris, Switzerland, and North- 
Imperial family and high aristocracy. A ern Italy, and in 185C Palestine. Member 
collection of his works was exhibited by the of Berlin Academy in 1843. Works : Trans- 
Austrian Art Union in April, 1886. Works : portation of French Prisoners of War in 
Deborah (1858) ; The Maiden (1862) ; Mi- 1813 (1838), National Gallery, Berlin ; Re- 
gnon (1869), Empress of Austria; Lady 'port to Officers Carousing (1840), Schwe- 
with White Veil, Vienna Museum ; Por- j rin Gallery ; Call to Arms before Town Hall 
traits of Emperor and Empress (38) of Aus- of Prussian Town in 1813 ; Travellers be- 
tria, Crown Prince Rudolf, Archdukes and fore Inn ; Cir- -^ 

Archduchesses, etc. Allgem. K. C., x. 13, cus Riders in V Ys^Vip \9vll ft 
298, 317 ; Wurzbach, xxiv. 157. French Town. ^ U 

RABBIT ON THE WALL, Sir David Cotta's Kunstbl. (1843), 83 ; D. Kunstbl. 
Wttkie, Sir William G. Armstrong ; canvas. (1850), 246 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 175 ; Rac- 
Called in Scotland the Hare among the ' zynski, iii. 113 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 
Kale. Six figures : the father making with 287. 

his fingers the shadow of a rabbit on the RACHOU, HENRI, born at Toulouse ; 
wall, which the mother holds her babe to contemporary. Genre painter, pupil of Bon- 
see ; in foreground, a girl with a light- [nai Medal, 3d class, 1884. Works : Knit- 
ed candle ; at left, two boys looking on. | ters (1881) ; Fishmonger, Studio Interior 
Painted in 1815; bought by Mr. Turner (1882); St. Jerome, Breton Cobbler (IS 
for 200 guineas ; sold in 1842 to Sir W. Portraits (1884, 1885, 188G). 
G. Armstrong for 700 guineaa Sketch] RADIN, SALEH, Prince, born in Java, 
in Baring Collection. Engraved by John died at Buitenzorg, near Batavia, April 
Burnet ; W. Greatbach. Heaton, Works of 1881. Animal, landscape, and marine paint- 


er, pupil at The Hague of Sclielfhout and 
J. A. Kruseman ; visited Germany, Italy, 
and France in 1841-46, and returned to 
The Hague. Copied most successfully The 
Young Bull by Potter, in The Hague Mu- 
seum. Works : Lion Hunt ; Bull Hunt in 
India, Leipsic Museum ; Storm at Sea. 
Cotta's Kunstbl. (1840), 328 ; (1845), 72 ; D. 
Kunstbl. (1850), 373 ; Immerzeel, iii. 1. 

RADL, ANTON, born in Vienna, April 
16, 1774, died in Frankfort, March 4, 1852. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy, then in Brussels (1790) of Kormer ; 
settled in Frankfort in 1794. Works : 
Woods in Sunshine, Entrance to Forest 
(1807), Four Views in the Taunus (1815, 
1817, 1823, 1825), Darmstadt Gallery ; View 
in Lorsbach Valley, Wood Landscape, Stii- 
del Gallery, Frankfort ; Views in the Tau- 
nus, Black Forest, and on the Danube. N. 
Necrol. der D. (1852), 141 ; Wurzbach, xxiv. 

RAEBUKN, Sir HENRY, born at Stock- 
bridge, near Edinburgh, March 4, 1756, 
died near there, July 8, 1823. Apprenticed 
to a goldsmith in Edinburgh ; tried minia- 
ture painting and then portrait painting, 
copying the works of David Martin. A fort- 
unate marriage enabled him to visit (1778) 
London and Italy, on his return from which, 
in 1780, he set up as a portrait painter in 
Edinburgh. He soon won high rank in his 
art, was elected in 1812 president of the 
Society of Artists in Scotland, and in 1813 
an A.R.A., and in 1815 R.A. On the visit 
of George IV. to Edinburgh in 1822 he 
was knighted, and the next year he was ap- 
pointed his majesty's limner for Scotland. 
Nine of his portraits are in the National 
Gallery, Edinburgh, and four in the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery, South Kensington, 
viz.: F. Homer, Rev. I. Home, Sir I. Sin- 
clair, H. Mackenzie ; Portrait of Sir Walter 
Scott (1808), Duke of Buccleuch ; do. of 
Helen Stirling, Earl of Dunmore. Cun- 
ningham ; Redgrave ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole an- 
glaise ; F. de Conches, 401 ; Sandby, i. 359 ; 
Portfolio (1879), 200. 

RAFFAELLINO. See Bottalla. 


COLLE, born in Colle about 1500, died at 
Borgo San Sepolcro, Nov. 17, 1566. Roman 
school ; said to have been a pupil of Raph- 
ael's, but was rather the disciple of Giulio 
Romano, whom he assisted in his principal 
works in Rome and in the Palazzo del Te, 
Mantua. Among his own works are : Res- 
urrection, Almighty with Angels, Cathedral, 
Borgo San Sepolcro ; Assumption, Minori 
Asservanti, ib.; Assumption, S. Francesco, 
and Madonna and Saints, S. Michele Arch- 
angelo, Citta di Castello. Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
ombrienne ; Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 163. 

RAFF ALT, IGNAZ, born at Weisskirch- 
en, Styria, in 1800, died at Haimbach, near 
Vienna, July 7, 1857. Genre and landscape 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy. Works : 
Mill at Obersteier ; Foggy Landscape ; Mill 
in the Woods; Convent Soup (1846); Fish- 
erman's Hut (1848) ; River Landscape with 
Castle (1852) ; Golden Wedding at Murau ; 
Postilions returning Home, Evening Land- 
scape (1849), Vienna Museum. His son 
Johaiin Gualbert (born at Murau, Styria, 
in 1836, died in Rome in 1865) was a tal- 
ented genre painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy and of Pettenkofen. Works : Land- 
scape with Horse-Pond, Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Market in Hungary (1862) ; Gypsy 
Camp (1863) ; Wall on the Puszta ; Hunga- 
rian Vehicle (1864); Cattle Fair in Hungary. 
Wurzbach, xxiv. 216, 220. 

RAFFORT, ETIENNE, born at Chalon- 
sur-Saone, May 11, 1802. Landscape and 
history painter, pupil of Castillet. Visited 
Italy (1829-32), and the East in 1842. 
Medals: 3d class, 1837; 2d class, 1840; 
1st class, 1843. Works : View of Palermo, 
Partanico, Genoa (1831) ; Seat of Govern- 
ment in Algiers (1833) ; St. Malo, Moun- 
tain Road in Burgundy, View of Auxerre 
(1834) ; View of Naples (1835), Chalon-sur- 
Saone Museum ; Nantes, Babazoun in Al- 
giers, Powder Magazine at St. Malo (1835) ; 


Palermo, Montereau, Dieppe, Havre (1836); 
Chalon-sur-SaOne, Harbour of St. Halo 
(1837); Farm-Yard in Burgundy (1838); 
Grand Canal and S. M. della Salute in Ven- 
ice (1840); Thun (1841); Entry of Emperor 
Henry IV. into Venice (1843), Grenoble 
Museum ; Square and Fountain of Tophane 
in Constantinople (1846) ; Mosque at Scu- 
tari ; Wall paintings in Notre Dame at 
Chardonnay. Bellier, ii. 336 ; Larousse. 

RAHL, KAKL, bora in Vienna, Aug. 13, 
1812, died there, July 
9, 1865. History and 
portrait painter, son of 
the engraver Karl 
Heinrich Rahl, pupil 
of Vienna Academy; 
won the first prize in 
1832, visited Germany, 
Hungary, and France, 
then studied in Rome 
(1836-43) after the antique ; returned to 
Vienna, and in 1845 went to Holstein, and 
in 1847 to Copenhagen, where he painted 
several members of the Danish court. After 
living a few years in Munich, he was called 
in 1850 to Vienna as temporary professor at 
the Academy, but resigned after one term 
and opened a school of painting, where he 
instructed eighty pupils, among whom were 
Bitterlich, Eisenmeuger, Griepenkerl, Lotz, 
and Than. For years disregarded and slight- 
ed his grand compositions for the decora- 
tion of the Vienna Arsenal having also been 
refused he at last obtained deserved prom- 
inence through the patronage of Baron Siua, 
executed a number of monumental exterior 
and interior decorations in palaces and 
public buildings of Vienna, and in 1863 
was nominated professor at the Academy. 
Works, Altarpieces : Madonna (1829); Bap- 
tism of Christ (1830) ; Marriage of the Vir- 
gin, St. Joseph of Calasanz (1841), Pia- 
ristenkirche, Vienna ; Assumption (1848) ; 
Trinity, St. Catharine, St. Simon, St. Georg, 
Madonna, Greek Church, Vienna. Mythol- 
ogy and Allegory : Prometheus rejecting 
Pandora (1834), Development of the Sci- 

ences in Greece (I860), Jason taking the 
Golden Fleece, Sacrifice of Iphigenia (1861), 
Rape of Helen (1863), Baron Sina, Vienna; 
Arion singing to the Nereids (1848); Orestes 

| pursued by the Furies (1852) ; Hercules 
serving Omphale (1860) ; Four Elements 
(1861) ; Four Cardinal Virtues of Austria's 
Regents, Vienna Academy ; Boreas eloping 
with Eireithyia, Munich Art Union ; Arts 
of Peace (12, 1861), Heiurichshof, Vienna. 
History : David hiding in Cave of Adullam 
(1832); Confederation on the Rotli in 1307 ; 
Hagen declared Siegfried's Murderer (1835), 
Charles of Anjou finding Manfred's Body 
(1838), Vienna Museum ; Hagen and Volker 
before Chriemhilde's Door (1836); Persecu- 
tion of Christians in Rome (1844), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; replica (1847), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Bishop Kolouitsch bring- 
ing Christian Prisoners from Turkish Camp 
(1853) ; Samson and Delilah (1854) ; Man- 
fred's Entry into Luceria in 1254 ; Moses 
protecting Reuel's Daughters ; Leopold the 
Virtuous on the Walls of Ptolemais. Genre 
and Landscape : Woman saving her Child 
from Lion (1834) ; Rugantino, Old Catalo- 
nian, Old Roman (1838); Woman from Pro- 
cida (1839) ; View near Terraciua (1840) ; 
Neapolitan Marinaro singing to his Sweet- 
heart (1841) ; Fortune-Teller (1841), Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Rural Scene near 
Rome, Girl at the Well (1842); Lute-Player 
(1850) ; Italian Woman with Tambourine 
(1853) ; do. at the Well (1856). Portrait* : 
The Painters Wiichter (1834), Riepenhau- 
sen (1846), Cornelius, Genelli, Heinrich 
Hess, Kaulbach (1848), Aigner (1851), Ko- 
vacs, Ricard (1854), Willers (1857), the 
sculptors Braudcnburger (1836), Martin 

: Wagner (1838), Hiihnel (1850), and Pilz, 
the architects Ernst and Hansen (1854), 
the poets Robert Prutz (1848), Ludwig A. 
Frankl (1855), the philosopher Ludwig Feu- 
erbach (1848), all at the Deutches Hoch- 
stift, Frankfort ; Martin Wagner, New Pi- 
uakothek, Munich ; Ernst Willers, Old Man, 
Two Female Heads, Schack Gallery, ib. ; 
the poets Keruer (1833), Schwab, Lenau, 


Hebbel (1855) ; Franz Liszt (1858) ; King 
Christian of Denmark; King Otto and 
Queen Amalie of Greece. Frescos : History 
of War and Strategy, Fame and Honour, 
Courage and Wisdom, Unity and Power, 
Arsenal, Vienna ; Myth of Paris (9, 1862), 
Baron Todesco, ib.; The Maiden from Afar 
(1864), Villa Wisgrill, Gmunden. Hottner, 
Carl Eahl (Vienna, 1863); Dioskuren (1863), 
Nos. 14-18, 30-35 ; D. Kunst-Zeitg. (1863), 
viii. Nos. 14-17, 33-35; Forster, v. 508; 
niustr. Zeitg. (1855), ii. No. 631 ; (1865), 
ii. 355 ; (1872), i. 139 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 
175; Kolnische Zeitg. (1865), No. 203; 

Rainbow, Rubens, Louvre. 

Kunst-Chronik, i. 43, 102; ii. 55; N. fr. 
Presse (1865), Nos. 329, 338; Reber, ii. 
207; Recensionen (1863), 3; Eiegel, D. 
Kunststud., 303 ; Schack, Meine Gemiilde- 
sammlung (1884), 176 ; Land und Meer 
(1865), xiv. 692 ; Unsere Zeit (1866), ii. 401 ; 
Wurzbach, xxiv. 230 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, i. 
109 ; iii. 34 ; iv. 90, 244 ; ix. (Mittheilung- 
en, ii. 27) ; xii. 25, 90, 122, 217 ; xiii 115, 
188, 221, 250, 316, 355. 

EAIBOLINI. See Francia. 

RAILWAY STATION, William P. Frith, 
Holloway Institute, Egham, near London ; 
canvas. Station of Great Western Railway 
at Paddington, at time of departure of a 
train. Painted in 1862 ; commissioned by 

Mr. Flatou for 8,000 guineas. Art Journal 
(1862), 95, 122. 

RAINBOW, Rubens, Louvre ; wood, H. 4 
ft. x 5 ft. 8 in. A valley with a river crossed 
by two bridges, with buildings on the banks 
and mountains in background, spanned by 
a rainbow ; in foreground, shepherds, sheep, 
and a dog, and a couple reclining. Collec- 
tion of Louis XIV. Engraved by Bolswert ; 
Garreau in Musce francais. Ch. Blanc, 
licole flamande ; Cat. Louvre ; Smith, ii. 
119 ; Reveil, ix. 586. 

RAKE'S PROGRESS, Hogarth, Soane 
Museum, London ; eight pictures, canvas, 
H. 2 ft. 1 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. 
They represent the career 
of an extravagant and dis- 
sipated young man, begun 
in falsehood and profligacy, 
ending in poverty, despair, 
and madness. 1. The Rake 
comes to his Fortune ; 2. 
The Rake as a Fine Gen- 
tleman ; 3. The Rake in a 
Bagnio ; 4. The Rake Ar- 
rested ; 5. The Rake's Mar- 
riage ; 6. The Rake at the 
Gaming-Table; 7. The Rake 
in Prison ; 8. The Rake in 
Bedlam. Painted in 1735. 
Sold in 1745 for 176 guin- 
eas ; bought by Sir John 
Soane for 598. Jameson, Hand-Book to 
Public Gal., ii. 565. 

Constantinople, of Greek parents ; contem- 
porary. Genre painter, pupil of Gerome, 
and of Lecomte du Nouy ; mention hon- 
ourable, 1885. Studio in Paris. Works : 
Watch by the Body of Ahmed-el-Kalib 
Pasha (1884); Christian Vestal (1885); 
Refectory of Greek Convent (1886). 

Baron, born in Vienna, Sept. 4, 1819, died 
in Munich, Feb. 5, 1875. History and genre 
painter and illustrator, pupil of Prague and 
Dresden Academies and of Julius Hu'bner ; 
went in 1850 to Munich, in 1860 became 


professor at the Weimar Art School, and in 
1866 at the Munich Academy. His illus- 
trations to Goethe's 
Hermann and Doro- 
thea made him espe- 
cially popular. Mem- 
ber of Vienna and 
Berlin Academies; 
Order of Michael. 
Works: Henry the 
Fowler fighting the 
Huns;Dachauer Wom- 
en on Sunday (1855) ; Walk with the Tutor, 
After the Masked Ball (1858) ; Hide and 
Seek ; Court of Frederick H. at Palermo 
(1867), Maximilianeum, Munich ; After Din- 
ner, Morning Devotion in the Mountains 
(1855), New Pinakothek, ib.; Meeting on 
the Lake ; At the Embroidery-Frame ; In- 
vitation to Boating ; Reading ; Illustrations 
to Schiller's Poems, Goethe's Hermann and 
Dorothea, Voss's Luise ; Frescos in Luther- 
Room at the Wartburg ; Fairy Tale of the 
Frog King, Weimar Museum ; Girl with 
Goat on the Alp, Wiesbaden Gallery. 
Deutsche Warte, is. 447 ; Illustr. Zeitg. 
(1875), i. 153; Kunst-Chronik, vii. 315; 
x. 425 ; Reber, iii. 241 ; Land und Meer 
(1875), i. 474, 510 ; (1877), i. 242 ; (1887), 
i. 31 ; Unsere Zeit (1875), ii. ; Wurzbach, 
xxiv. 305 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iv. 64 ; v. 24 ; 
x. (Mittheilungen, iii. 41). 

RAMELAAR See Coninck, David de. 

RAMENGHL See Bagnacavallo. 

RAMSAY, ALLAN, born in Edinburgh 
in 1713, died at Dover, Aug. 10, 1784. Son 
of the author of "The Gentle Shepherd." 
Went to London about 1733, and after stud- 
ying in St. Martin's Lane Academy re- 
turned to Edinburgh, whence he set out for 
Italy in 1736. Studied portraiture in Rome, 
and on his return to London attained dis- 
tinction ; was vice-president of the Society 
of Artists in 1766, and in 1767 was appoint- 
ed principal painter to George HI., whose 
portrait he painted so many times that he 
was obliged to employ assistants. He died 
on his return from a fourth visit to Italy. 

Walpole praises his portrait* of women, pre- 
ferring some of them to those of Reynolds. 
Works : George HI., Queen Charlotte, Lord 
Chesterfield, Dr. Mead, National Portrait 
Gallery; David Hume, Artist's Wife, Na- 
tional Gallery, Edinburgh. Dutton Cooke, 
123 ; Redgrave ; F. de Conches, 86 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole anglaise. 

RAMSAY, MILNE, born in Philadelphia, 
Pa.; contemporary. Genre painter, pupil of 
Bonnat in Paris, where he has long resided. 
Exhibits in Paris Salon and National Acad- 
emy, New York Works : Still-Life, Monk, 
Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Philadelphia ; Home 
of a Naturalist (1876) ; Moral Lesson ; 
Douce Bt'atitude ; Cromwell and his Daugh- 
ter Elizabeth, Bird Fanciers (1878) ; Nature 
Morte, Visit to the Cellar (1881). 

RANC, JEAN, born at Montpellier about 
1674, died at Madrid, July 1 (?), 1735. 
French school ; history and portrait painter, . 
son of and first instructed by Antoine Ranc, 
a skilful portrait painter (still living in 
1715), then pupil of Hyacinthe Rigaud ; was 
invited to the court of Spain in 1724, and 
became first painter to the king, who sent 
him to Portugal to paint the royal family. 
Works : Portrait of Louis XIV., Male Por- 
trait, Montpellier Museum ; Portraits of 
Philip V. (4), Queen Isabel Farnese (3), 
and five others, Madrid Museum ; others in 
Brunswick Museum. Bellier, ii. 341 ; Jal, 

Vienna, Feb. 21, 1805, died there, Nov. 1, 
1854. Genre and animal painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy and of Peter Krnfft ; paint- 
ed portraits in Moscow and St. Petersburg 
in 1826-27, and visited London in 1838. 
Works : Scene from Inundation of Pesth 
(1839), Museum, Vienna; Dog Family, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; Mid-day Rest of 
Mowers; Return of Apprentice (1846); Con- 
gratulation ; Children gathering Wood 
(1850) ; Hunting Booty. D. KunstbL 
(1854), 409 ; Wurzbach, xxiv. 328. 

RANKLEY, ALFRED, born in England 
in 1819, died in London, Dec. 7, 1872. 


Genre painter, pupil of the Royal Academy, 
where he first exhibited, in 1841, Scene 
from Macbeth. His pictures are generally 
domestic subjects, carefully painted. Works: 
The Lonely Hearth (1857) ; Return of the 
Prodigal (1858) ; The Day is Done (1860) ; 
The Doctor's Coming (1804); Follow My 
Leader (1867); Following the Trail, Hearth 
of his Home (1870); The Benediction 
(1871) ; Milton's First Meeting with Mary 
Powell ; George Stephenson at Darlington. 

born at Hietzing, near Vienna, June 7, 1838. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy ; visited Constantinople, Greece, and 
Asia Minor in 1860, Palestine, Egypt, Ara- 
bia in 1862, Ceylon and Hindostau in 1864 
-65, India, Siam, China, Japan, and a part 
of America in 1868. Lives at Vienna and 
at Nussdorf on the Atter Lake, Upper Aus- 
tria. "Works : Morning on Banks of the 
Ganges ; Sail of Austrian Embassy to Bang- 
kok (1870) ; Hindu Women in Bombay ; 
First Knitting, Moutuiu Forest in India 
(Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 1886). Wurz- 
bach, xxiv. 349. 

Lyons ; contemporary. Genre and laud- 
scape painter, pupil of Janmot and Richard. 
Medals : 1865 ; 2d class, 1873 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1878. Works : Racing for the Wreath 
(1864), Infancy of Bacchus (1865), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Echo, Exiled Virtues 
(1873) ; Release of Prometheus (1884), Ly- 
ons Museum ; Morning (1876) ; Little Tur- 
tle (1879) ; Bacchus and Ariadne (1880) ; 
Child with a Swan (1882). Claretie, Pein- 
tres, vii. 332, 387. 

RANZONI, GUSTAV, born atUnternalb, 
Lower Austria, May 10, 1826. Landscape 
and animal painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy. Works : View on Karst Mountain (5, 
1858, 1866, 1867) ; View on Traun Lake 
(1864) ; Ruin of Neukosel on the Karst 
(1865) ; Sunset in Autumn (1867) ; Sheep | 
on the Puszta, Sunset near Klosterneuburg 
(1869) ; Before the Storm (1870, 1871), Vi- 
enna Academy ; Cows Drinking (1870); Vil- 

lage Pond (1871) ; Oxen Ploughing ; Cattle 
Herd Resting. Wurzbach, xxiv. 353. 
RAOUX, JEAN, born at Montpellier, June 
12, 1677, died in 
Paris, Feb. 10, 
1734. French 
school; genre 
painter, pupil of 
Ranc at Mont- 
pellier and of 
Bon Boulogne in 
Paris ; won the 
grand prix de 
Rome in 1704. 
Member Academy in 1717, in which year he 
refused the position of painter to the King 
of Spain, on account of ill health. Made a 
short visit to England in 1720. Works : 
Telemachus and Calypso, Louvre ; Dame 
Boucher as a Vestal (1728), Bordeaux Mu- 
seum ; do. (1734), Versailles Museum ; La- 
dy Musician, Douai Museum ; Young Girl 
surprised by her Grandmother, Marseilles 
Museum ; Vestal bearing the Sacred Fire, 
Montpellier Museum ; Rinaldo and Arm id a 
with Nymphs and Cupids, Nantes Museum ; 
Madame du Noyer, Orleans Museum ; Ceph- 
alus and Procris, Berlin Museum ; Judith 
with Head of Holofernes, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Floi-a, Historical Society, New York ; 
Pygmalion in Love with his Statue ; Con- 
tinence of Scipio ; 
Alexander Sick. 
Bellier, ii. 342 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
francaise ; Wurz- 
bach, Fr. Mai. des 
xviii. Jahrh., 16 ; 
Villot, Cat. Louvre; Lejeune, Guide, i. 208. 
Urbino, April 6, 1483, died in Rome, April 
6, 1520. Umbrian and Roman school ; fam- 
ily name Sante, Santi, Sanctius, or Sanzio ; 
son and pupil of Giovanni Santi, after whose 
death (1492) he was probably taught by Ti- 
moteo Vite or Luca Signorelli, until his un- 
cle, Simon Ciarla, took him to Perugia, at 
some time between June, 1499, and May, 

J. /Lo-o u,x 



1500, and apprenticed him to Perugino, by 
whom he was employed with other assist 
ants in painting the 
frescos of the Sala del 
Cambio, then in prog- 
ress. The master re- 
turned to Florence 
(1502), and Raphael 
followed him two years 
later, after having 
painted a Crucifixion 
(1500), Earl Dudley, 
London ; a Coronation 
of the Virgin (1503), Vatican Gallery, Rome ; 
and assisted Pinturicchio at Siena in deco- 
rating the so-called Library of the Cathedral 
with frescos. After remaining at Florence 
for perhaps a year, during which he painted 
the Marriage of the Virgin, Brera, Milan, 
for S. Francesco, Citta di Castello, Raphael 
returned to Perugia (1505) to commence a 
fresco of the Trinity, at S. Severo, which 
was finished by Perugino (1521). In 1505 
he was commissioned to paint a Coronation 
of the Virgin, for the Convent of Monteluce, 
at Perugia. He commenced it many years 
later at Rome, and it was finished five years 
after his death, by Giulio Romano and II 
Fattore. Returning to Florence in 150G, 
at the time when Leonardo da Vinci and 
Michelangelo were engaged upon their cel- 
ebrated cartoons for the great Hall of the 
Palazzo Vecchio, Raphael studied both, but 
especially those of Leonardo, who, together 
with Fra Bartolommeo, exercised great in- 
fluence over him during his two years' resi- 
dence in that city, which, with the exception 
of a short visit to Urbino and Bologna, 
lasted until the summer of 1508. In the 
pictures painted by Raphael at Florence, a 
growing individuality is distinctly visible. 
Umbrian in spirit, they show a tenderness 
of feeling, an element of ideality, a love of 
nature, unknown to the art of Perugino. 
Called to Rome in 1508 by Pope Julius H., 
whose favour he secured through the good 
offices of his compatriot and relative, the 
architect Bramante, Raphael began his great 

series of frescos in the Stonze of the Vatican 
by painting the Dixjmte of the Sacrament 
(1508-11), the last work in his second or 
Florentine style. He hail, however, already 
given token, in the Entombment (1507), 
Borghese Gallery, Rome, of the dramatic 
and constructive elements of his genius, 
which were to find opportunity for a full 
display in those master works of his third 
or Roman manner, the IMiodorua (1512) 
and the School of Athens (1511). During 
the twelve years of his life at Rome, in the 
service of Julius H and Leo X., Raphael ac- 
complished a prodigious amount of work as 
painter, architect, sculptor, and archajologist 
His wonderful genius, his personal charm, 
his engaging manner, and his obliging dis- 
position, won him troops of admirers, friends, 
and scholars, whose flattering praises served 
but to stimulate him to renewed effort 
Eager only to perfect his work, and inca- 
pable of jealousy, ho studied the grandiose 
style of Michelangelo and the rich colour of 
Sebastiano del Piombo that he might im- 
' prove his own style and colour, and to the 
1 day of his death achieved ever-increasing 
excellence. Leo X. made him inspector of 
all marbles dug up at Rome, commissioned 
him to make plans and elevations of her 
ancient edifices, and on the 1st of August, 
1514, appointed him to succeed Bramanto 
I as head architect at St. Peter'a Some idea 
! of his work under both Popes can be formed 
j from the following general sketch : Between 
j his arrival in Rome in 1508 and the deatli 
of Julius H. in 1513, he painted in the Vat- 
ican the frescos of the Camera della Se- 
gnatura, the Heliodorus, and a part of the 
Miracle of Bolsena in the Stanza d'Eliodoro, 
' the Isaiah (1512), S. Agostino, the Madonna 
di Foligno (1511), with other pictures and 
portraits, such as those of Julius H., Palazzo 
Pitti, the Fornarina (1509), Palazzo Barbe- 
rini, etc. Under Leo X. Raphael painted in 
the Vatican the Altila, the Liberation of St 
Peter, with the ceiling decorations in the 
same chamber ; and among easel pictures pro- 
duced the Madonna del Pesce (15H), Madrid 


Gallery, the Madonna della Seclia (1516-17), 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence, with many other 
pictures mentioned in the accompanying 
list of his -works; designed the Cartoons 
(1515-16), S. Kensington Museum, London ; 
painted a great number of portraits, deco- 
rated the Loggie of the Vatican with 48 
frescos (1516-19), grotesques, and ara- 
besques, carried out by his pupils ; executed 
for Agostino Chigi the frescos of Oalatea 
(1514), and History of Psyche, at the Farne- 
sina (1517), with the assistance of Giulio 
Romano and II Fattore ; designed the mo- 
saics and the statue of Jonah for the Chigi 
Chapel at S. M. del Popolo, the frescos of 

Attila, Deliverance of St. Peter, Noah, Abra- 
ham, Joseph, Moses and Burning Bush 
(1511-14), Stanza d'Eliodoro, Vatican ; In- 
cendio del Borgo (1514), Oath of Leo HI., 
Stanza dell' Incendio del Borgo, Vatican ; 
History of Old and New Testament, com- 
monly called Raphael's Bible (1516-19), 
Loggie, Vatican ; Isaiah (1512), S. Agostino ; 
Prophets and Sibyls (1513), S. M. della Pace ; 
Triumph of Galatea (1514), History of 
Psyche (1517), Palazzo Farnesina, Rome. 

Works in oil: Resurrection (1495-1500), 
Vatican, Rome ; Alfani Madonna (1500), 
Casa Fabrizi, Terni ; Solly Madonna (about 
1500), Berlin Museum ; Crucifixion (about 

the History of Venus and Cupid (1519), and 1 1500), Earl Dudley, London ; Madonna 
painted the Holy Family of Francis I. (1518), | (1502?), Berlin Museum ; Connestabile Ma- 
Louvre, Paris, the Madonna di San Sisto j donna (1502-3), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
(1519), Dresden Gallery, and last of all the \ Coronation of Virgin (1503), Vatican ; Mar- 

Transfiguration (1519-20), Vatican Gallery, 
upon which he was at work at the time of 
his death. If in the work of Raphael's Ro- 
man period, here enumerated but in part, 

riage of the Virgin (1504), Brera, Milan ; 
Christ in the Garden (about 1504), Stan- 
stead House, Sussex; St. George and the 
Dragon (1504), St. Michael (1504-5), St. 

that indescribable, spring-like freshness is i John in "Wilderness, Apollo and Marsyas 
wanting which marks those of his Florentine (1504-5), Louvre ; Madonna del Gran' Duca 

period, its absence is compensated by an 
unrivalled skill in composition, an added 
power of expression, an increased grandeur 

(1504-5), Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Knight's 
Vision (1504-5), National Gallery, London ; 
Three Graces (1504-5), Due d'Aumale, Chan- 

of style, an improvement in the use of i tilly ; Madonna of St. Anthony of Padua 
colour, a mastery of portraiture, and a per- (1504-5), ex-King Francis IL of Naples ; 
ception of ideal beauty which culminates in Cowper Madonna (1505), Panshanger House, 
the Madonna di San Sisto. Nor must we, England ; Madonna di Terranuova (1505), 
in speaking of this great painter's life-work, ! Diotalevi Madonna (?), Berlin Museum ; Holy 

forget to mention the immense number of 
exquisite studies and designs in pen and ink, 

Family of the Palm (1506), Bridgewater 
House, London ; Madonna di Casa Tempi 

silverpoint, pencil, and chalk, which consti- , (150G), Canigiani Holy Family (1506), Mu- 
tute by no means the least precious part of nich Gallery; Orleans Madonna (1506?), 
the world's inheritance from the Prince of Chateau de Chantilly, France ; Madonna in 

Painters. Works in fresco : The Trinity 
(1505), S. Severe, Perugia ; Dispute of Sac- 
rament, School of Athens, Parnassus, Pru- 
dence, Fortitude and Temperance, Justinian, 
Gregory IX., Adam and Eve, Apollo and 
Marsyas, Judgment of Solomon, Astronomy, 
Theology, Philosoj}hy, Poetry, and Jurispru- 
dence (1508-11), Justice, Camera della Se- 
gnatura, Vatican ; God appearing to Noah, 
Jacob's Dream, Heliodorus, Mass of Bolsena, 

the Meadow (1506), Vienna Museum ; Ma- 
donna del Cardellino (1506), St. John in 
Wilderness, Uffizi, Florence ; Madonna di 
Ansidei (1507), National Gallery, London; 
Portraits of Agnolo and Maddalena Doni 
(1506), Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; St. George 
and the Dragon (1506), Holy Family with 
Beardless Joseph (1506), Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg; Portrait of Raphael (1506-7), 
Portrait of Young Woman, Uffizi, Florence ; 


Holy Family del Cordero (1507), Madrid 
Museum ; Entombment (1507), Palazzo Bor- 
gbese, Borne ; St. Catharine (1507), National 
Gallery, London ; Belle Jardiniere Madonna 
(1507-8), Louvre, Paris ; Niccolini Madonna 
(1508), Panshanger House, England ; Co- 
lonna Madonna (about 1508), Berlin Mu- 
seum; Eszterlmzy Madonna (about 1508), 
Buda-Pesth Gallery; Madonna della Casa 
d'Alba (1508-9), Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Madonna del Baldacchiuo (1508), 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Madonna with Dia- 
dem (1508-13), Louvre; Fornarina (about 
1509), Palazzo Barberini, Rome ; Aldobran- 
dini Madonna (1510-11), National Gallery, 
London; Rogers Madonna (1511), Mrs. R. 
J. Mackintosh, London ; Madonna di Foli- 
gno (1511), Vatican, Rome; Bridgewater 
Madonna (1511-12), Bridgewater House, 
London; Portrait of Julius H. (1511-12), 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Portrait of Bindo 
Altoviti (1512-13), Eiccio Portrait, Munich 
Gallery; Portrait of Cardinal Bibbiena 
(1513), Madrid Museum ; Portrait of Tom- 
maso Inghirami (about 1513), Madonna dell' 
Impannata (about 151-4), Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; Madonna del Pesce (1514) Madrid 
Museum ; Portrait of Young Man (1515-20), 
Louvre ; Raphael's Cartoons (1515-1G), S. 
Kensington Museum, London ; Madonna 
della Teuda (1516), Munich Gallery; Por- 
trait of Baldassare Castiglione (about 151C), 
Louvre ; Madonna della Sedia (1516-17), 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Madonna dei Cau- 
delabri (1516-17), Butler-Johnstone Col- 
lection, London; St. Cecilia (1516-17), 
Bologna Gallery ; Kpasimo di Sicilia (1510- 
18), Madrid Museum ; Holy Family La Per- 
la (about 1517), Holy Family del Lagarto 
(about 1517), Madonna della Rosa (1517), 
Visitation (about 1517), Madrid Museum ; 
Vision of Ezekiel (about 1517), Palazzo Pitti,. 
Florence; Holy Family, (1517-18), Holy 
Family of Francis I. (1518), St. Margaret 
(1518), St. Michael (1518), Louvre ; Portrait 
of Leo X. (1517-19), Palazzo Pitti, Florence; 
Madonna di S. Sisto (1518), Dresden Gallery ; 
Portrait of Joanna of Aragou (about 1518), 

Kaphael and his Fencing Master, Louvre; 
Violinist (1518), Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna, 
Rome ; Trawfiguration (1519-20), Vatican. 

Other works attributed to Raphael : Ad- 
oration of the Magi (1503 ?), Berlin Muse- 
um ; Madonna witli the Pink (about 1507 ?), 
Count Spada, Lucca ; Madonna (La Viergo 
au Sein, 1510), Professor Nicoln, Lausanne ; 
Holy Family of Loreto (1512-13), lost ; Ma- 
donna del Pozzo (?), Uffizi, Florence ; Donna 
Gravida, Donna Velata, Palazzo Pitti, ib. ; 
Holy Family del Divino Amore (about 1513), 
Naples Museum ; St. Margaret, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Madonna di S. Luca, Accadeinia di 
S. Luca, Rome. 
Milntz, Raphael 
(Paris, 1881); 
Forster, Raphael ; 
Springer, Raffael 
und Michelangelo 
(Leipsic, 1878); 
Gruyer. Les Fres- 
ques de Raphael; 
Raphael et 1'Anti- / 

quite (Paris, 1864); U 
Vierges de Raphael (Paris, 1869) ; Raphael 
Peintre de Portraits (Paris, 1881) ; C. & C., 
j Raphael (London, 1882); Lttbke, Gesch. 
ital. Mai., ii. 211 ; do., Rafaels Leben (Dres- 
den, 1882); Grimm, Das Leben Raffaels 
(Berlin, 1886) ; Minghetti, Raffaelo (Bologna, 
1885); Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 311; Gutbier, 
Raf ael-Werk ; J. Dennistoun, Memoirs of 
Dukes of Urbino (London, 1861) ; Burck- 
hardt, 648 ; Ch. Clement, Michel Ange, L. 
da Vinci, Raphael (Paris, 1861), 240 ; Passa- 
vaut, Raphael d'Urbin et son pi-re Gio. 
Snnti (French tr., Paris, 1860); Planche, 
Portraits d' Artistes (Paris, 1853), i. 25; 
Quatremere de Quincy, Histoire do la vie de 
Raphael (Paris, 1835) ; C. C. Perkins, Raph- 
ael and Michelangelo (Boston, 1878) ; East- 
lake, Five Great Painters (London, 1883) ; 
Bigot, Raphael et La Farm'sine (Paris, 
1884) ; Lermolieff, 95, 309, 330, 339, 348, 
359, 471; Gaz. des B. Arts (1859-69); 
(1870), iii. 79; (1872), vi. 353; (1873), vii. 
336, 417; viiL 82; (1875), xii. 114 ; (1877), 


xv. 238; (1878), xvii. 44; (1879), xx. 173; 
(1880), xxii. 307, 379, 453, 465, 531 ; (1881), 
xxiii. 140 ; (1882), xxv. 281, 385 ; xxvi. 465 ; 
(1883), xxvii. 158 ; xxviii. 474 ; Graph. K, v. 
53 ; Kunst-Chronik, xiii. 622 ; xv. 6 ; x. 337 ; 
xv. 6; xviii. 425, 457, 576, 579; xix. 429, 
712 ; xx. 39 ; xxi. 141 ; Mag. of Art (1886), 
ix. 371 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iii. 273, 298 ; iv. 
153, 187 ; viii. 65 ; ix. 381 ; xvi. 253 ; xix. 
60, 92 ; xxi. 43, 263. 

EAPHAEL, portrait, Raphael, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; wood, H. 18 in. x 12 in. The pict- 
ure so often engraved bust of a young man 
about twenty-three years old, in black doub- 
let and cap, from which luxuriant chestnut 
hair falls in curls upon his bare neck. 
Painted in Florence in 1506-07. In Urbino 
until 1588, when it was transferred by Fe- 
derico Zucchero to the Academy of St. Luke, 
Kome ; afterward sold to Cardinal Leopoldo 
de' Medici. Suffered from abrasion and re- 
painting. Old copies in Palazzo Borghese, 
Kome, and Palazzo Albani, Urbino. En- 
graved by F. Muller ; F. Forster. C. & C., 
Raphael, i. 281 ; Passavant, ii. 49 ; Miintz, 

EAPHAEL'S BIBLE, a series of fifty- 
two frescos in the Loggie of the Vatican, 
Eome. The Loggia which leads to the 
apartments of the Pope consists of thirteen 
arcades arched in cupolas. Each of the 
arcades contains four pictures ; forty-eight 
subjects are from the Old Testament, and 
four from the life of Christ. The sketches 
were made by Raphael, the cartoons were 
prepared by Giulio Romano, and the paint- 
ing was done by Giulio Romano, II Fattore, 
Perino del Vaga, Pellegrino da Modena, 
Vincenzio da San Gimignano, Polidoro da 
Caravaggio, and others. Painted about 

1st Arcade. Creation of the World. 
Four compositions : 1. God brings Light 
from Chaos ; 2. God creates the Earth ; 3. 
God creates the Firmament ; 4. God creates 

2d Arcade. Adam and Eve. Four com- 
positions : 1. God presents Eve to Adam ; 

2. Adam and Eve disobey God ; 3. Adam 
and Eve driven from Paradise ; 4. Adam 
and Eve out of Paradise. 

3d Arcade. History of Noah. Four com- 
positions : 1. Noah building Ark ; 2. Del- 
uge ; 3. Noah leaving Ark ; 4. Sacrifice of 

4th Arcade. History of Abraham. Four 
compositions : 1. Abraham and Melchisedec ; 
2. God reveals himself to Abraham ; 3. Abra- 
ham visited by the Angels ; 4. Lot and his 
Family flee from Sodom. 

5th Arcade. History of Isaac. Four 
compositions : 1. God appears to Isaac ; 2. 
Isaac and Rebecca with Abimelech ; 3. Ja- 
cob receives the Blessing of Isaac ; 4. Esau 
demands his Father's Blessing. 

6th Arcade. History of Jacob. Four 
compositions : 1. Dream of Jacob ; 2. Ja- 
cob at the Fountain ; 3. Jacob reproaching 
Laban ; 4. Jacob returning to Canaan. 
Painted by Pellegrino da Modena after de- 
signs of Raphael. 

7th Arcade. History of Joseph. Four 
compositions : 1. Dreams of Joseph ; 2. Jo- 
seph sold by his Brethren ; 3. Joseph and 
Potiphar's Wife ; 4. Joseph explains Dreams 
of Pharaoh. 

8th and 9th Arcades. History of Moses. 
Eight compositions : 1. Moses saved from 
the Waters ; 2. Burning Bush ; 3. Passage 
of the Red Sea ; 4. Moses strikes the Rock ; 
5. God gives Moses the First Tables of the 
Law ; 6. Worship of the Golden Calf ; 7. 
The Column of Cloud ; 8. Moses presents 
to Israelites the New Tables of the Law. 

10th Arcade. History of Joshua. Four 
compositions : 1. Passage of the Jordan ; 2. 
Taking of Jericho ; 3. Joshua causing the 
Sun to stand still ; 4. Division of Land of 

llth Arcade. History of David. Four 
compositions : 1. Oath of David ; 2. David 
kills Goliath ; 3. Triumph of David ; 4. 
David and Bathsheba. 

12th Arcade. History of Solomon. Four 
compositions : 1. Oath of Solomon ; 2. 
Judgment of Solomon ; 3. Building of 



the Temple ; 4 Solomon and the Queen of 

13th Arcade. History of Jesus Christ. 
Four compositions : 1. Nativity ; 2. Ado- 
ration of Magi ; 3. Baptism of Christ ; 4. 
Last Supper. 

Engraved in whole or in part by S. Ba- 
dalocchio ; O. Borgiani ; F. Villamena ; 
Nic. Chaperon ; A. Aveline ; Montagnani ; 
Volpato ; Ottaviani ; in chiaroscuro by Nic- 
cola Conzoni for Gruner. Vasari, ed. Mil., 
iv. 362 ; v. 624 ; Passavant, ii. 166 ; Miintz, 
429 ; Springer, 326 ; Perkins, 184 ; Gruyer, 
Loges de Raphael ; Vaticano descritto, viii. 
PI. 1-59 ; Liibke, 171 ; Gutbier, PL 36-52. 

his assistants, S. Kensington Museum, Lon- 
don. A series of designs, drawn with chalk 
on paper and coloured in distemper (1515- 
16), to be worked in tapestry for the deco- 
ration of the Sistine Chapel, Rome ; tapes- 
tries made at Arras, in Flanders, under 
direction of Bernhard van Orley and sent to 
Rome in 1518. The tapestries were carried 
off at the sack of Rome by the Constable de 
Bourbon in 1527 ; restored by Constable 
Anne de Montmorency to Julius IH. in 
1553 ; again carried off by the French in 
1798 and sold in Genoa to a Jew, who is 
said to have burned one to get the gold it 
contained, and sold the others in 1808 to 
Pius VH. They are now in the Hall of the 
Arazzi in the Vatican ; much faded. The 
cartoons remained at Arras nearly a cen- 
tury, when Charles I. purchased them, by 
advice of Rubens, for use of his tapestry 
weavers at Mortlake. Only seven of the 
original eleven remained, and these had 
been cut into strips about two feet wide. 
On the death of Charles L, Cromwell bought 
them for the nation for 300. They re- 
mained neglected in a lumber room at 
Whitehall until the reign of William HI, 
who had them repaired and hung in a gal- 
lery erected for them at Hampton Court by 
Sir Christopher Wren. They are now ex- 
hibited under glass at South Kensington Mu- 
seum. Cartoons : 1. Miraculous Draught of 

Fishes, H. 10 ft. 6 in.x 13 ft G in.; 2. Paul 
preaching at Athens, H 11 ft. 4 in. x 14 ft 
7 in.; 3. Elymas the Sorcerer struck with 
Blindness, H 11 ft 4 in. x 14 ft 7 in. ; 4. 
Paul and Barnabas at Lystra, H. 11 ft. 4 in. 
x 18 ft.; 5. Healing of the Lame Man, H. 
11 ft 4 in. x 18 ft; 6. Death of Ananias, H. 
11 ft 4 in. x 17 ft. 6 in.; 7. Christ's Charge 
to Peter, H 11 ft 4 in. x 17 ft 6 in. The 
remaining three subjects in tapestry, of 
which the designs are lost, are : Stoning of 
St. Stephen, Conversion of St. Paul, and St 
Paul in Prison at Philippi. The llth, of 
which all trace is lost, was the Coronation 
of the Virgin, for the altarpiece. Passavant, 
ii. 189, 225 ; Clement (Corkran), 278, 371 ; 
Blackburn, Pictures at S. Kensington, 7 ; 
Liibke, 188 ; Gutbier, PL 80-92. 

TER, attributed to Raphael, Louvre ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft 3 in. x 2 ft. 9 in. A powerful, 
bearded man, standing behind a parapet, 
with one hand on his sword-hilt, turns to 
a younger man behind him and points to 
some object without the picture. Younger 
man supposed to represent Raphael himself. 
Picture has been attributed both to Sebas- 
tian del Piombo and to Poutormo. From 
Collection of Francis L Engraved by Ar- 
douin ; N. Larmessin. Passavant, i. 354 ; 
Villot, Louvre ; Musce franeais, i. ; Cab. 
Crozat, i. PL 9. 

Sir A. W. Galcott, Sir G. R Philips, Bart ; 
canvas. Figures life-size, full-length, seated. 
Exhibited in 1837. Engraved by Lumb 
Stocks. Redgrave, Century, ii. 403; Art 
Journal (1856), ii. 

By J. A. D. Ingres, Baroness Nathaniel de 
Rothschild, Paris. Painted at Rome in 1813; 
replica (1840), M. Dauban, Paris. Engraved 
by Pradier ; lithographed by Christophe. 
Original sketch acquired by Louvre in 1881. 
Ch. Blanc, Life, 46. 

brando, Girolamo. 

donna of St Anthony of Padua. 





brandt, Louvre ; wood, H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 
9 in. ; signed, dated 1637. Above, the an- 
gel Raphael in full flight heavenward, his 
back to the spectator ; below, at left, Sarah 
wife of Tobias, and Anna her mother, stand- 
ing at the entrance to the house, with hands 
clasped in astonishment ; in front of them 
a dog, and at the foot of the steps, Tobias 
and his father Tobit, the latter prostrate. 

Raphael Leaving Tobias, Rembrandt, Louvre. 

Engraved by Denon ; J. de Frey ; A. and E. 
Varin ; MalbGte in Musue francais. Lan- 
don, Musue, vi. PI. 3. 

RAPHON (pronounced Rap-hon), JO- 
HAN, flourished at Elmbeck, lower Saxony, 
early part of 16th century, died in 1528. 
German school. The heads in his pictures 
are strong and individual, but wanting in 
feeling. Works : Two Altar Wings (1503), 
Collection Hausmann, Hanover ; Resurrec- 
tion, Brunswick Gallery ; Crucifixion (1508), 

Halberstadt Cathedral. Kugler, Kl. Schr., 
i. 486 ; Nagler, xii. 294 ; W. & W., ii. 435. 
RAPIN, ALEXANDRE, born at Noroy- 
le-Bourg (Haute 
Saone) ; contempor- 
ary. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Gerome, 
Frangais, Gleyre, 
and Lancrenon. 
Medals : 3d class, 
1875; 2d class, 1877; 
L. of Honour, 1884. 
Works: Sarrazin 
Brook at Nans-Lison (1867), Besancon Mu- 
seum ; Shore of a Pond, Ravine of Puits- 
Noir (1874) ; The Val-Bois in November 
(1878) ; Morning in Val-Bois, The River 
Loue at Scey (1879) ; End of Autumn, Mill 
at Cressonieres (1880); Winter in the Woods 
at Cernay, Morning at Froeschwiller (1881); 
The Black Pits, River in Franche-Comte 
(1882); A Shower, An Inlet (1883); Novem- 
ber (1884) ; Banks of the Doubs, Path 
(1885); Indian Summer, Evening (1886). 
Bellier, ii. 343. 

RAPISARDI, MICHELE, born at Catan- 
ia, Sicily ; contemporary. History and genre 
painter of talent, whose works show care- 
ful study of the old masters. Professor. 
Works : Cola Rienzi among the Ruins of 
Rome (1867) ; Hamlet's Monologue ; The 
Troubadour ; Lady as Ophelia ; Girl of Ca- 
tania, Museo Civico, Turin. Zeitschr. f. b. 
K., iii. 124. 

RASCH, HEINRICH; contemporary. 
Genre and landscape painter. Works : Bal- 
tic Landscape with Figures, View on Eng- 
lish Coast, A Confession (1882), Boating 
Party, Gatherers on Coast of Lucca, Even- 
ing in Lagoons of Venice, Morning at Via- 
reggio (1883). Allgem. K. C., viii. 376 ; D- 
lustr. Zeitg. (1883), ii. 400; Kunst-Chronik, 
xvii. 294 ; xviii. 496 ; Land und Meer (1884), 
ii. 1044 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xix. 135. 

RASMUSSEN, CARL, born at Aeroskjob- 
ing, Isle of Aero, August 31, 1841. Marine 
and figure painter, pupil of John Didrik 
Frisch (1835-67), then of the Copenhagen 


Academy, in 1862-66, and of Aagaard ; trav- 1 berg Academy, then (1872) of Wilhelm Diez 

_n _ ,1 . "r\. ..i i 1 Qf? tt f*^ . . t i /"i_ I i Ttif ; _i_ i i .iii.i * i 

elled in Denmark in 1865-67, visited Green 
land in 1870, Italy in 
1872, England and Paris 
in 1878. Works : View 
near Ska gen (1863) ; 
Coast Views (1864) ; 
Midnight on Coast of 
Greenland (1872), Co- 
penhagen Gallery; 
Dance of Greenlauders 
(1872); Father and Son, 
Winter in Greenland 
(1874) ; Grandfather with the Little Ones 
(1875) ; June Day in Godthaabs FJ9rd 
(1878) ; Vessels in Morning after Storm 
(1878), Winter Evening near Fjord in 
Greenland (1883), Copenhagen Gallery. 
Sig. Mailer, 285 ; Weilbach, 577. 

EATGEB, JEEG, born at Schwiibisch 
Ginttnd, Bavaria ; flourished early part of 
16th century. German school ; history 

in Munich, where he settled. Medal, Mu- 
nich, 1883. Works : Hunting Privilege in 
Olden Times, Horse Bargain (1879); On By- 
Ways (1880) ; Travelling in Good and Bad 
Weather (1880) ; Rest (1881) ; Excursion ; 
Scene before Taveni (1882); Surrender of 
, Wai-saw in 1656 (1883); Festive Entry of 
the Bride, Falcon Chase in 18th Century 
(1884). Allgem. K. C., viii. 586 ; Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1880), i. 299 ; Kuust. Chronik, xix. 
645 ; Meyer, Couv. Lex., xxi. 745 ; Zeitachr. 
f. b. K, xvii. 324 ; xix. 135. 

RAUPP, KARL, born in Darmstadt, 
March 2, 1837. 
Genre and landscape 
painter, pupil in 
Frankfort of Stiidel 
Institute under 
Jakob Becker, then 
of Munich Academy 
under Piloty (1860- 

painter, one of the ablest masters of the 66); became professor 
Suabian school, whose works have generally at the Industrial Art 

been erroneously attributed to one Schwed. 
Works : Altarpiece (1519), Stiftskirche Her- 
renberg, Wiirternberg ; Cycle in fresco from 
Creation of World to Last Judgment (1514), 
Carmelites, Frankfort ; Coloured Drawings 
of do., Stiidel Gallery, ib. Kuust-Chrouik, 
xviii. 482 ; xix. 301. 

RATZER, HELLMUTH, born at Neutar- 
now, Brandenburg, in 1838. Landscape 
painter, studied first in Berlin, then for 
twelve years in Diisseldorf under Oswald 
Achenbach, settled in Carlsruhe, whence he 
visited Germany, Switzerland, Tyrol, and 
Italy. Lives now in Diisseldorf. Works : 
Mountain Brook in the Ramsau ; View on 
the Dachstein ; The High G<">11 near Berch- 
tesgaden ; Pine Wood (1876); Views in the 
Hartz Mountains and on Isle of IlUgcn ; 
Evening on Isle of Riigen, Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; Coast View on Riigeu (Jubilee Exhi- 
bition, Berlin, 1886). Midler, 431. 

Marienwerder, West Prussia, July 11, 1849. 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of KOnigs- 

School at Nuremberg 
in 18C8, but afterwards returned to Munich. 
Works : Two Mothers ; Return of Country 
Postwoman on Christmas Eve ; Mid-day Bell 
during Harvest (1866) ; Sunday Morning in 
Hesse; Falling Leaves; Rain in May; Re- 
turn Home before Storm ; The Prussians arc 
Coming ! General Military Duty ; At Home ; 
Secret Farewell ; Peasant Girl Resting un- 
der a Tree, Darmstadt Museum ; Thunder- 
storm ; On the Silent Waves ; Hour of Chat- 
ting; A Storm is Coming! (1882), Dresden 
Museum; Boating on Chiem Lake (1883); 
Merry Journey (1884); Avo Maria; Safely 
Landed, (Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 1886). 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1883), i. 491 ; ii. 97 ; La 
Ilustracion (1883), ii. 275 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xviii. 308; N. illustr. Zeitg. (1885), i. 288; 
Land und Meer (1869), i. 11; (1880), L 

RAVANA, DEATH OF, Fernand Cormon, 
bought by the State. The result of the 
struggle between the ten-headed and twenty- 
armed giant Ravana and Rama (Viahnu in- 



carnate), as related in the Ramayana. The 
picture represents the finding of the body 
on the field of battle by the favourite and 

Reading the Will, Sir David Wilkie, New Munich Gallery. 

the other wives of the King of Lanka (Cey- 
lon). Salon, 1875 ; bought by Ministry of 
Fine Arts. 

RAVAUT, REN HENRI, born in Paris; 
contemporary. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Laurens and Butin. Medal, 3d 
class, 1880. Works: Awaking 
(1879) ; Raising of a Child by St. 
Benedict (1880) ; Deluge (1881) ; 
The Imprudent, The Caldron (1882) ; 
St. Colomban (1883) ; St. Julia, 
(1884) ; Quai at Trouville (1885). 

RAVEN, JOHN S., born in Suf- 
folk, England, Aug. 21, 1829, died 
at Harlech, Wales, July 14, 1877. 
Landscape painter, son of Rev. J. 
Raven, an amateur water-colour 
painter ; self-taught, first exhibited 
at the Royal Academy, in 1845, 
Salmsley Church. Works : Hamp- 
shire Homestead, Monk's Walk 
(1872) ; The Lesser Light to rule 
the Night (1873) ; The Heavens 
declare the Glory of God (1875). He was 
accidentally drowned while bathing. Red- 


pupil in Carlsruhe, of Gude, studied nature 
in the Silesian mountains, the German Alps, 
and Italy. Works : Oak Landscape at Even- 
ing ; Road near Partenkir- 
chen ; Antique Baths at Al- 
bano (1880). Mttller, 432. 
VAN, born at Hilversum, 
Nov. 29, 1790, died there 
March 2, 1869. Landscape 
and animal painter, pupil at 
Amersfoort of Jordanus 
Hoorn (1753-1833), then of 
Pieter Gerardus van Os, 
who had settled near Hil- 
versum ; visited Belgium, 
Switzerland and Germany, 
and settled at Westerborg, 
Drenthe. Member of Am- 
sterdam Academy, 1822. 
Works ; Pasture with Cattle, Sheep Stable, 
Cow Stable, Amsterdam Museum. Immer- 
zeel, iii. 2 ; Nagler, xii. 339. 

RAVESTEYN, JAN VAN, born at The 
Hague in 1572 (?), died there, buried June 
21, 1G57. Dutch school; portrait painter, 

Rebekah and Eliezer, Murillo, Madrid Museum. 

master of the Hague guild in 1615 ; painted 
assemblies of magistrates and corporations 
with great skill, in the manner of Mierevelt. 
Works: Civic Guard, Officers of do. (1616), 

Breslau, Oct. 23, 1854. Landscape painter, Banquet of Town Council (1618), Meeting 



of Council (1636), Town Hall, Hague ; Series 
of portraits (24) of Colonels (1611, 1612, 
1615, 1616, 1621, 1624), Museum, ib. ; five 
portraits, Amsterdam Museum ; two do. 
(one dated, 1616), Brussels Museum; Fe- 
male portraits (2, 1633, 1634), Louvre, 
Paiis ; Family Group, Portrait of a Lawyer 
(1622), Brunswick Gallery ; Old Man in Ar- 
mour (1605), Dresden Gallery; Scholar and 
Little Daughter, Male Portrait (1633), Ber- 
lin Museum ; Male Portrait (1622), two 

Chester County, Pa., March 12, 1822, died 
in New York, May 11, 1872. Portrait and 
genre painter ; began the study of sculpture 
in Cincinnati in 1839, but soon turned hia 
attention to painting. In 1841 ho opened a 
studio in New York, and afterwards painted 
in Philadelphia and Boston. Visited Europe 
in 1850, and after studying in Florence 
settled in Rome, whence ho made occasional 
visits to America, during one of which he 

Rebekah and Eliezer, Nicolas Poussin, Louvre. 

others, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; others in 
Copenhagen, Gotha, Oldenburg (1620), and 
Turin (3) Galleries; Portrait of Lucretia 
van der Meulen, Historical Society, New 

York Archief v. ned. Kunstgesch., iii. 261, 
285; iv. 3; Burger, Musees, i. 57; ii. 195; 
Kramm, v. 1341 ; Kunstkronijk (1867), 83, 
86 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 355 ; Biegel, Beit- 
rage, i. 125 ; ii. 198. 
RAZZL See Sodoma. 

died. Works : Portrait of George Pealxxly 
(Peabody Institute, Baltimore) ; Star of 
Bethlehem ; Water-Sprite ; Sheridan's Ride ; 
Lost Pleiad ; Undine ; Excelsior (Mrs. Jo- 
seph Harrison, Philadelphia). Mr. Read was 
better known as a poet than as a painter. 
Tuckerman, 460 ; Kunst-Chrouik, vii. 

He, New Munich Gallery ; canvas. A party 
gathered in a room listening to the reading 
of a will by a lawyer, who is seated at a table 
in centre ; group of 21 figures. Painted in 
1820 for King of Bavaria, who paid for it 



425 ; sold after his death for 1,200 and 
placed in New Pinakothek. Engraved by J. 
Bui-net. Kedgrave, Century, ii. 269; Hea- 
ton, Works of Sir D. W. 

Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 6 in. x 5 
ft. Eliezer drinks from a copper kettle held 
by Rebekah, who, with three other maidens 
bearing jars, stands near a well at right ; at 
left, in middle distance, men and camels; 

Engraved by G. Rousselet (1677) ; G. Au- 
dran ; Picart le Remain ; Bouchers-Desnoy- 
ers. Cat. Louvre; Filhol, i. PI. 49; Lan- 
don, Musee, i. PI. 49 ; Smith, viii. 5. 

By Paolo Veronese (?) Louvre, H. 8 ft. 1 
in. x 11 ft. 4 in. ; transferred to new canvas 
in 1834, and former size reduced. Eliezer, 
beside a well, at the foot of a ruin shaded 
by trees, presents to Rebekah jewels which 
two negroes have brought; at left, several 
dromedaries. Formerly in Casa 
Bonaldi, Venice ; bought by Ja- 
bach, and sold by him to Louis 
XTV. Engraved by Moyreau. 
Cab. Crozat, ii. PI. 13 ; Villot, Cat. 

REBELL, JOSEF, born in Vi- 
enna, Jan. 11, 1787, died in Dres- 
den, Dec. 18, 1828. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy 
under Wutky, went in 1809 to Mi- 
lan, painted there for Eugene 
Beauharnais, then in Naples (1811 
-15) for Murat ; went to Rome, and 
in 1824 was called to Vienna as di- 
rector of the Belvedere Gallery. 
Works : Storm near Grotto of Foc- 
cia near Naples, Portici with Vesu- 
vius, Italian Landscape at Sunset 
(1819), Vienna Museum ; do. at 
Sunrise, do. with Figures, Ferdi- 
nandeum, Innsbruck ; Mole of Por- 
tici (1818), View near Amalfi, Coast 
near Capri, Stormy Sea, New Pi- 

Rebekah and Eliezer, Paolo Veronese (?), Louvre. r *_ 

nakothek, Munich ; View of Capri, 

background, landscape with mountains. In j Casamicciola on Ischia, Schack Gallery, ib. ; 
second manner. Etched by E. Buxo ; litho- 1 Castle Persenbeug on the Danube, Czernin 

graphed by F. Decraein ; C. Mugica. Cur- 
tis, 118 ; Madraza, 467. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 
3 ft. 10 in. x 6 ft. 6 in. In centre, near a 
well, Eliezer offers necklaces and bracelets 

Gallery, Vienna ; Arco di Focci near Cumae 
during Storm (1828), National Gallery, Ber- 
lin. Hormayr, Archiv. (1823), 339 ; (1829), 
No. 30; Kunstbl. (1860), iii. 320; Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1820), 263 ; (1829), 87 ; N. Necrol. 

to Rebekah, who seems to hesitate to accept ! der D. (1828), 859 ; Schack, Meine Gemitl- 
them ; at right, three young girls ; at left, a : desnmmlung (1884), 205 ; Wurzbach, xxv. 78. 

group of nine women ; in background, hills 
with buildings. Painted in Rome in 1648 
for M. Pointel, on whose death passed to 
Due de Richelieu, and finally to Louis XIV. 


Giovanni da Udine. 

William Quiller Orchardson, London ; can- 



vas, H. 4 ft. 10 in. x 8 ft. The hostess, 
seated at the right upon a sofa, is the cen- 
tre of a group including Canova, Cuvier, 
Fouche, Delille, and Metternich, while at 
the other end of the salon a second group, 
including Lucien Bonaparte, Talleyrand, 
Brillat-Savarin, Talma, Bernadotte, and 
Sieyes, are gathered around Madame de 
Stael. Royal Academy, 1885. 

BE CCO, GIUSEPPE, born at Naples 
in 1634, died there in 1695. Neapolitan 
school ; still-life painter, pupil of Porpera, 
but seems to have been influenced by other 
masters, especially Marseus van Sehrick. 
The King of Spain made him a knight of 

Calatrava in 1667 and summoned him to his 
court. Works : Four pictures with Fish and 
other Marine Animals, Madrid Museum ; 
Dead Fish watched by Dog, Suermondt Mu- 
seum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Fruit-Piecc, Haus- 
manu Collection, Hanover ; Animal Life 
around Pool (2), Schwerin Gallery ; Fishes, 
Wiesbaden Gallery ; Flowers and Dead 
Game, Naples Museum ; A Thief, New York 
Museum. His daughter Elena excelled in 
the same branch of art. Madrazo ; Schlie, 

EECHBERGER, FRANZ, born in Vienna, 
Oct. 4, 1771, died there in 1842. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under F. 
A. Brandt ; afterwards custodian of the Al- 
bertina in Vienna. Works : Landscape with 
Temple of Vesta, Vienna Academy ; Views 
in Italy, Styria, Saxony. Wurzbach, xxv. 
95 ; Nagler, Mon., ii. 863. 

REDGRAVE, RICHARD, born in Lon- 
don, April 30, 1804. Landscape and genre 
painter, pupil of Royal Academy, where he 
exhibited his first picture, River Brent near 
Hanwell, in 1825 ; elected an A.R. A. in 1840, 

and R.A. in 1850 ; in an honorary retired 
Academician. Has held several official po- 
sitions in the government art institutions 
and is general inspector of art schools. 
Works : Cymbeline (1833) ; Gulliver on the 
Farmer's Table (1837) ; Quinten Massys, 
Olivia's Return (1838) ; Reduced Gentle- 
man's Daughter, Cure of Paracelsus (1840); 
Vicar of Wakefield finding his Lost Daugh- 
ter (1841); Ophelia, Cinderella (1842); Fash- 
ion's Slaves (1847); Country Cousins (1848); 
Marquis and Griselda (1850) ; Flight into 
Egypt (1851); Well-Kuown Footstep, Moor- 
land Child (1857) ; Strayed Flock (1861) ; 
Way through the Woods (1863); Jane Shore 
(1864); Woodman's Dinner (18G6); Eugene 
Aram (1868); Jack-o'-Lantern (1870); Char- 
coal Burners (1871) ; Expectation (1872) ; 
Sermons in Stones (1874); Mill Pool, Start- 
ing for a Holiday (1875); Calling the Sheep, 
Oak of the Millhead (1876); Deserted (1877); 
The Heir Come of Age, Friday Street (1878); 
Hidden Among the Hills (1881). Art Jour- 
nal (1850), 48 ; (1859), 205 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, v. 375. 

von Kaitlbach, New Museum, Berlin ; mural 
painting, staircase hall Church interior ; 
Luther, standing before the altar, in centre, 
raises the Bible in his hands ; at sides, peo- 
ple at communion ; the aisles are filled with 
modern representative men ; in background, 
a choir singing. Cartoon, Mrs. Durfee, Fall 
River, Mass. 

PHUS VAN, born at Antwerp, Dec. 4, 1785, 
died there, July 20, 1873. Landscape and 
genre painter, son and pupil of Petnis Jo- 
hannes van Regemorter. He went in 1809 
to Paris, where he studied after the mas- 
terpieces in the Must'e Napoleon, and then 
from nature on the banks of the Mouse, 
and in Luxembourg. Won prizes in Ant- 
werp, Ghent, and Brussels ; member of In- 
stitute of the Netherlands in 1829, and of 
Amsterdam Academy. Order of Leopold, 
1855. Works: Fishmarket of Antwerp 
(1827), Jan Steen's Household (1828), Am- 


sterdam Museum ; Interior of Garret, Man 
and Wife at Table in Front of House (1839), 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Eembraudt paint- 
ing an Ape in a Family-Group (1832) ; Wed- 
ding of Jan Steen (1836) ; Van Craesbecke 
testing his Wife's Love (1839); Wedding of 
Prince de Ligne (1841) ; King Leopold I. 
and Queen Victoria visiting Tomb of Ru- 
bens (1843) ; Peasant Brawl, Italian Fam- 
ily Travelling (1854) ; Kirmess near Ant- 
werp (1860). Immerzeel, iii. 8 ; Kramm, 
v. 1344. 

VAN, born in Antwerp, Sept. 8, 1755, died 
there, Nov. 17, 1830. Genre and landscape 
painter, pupil of Antwerp Academy, and 
perfected himself by study of old masters 
in a private gallery at Antwerp. Dean of 
the guild in 1785 ; professor at the Acad- 
emy in 1796-1804. He was one of the del- 
egates sent to Paris by the city of Antwerp 
in 1815 to reclaim the pictures carried off 
by the French in 1794, and on his return 
was awarded a medal struck in his honour. 
Excelled in painting moonlight scenes, and 
possessed an unusual talent for restoring old 
pictures, of which he saved more than three 
thousand for posterity ; formed many pu- 
pils. Works : Figures in Landscape by 
Lucas van Uden, Antwerp Museum ; Peas- 
ant Company in Vine Arbour (1796), Assem- 
bly of Ladies and Gentlemen (2), Gotha 
Museum. Cat. du Mus. d'Anvers, 513 ; Im- 
merzeel, iii. 7. 

REGILLO. See Pordenone. 

REGIMENT, PASSING (Regiment qui 
passe), Edouard Detaille, Corcoran Gallery, 
AVashington ; canvas, 4 ft. 2 in. square. 
A regiment of the line passing down the 
Boulevard St. Martin at the close of a wet, 
snowy day in December. On extreme right 
is a portrait of Meissonier ; in background, 
Portes St. Martin and St. Denis. Salon, 
1875 ; exhibited in Brussels, where bought 
for Corcoran Gallery. Art Treasures of 
America, i. 7 ; Corcoran Gal. Cat. 

GES) HENRI, born in Paris, Oct. 30, 

1843, died there, Jan. 19, 1871. Genre 
painter, pupil of Montfort, Lamothe and 
Cabanel. Won the grand 
prix de Rome in 1866, 
and spent the next two 
years in Italy ; then went 
to Spain, where he made 
himself famous by an 
equestrian port rait of 
General Prim. In 1869 
he revisited Italy, and 
in the next year went to 
Africa, whence he re- 
turned to iight in the German War, and 
was killed at Buzenval during a sortie of the 
69th Battalion of the National Guards, in 
which he had enrolled himself. His untime- 
ly death threw a halo about his name, and 
enhanced the already great reputation which 
lie enjoyed as a painter of uncommon talent, 
surpassed by few in energy of expression 
and feeling for colour. Works : Automedon 
(1867), Boston Museum, 1884, on deposit ; 
Portrait of General Prim (1869), Louvre ; 
Judith (1869) ; Salome (1870); Execution in 
Granada (1870), Louvre ; Judith and Holo- 
fernes, Marseilles Museum ; Veturia at the 
Feet of Coriolanus ; Thetis giving to Achil- 
les the Arms of Vulcan ; Going to the Fan- 
tasia in Tangiers, (Knoedler and Company, 
New York) ; The Pasha leaving Tangiers 
(left unfinished) ; Haoua ; Hassan and Na- 
mouna ; Inside a Harem ; Mountain Road 
in the Pyrenees, John G. Johnson, Philadel- 
phia. Bellier, ii. 350 ; Ch. Blanc, Artistes 
de mon Temps, 347 ; Bailliere, Henri Re- 
gnault (Paris, 1872); Claretie, Peintres, etc. 
(1882), i. 1 ; Cazalis, Henri Regnault (Paris, 
1872); Gaz. desB. Axis (1872), v. 66 ; (1873), 
vii. 119 ; (1882), xxv. 430 ; Old and New, 
xi. 99 ; Hamerton, Mod. Frenchmen, 334 ; 
Marx, H. Regnault (Paris, 1886) ; Na- 
tion, xvi. 13 ; Temple Bar, Iviii. 344 ; D. 
Rundschau, xvi. 306 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xv. 

born in Paris, Oct. 19, 1754, died there, Nov. 
12, 1829. Genre painter, pupil of Bardin 



.: ifcf/ 


at Rome in 1769 ; returned to Paris, won 

the 2d prix in 1775 and the grand prix de 

Home in 1776, 

with his Alexander 

and Diogenes. 

Member French 

Academy, 1783; 

professor in 1795 ; 

received the title 

of baron in 1819. 


His school was for 
a time the rival of 
that of David. 
Among his pupils were Hersent, Gucrin, 
Blondel, Boissellier, and Richomme. 
Works : Baptism of Christ (1776) ; Educa- 
tion of Achilles (1783), Descent from the 
Cross (1789), Pygmalion and Venus (1785), 
Origin of Painting, Three Graces, Louvre ; 
Death of Priam (1785), Amiens Museum ; 
Cupid and Psyche, The Three Graces, An- 
gers Museum ; Education of Achilles (sketch 
for painting in Louvre), Avignon Museum ; 
Deluge, Compiegne Palace ; Pygmalion in 
Love with his Statue, Foutainebleau Palace ; 
Orestes and Iphigenia meeting in Tauris 
(1787), Marseilles Museum ; Male Heads (2), 
Montpellier Museum ; Young Girl, Orleans 
Museum ; The Senate receiving the Flags 
captured in the Campaign against Austria 
(1808), Marriage of Prince Jerome Bona- 
parte (1810), Death of General Desaix at 
Marengo, Portrait of Comte Montalivet 
(1810), Versailles Museum ; A Genius show- 
ing to France Liberty or Death (1795), 

/ VjzmMAJui' 

Kunsthalle, Hamburg. Bellier, ii. 351; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole franyaise ; Journal des 
Artistes, 1829 ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 387 ; 
L'Universel (1829), No. 339 ; Meyer, Gesch., 
77 ; Quatremere de Quincy, Notice histo- 
rique sur la vie, etc. (Paris, 1834); Villot, 
Cat. Louvre. 

in Paris, Aug. 28, 1787, died there, June 2, 
1860. Landscape painter, pupil of Victor 
Bertiu. Medals : 2d class, 1819 ; 1st class, 
1828 ; L. of Honour, 1837. Works : Woods 
in Puy ; Coucy-le-Chateau ; Paris from the 
Champ de Mai's ; King Arthur's Tomb ; 
Monks Praying ; Joan of Arc, Fontainebleau 
Gallery ; Cemetery of Royat ; Bridge of Ba- 
tigny, Drinkiug-Place at Pierrefouds (1834); 
SaintJean-au-Bois ; Forest of Compiegne, 
Ruins of Pierrefouds (1835); View in Forest 
of Compiegne (1836); View near the Grande 
Chartreuse of Grenoble (1850), Chartres 
Museum ; Entrance to Forest, Arras Mu- 
seum ; Carthusian Monastery in Auvergne, 
Toulouse Museum. Bellier, ii. 353. 

M. W. Turner, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 3 f t. x 4 ft Marcus Atilius Reg- 
ulus was allowed by the Carthaginians to 
go back to Rome, after five years' captivity, 
in order to negotiate a peace, promising to 
return if unsuccessful. He advised the Sen- 
ate not to make peace, and, fulfilling his prom- 
ise, was put to death, about B.C. 250. Paint- 
ed in Rome, 1829 ; British Institute, 1837 ; 
Turner Collection. Engraved by D. Wil- 
son ; S. Bradshaw in Turner Gallery. 

over, Oct. 22, 1758, died in Munich, Aug. 
20, 1835. History and portrait painter, 
pupil in Leipsic of Oeser and in Dresden 
of Casanova and Schenau ; went in 1777 to 
Rome, where he studied the old masters 
under Mengs and was closely allied with 
David ; returned to Hanover in 1783, and 
painted many portraits ; went as instructor 
in drawing to Dessau in 1784, became mem- 
ber of Berlin Academy in 1786, and profes- 
sor in 1787 ; went again to Rome and in 
1791 to Naples, visited London in 1813-14, 
and left Rome in 1820 to settle in Munich. 
Works : Belisarius (1790, prize, Berlin Acad- 
emy); CEdipus and Antigone (twice); Cain'8 
Fratricide ; Julius Sabinus (twice); Bacchus, 
Cupid, and Bathyllus (8 times) ; Orpheus 
and Eurydice (2) ; Jupiter and Venus (twice); 



Narcissus ; Venus and Cupid ; Cupid and 
Psyche ; 2Eneas and Dido ; Metabus in- 
structing his Daughter in Archery ; Niobe 
with her Children ; Endymion ; Allegory 
on Dethronement of Napoleon (1814); Pan- 
orama of Innsbruck (5, 1819). Andresen, 
ii. Cl ; Goethe, Winckelnmnn, ii. 150 ; Nag- 
ler, xii. 373 ; do., Mou., ii. 864 ; Naumann, 
iii. 140. 

in Philadelphia, Pa., April 12, 1848. Ma- 
rine painter, pupil of the Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy. Exhibited first at National Academy, 
New York, in 1879. First prize for marine 
at St. Louis Exhibition, 1882 ; prize for 
water colour, New York, 1885 ; gold medal, 
2d Prize Fund Exhibition, New York, 188C. 
Studio in New York. Works in oil : Fish- 
ing Boats in a Calm, High Tide Cape 
Elizabeth (1879); Portland Light-House, 
Surf New Jersey Coast (1880); Sun-shower 
Atlantic Coast (1881), T. B. Clarke, New 
York ; Old Fish Houses Gloucester Har- 
bour, Bracket's Cove Maine (1882); Ocean 
Beach New Jersey, Sundown (1883) ; Bay 
of Fundy, Little Good Harbour Beach 
Massachusetts Coast (1884) ; Drifted on the 
Reef, Fishermen's Huts (1885) ; Incoming 
Fog, Three Fishers (1886). 

REID, JOHN R, born in England ; con- 
temporary. Genre and portrait painter, 
exhibits at Royal Academy and Grosvenor 
Gallery. Medal, Jubilee Exhibition, Ber- 
lin, 188C. Works: Forbidden Ground (1877); 
Village Belle, Toil and Pleasure (1879) ; 
Peace and War (1881) ; Leaving the Old 
Home, Homeless and Homewards, Dead for 
a Ducat Dead (1882); Darby and Joan, A 
Spill, The Yarn (1883); An Ugly Customer, 
Rival Grandfathers (1884) ; The Fatherless, 
The Mermaid, Seed Time Cornwall (1885); 
The Shipwreck, Calm Evening (1886). 

born in Frankfort, Jan. 12, 1820. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Stiidel Institute un- 
der Veit and Jakob Becker, and studied 
nature in the mountains of Middle Ger- 
many, in Switzerland, Belgium, England, 

France, and Italy. Medal, Vienna, 1873. 
Corresponding member of Cercle artistique 
in Belgium, 1768. Works: Forest Still- 
ness (1845), Magdeburg Gallery ; Black 
Pond in the Riesengebirge (1855) ; Lake 
Vierwaldstitdt, The Orteler (1856); Morn- 
ing in the Ramsau (1857); 17 Views of Cas- 
tle Waldleiningen and Amorbach in the 
Odenwald (1857), Queen Victoria ; Acqua 
Claudia near Rome ; Approach to Burg 
Landskron ; The Dachstein (1861) ; Castle 
Braunfels (1866) ; Picturesque and Roman- 
tic Frankfort (1,700 water-colours, 1875), 
Archival. Museum, Frankfort. Kaulen, 247; 
Miiller, 433. 

REIGNIER, JEAN, born in Lyons, Aug. 
3, 1815, died there in January, 1886. Flower 
painter, pupil of the Lyons School of Art, 
where he became professor in 1854. Med- 
als : 2d class, 1848, 1861 ; L. of Honour, 
1863. Works : Garland around Cross by 
which is a Dog as Emblem of Fidelity 
(1842), Nimes Museum ; Memorial to the 
Flower-Painter Berjon Antoine (1845) ; do. 
to Queen of Belgium (1852) ; do. to Queen 
Hortense (1857), Lyons Museum ; Fruits, 
Grenoble Museum. Bellier, ii. 354. 

REINAGLE, PHILIP, born in 1749, died 
at Chelsea, Nov. 27, 1833. Portrait, land- 
scape, and animal painter, pupil of Allan 
Ramsay in portraiture, and student at Royal 
Academy in 1769 ; elected an A.R.A. in 1787, 
and R.A. in 1812. Painted chiefly hunting 
and sporting subjects, many of which were 
engraved by J. Scott. Also made copies of 
the Dutch masters, some of which have 
passed as originals. His son, Richard Ram- 
say Reinagle (1775-1862, R.A. 1823), was a 
landscape and animal painter ; and his grand- 
son, George Philip Reinagle, son of Richard 
Ramsay (1802-35), was a marine painter. 
Redgrave ; Sandby, i. 345. 

Prague in 1686, died there, Oct. 9, 1743. 
German school ; history, genre, and land- 
scape painter, pupil of Peter Brandel, and 
of Schweiger in Prague. His early battle- 
pieces resemble those of Pieter van Bloe- 


men. Painted equally well in fresco and 
oiL Works : Martyrdom of Jesuit Mission- 
aries (4), Prague Gallery ; Orpheus charm- 
ing the Animals, Landscape with Horses, 
do. with Birds, Nostitz Gallery, Prague ; 
Altai-piece, St. Peter's, ib.; do., All Saints 
and St. Jacob's, ib.; Frescos in Crusaders' 
Church, ib.; do., St. Thomas, St. .iEgidius, 
Loretto, and Ursulines, ib.; Fall of the 
Giants, Czeruin Palace, ib.; Battle-Piece, 
Count Krakowsky-Kolowrat, ib. ; Campo 
Vaccino in Eome, Golden House of Nero, 
ib., Dresden Gallery. Dlabacz, ii. 551 ; D. 
Kunstbl. (1850), 413 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 
553 ; Wurzbach, xxv. 202. 

born at Waynesburg, Penn., Aug. 29, 182!), 
died in Philadelphia, May 3, 1885. Por- 
trait, genre, and history painter, studied iu 
Diisseldorf, Paris, and Rome in 1850-53 ; 
went in 18G1 to England, whence he re- 
turned to America in 18G8 and travelled in 
the South and West. Elected an A.N.A. in 
1872. Works : Cleopatra (1865); After the 
Crucifixion (1875) ; Katrina Van Tassel, 
Pocahoutas (1878) ; Nymphs of the Wood 
(1879) ; Captain Kidd and the Governor, 
Baby Mine (1884). Portraits: Princess of 
W T ales ; Countess of Portsmouth ; Lady 
Fane Tempest ; Lord Brougham ; Carlyle ; 
Tennyson ; Charles O'Couor ; Chief Jus- 
tice Daly ; Bishop Mcllvaiue ; John Phil- 
lips, R.A. 

born at Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1844. Genre 
painter, studied in Paris and at the Royal 
Academy, Munich, under Professors Strey- 
hiiber and Otto. Has drawn illustrations 
for several American periodicals, and exhib- 
ited works in oil, water-colour, and black 
and white, at the National Academy in New 
York, where his professional life has chiefly 
been passed. Member of art clubs in Mu- 
nich, Pittsburgh, and New York. Studio in 
Paris, 1882-86. Works in oil : Clearing 
Up, Caught Napping (1875) ; Reconnoitring 
(1876); Rebuke (1877) ; September Morn- 
ing (1879) ; Old Life-Boat (1880) ; Coast of 

Normandy (1882) ; In a Garden (1883) ; 
Mussel Fisherwoman, Flats at Villerville 
(1884) ; Sunday (1885) ; English Garden, 
Fisherman of Villerville (1886). Water- 
colours : Gathering Wood, Close of Day 
(1877) ; At the Ferry (1878). 

bom near Hof, 
Franconia, Jan. 
24, 1761, died in 
Rome, June 8, 
1847. Land- 
scape and animal 
painter, pupil in 
Leipsic of Oeser, 
and in Dresden . 
of Klengel ; after 
painting for Duke 
of Meiningen, went in 1789 to Rome, where 
he was allied with Koch, Carsteus, Fernow, 
Voogd, and Wagner ; visited Naples in 
1804-5, made excavations at Ostia in 1810- 
11, and became member of Berlin Academy 
in 1810, of Accadcmia S. Luca in Koine in 
1813, and of Munich Academy in 1830. 
Works : Landscape with Cain and Abel, do. 
with Story of Queen Hypsipyle, Stiidel Gal- 
lery, Frankfort ; Storm Landscape (1824) ; 
Landscape with Psyche (1829), Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; Four Views near Rome (two dated 
1836, 1846), New Piuakothek, Munich; 
Ideal Landscape, Gotha Gallery ; Acqua 
Acetosa near Rome, Landscape with Castle, 
do. with Bathers, Kohlrausch Collection, 
Hanover ; Storm Landscape, Stuttgart Mu- 
seum ; eight Historical Landscapes (1825), 
Villa Massimi, Rome. Andresen, i. 177 ; 
Forster, iv. 81 ; Goethe, Winckelmaun, it- 
172 ; Kugler, kL Schr., iii. 46 ; Nagler, xil 
399 ; Riegel, Gesch. des Wiederauflebens 
der d. K., 123, 334 ; Zeitechr. f. b. K, xviii. 

born at Gera in 1779, died in Vienna, April 
22, 1840. Landscape painter, first instruct- 
ed in Dresden, then pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy, and the head of a numerous family of 
artists; painted at first history and por- 


traits, took up landscape painting in 1814, 
and soon acquired reputation and great fa- 
vour in Vienna. Works : Peasant Cottage 
with Two Women and a Child, Hohenstau- 
fen Mountain seen from Aigen, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Ideal Landscapes (1816, 1820, 1822, 
3 ; 1826, 3 ; 1835) ; Cemetery with Chapel, 
Cupid shedding Arrows among the Animals 
(1824) ; Views in Salzburg (3), do. in Sor- 
rento (1832) ; Si George's Fight with the 
Dragon (1834) ; Grass Mower Drinking 
(1837) ; The Outcast (1838). His sons, 
Franz and Friedrich, were also landscape 
painters, and exhibited in Vienna in 1816- 
50. Landscape by Franz in Vienna Muse- 
um. Hormayr, Archiv (1821), Nos. 27, 28 ; 
(1822), Nos. 95, 152 ; (1824), Nos. 105, 106 ; 
Wurzbach, xxv. 217. 

in 1790, died at Albano, Jan. 15, 1825. 
Landscape painter, brother of preceding, 
studied first in Dresden, then at Vienna 
Academy, and in 1809-14 in Paris ; went 
to Koine in 1819. Works : Capo d'Orlando 
on Coast of Sicily (1821), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Capuchin Garden near Sorrento, 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; View in Carin- 
thian Alps ; Grotto La Cucumella in Naples ; 
View of Capri ; View in Piano di Sorrento, 
Leipsic Museum ; View of .ZEtna from Ta- 
ormina. His younger brother, Gustav, land- 
scape painter, pupil of Friedrich Philipp, 
exhibited in Vienna in 1826-46, and lived 
also some time in Rome. Hormayr, Archiv 
(1821), 108 ; N. Necrol. der D. (1825), 1279 ; 
Riegel, Gesch. des Wiederauflebens der d. 
K, 337 ; Wurzbach, xxv. 220. 

REMBRANDT VAN RYN, born in Ley- 
den, July 15, 1607, died in Amsterdam, 
buried Oct. 8, 1669. Dutch school; his 
father, Harmen Gerritsz, a miller, and his 
mother, Neeltgen Willems van Suyddtbroek, 
daughter of a baker, lived in a house situ- 
ated in the Weddersteeg (Street of the 
Tank), near the Witte Poort (White Gate) 
and there Rembrandt was born. Having 
little taste for books, and a strong natural 
love of art, he was early apprenticed for 

three years to lakob Isaacz van Swanen- 
burch, a second-rate painter, who had set- 
tied at Leyden in 
1617 after his return 
from Italy. Then 
followed six months' 
study with Pieter 
Lastman, and a re- 
turn to Leyden 
about 1624. Rem- 
\ brandt's earliest 
signed works date 
from 1627. Three 
years later (1630) he removed from Leyden 
to Amsterdam, where he spent the remain- 
der of his life. He never left Holland, and 
in it visited only Dordrecht, Friesland, 
Gueldres, and perhaps Cloves. With his 
first wife, Saskia van Ulenburgh, whom he 
married in 1634, and who died in 1642, he 
lived very happily, and the portraits of her 
at Cassel (1633), Dresden (1633, 1641 ?), and 
Berlin (1643), are among his finest works. 
They lived in a house at Amsterdam, in the 
Breedstraat, where he collected many fine 
Italian and Dutch pictures, glass, armour, 
porcelain, etc. Here he painted, etched, 
and directed the studies of numerous pu- 
pils. For fourteen years after Saskia's death 
Rembrandt and his son, Titus, lived in this 
house, at the end of which time, as his af- 
fairs were hopelessly involved, it was sold 
by auction with its contents. For the re- 
mainder of his days the great artist lived 
in comparative poverty. As etcher and 
painter, he holds a unique place in the his- 
tory of art. No one has rivalled him in the 
management of light and shade ; few in col- 
our, in character, in the expression of home- 
ly but deep sentiment. Absolutely origi- 
nal, he taught many able scholars, whose 
best efforts only show how unapproachable 
he is. Works : Old Man with Gorget and 
Turban (1630 or 1631), Portrait of Coppe- 
nol (1631), Youth (1634), Portrait of a Turk 
(1636?), Sobrisky Portrait (1636?), Elderly 
Lady (1637 or 1638), Rembrandt's Mother 
(1640), Rabbi Manasseh Ben Israel (1645), 


Warrior (1650), Three Female Portraits 
(1654), Two Portraits of Old Men (1654), 
Young Lady at Toilet Table (1654), Young 
Woman (1656), Girl with Broom, Portrait 
of a Youth (1660), Male do. (1666), Incre- 
dulity of St. Thomas (1634), Descent from 
the Cross (1634), Workers in the Vineyard 
(1637), Return of Prodigal Son, Sacrifice of 
Abraham (1635), Denial of St. Peter, Her- 
mitage, St Petersburg ; Susanna (1633), 
Youssoupoff Collection, St. Petersburg ; St. 
Anastasius (1631), Saskia? (1632), Old Man 
(1633 ?), Rembrandt's Cook (1651), Old Man 
and his Wife (1655), Oath of Ziska (1662), 
Stockholm Museum ; Dutch Noble and his 
Wife (1656), Christ at Emmaus (1648), Co- 
penhagen Museum ; Old Woman, Moltke 
Collection, Copenhagen ; Presentation in 
Temple (1631), Lesson in Anatomy (1632), 
Susanna (1637), Portrait of a Youth, do. of 
Rembrandt, Hague Museum ; Sortie of the 
Banning Cock Company (1642), Jewish Bride 
(1657?), Syndics of the Cloth Hall (1661), 
Fragment of Lesson in Anatomy (1656), Fe- 
male Portrait, Amsterdam Museum ; Alle- 
gory on Westphalian Peace (1648), Rotter- 
dam Museum ; Burgomaster Sis, Van Six 
Collection ; Young Angler, Old Jew, Wom- 
an, Antwerp Museum ; Male Portrait (1641), 
Old Lady's do. (1654), Brussels Museum ; 
Two Portraits of Saskia (1633 and 1641 ?), 
Rape of Ganymede (1645), Seven Male Por- 
traits, Samson's Wedding (1638), Sacrifice 
of Manoah (1641), Rembrandt and his First 
Wife, Rembrandt (1657), Landscape, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Old Man, Turk (bust), Por- 
traits of Flinck and his Wife, do. of a Young 
Lady and a Young Man, Nativity, Descent 
from the Cross (1653), Resurrection, Abra- 
ham and Hagar, Landscape, Christ in the 
Temple, Munich Gallery; Wife of Tobias 
with the Goat (1645), Joseph's Dream (1645), 
Moses breaking the Tablets (1659), Jacob 
wrestling with the Angel, Money Changer 
(1627), Rape of Proserpine, Joseph and Poti- 
phar's Wife (1655), Vision of Daniel, Por- 
trait of Saskia (1643), do. of a Rabbi (1645), 
do. of himself (2), Samson threatening his 

Father-in-Law, Berlin Museum ; Six Por- 
traits of Old Men (1630), do. (1632), do. 
(1635, 1656), Portrait of Lieven van Coppe- 
nol (1632) ; do. of Saskia (1633), do. of Young 
Man (1633), do. of Jan Krul (1634), Man 
with Helmet (1634), Samson and Delilah 
(1636), Winter Scene (1636), Male Portrait 
(1639), Young Lady (1642), Holy Family 
(1646), Landscape (1653), Man in Armour 
(1655), Standard-Bearer (1655), Jacob's 
Blessing (1656), Two Male Portraits (1656), 
Portrait of Rembrandt (1656), do. of Bruy- 
ningh (1658), Cassel Gallery ; Portrait of 
Grotius (1631), Student Philosophers (1633), 
Lady (1633), Warrior (1638), Noli me Tan- 
gere (1653), Landscape (1656), Rembrandt 
and Family (1662-64), Brunswick Gallery ; 
St. Paul in Prison (1627), Stuttgart Gallery ; 
Two Female Portraits, Stiidel Gallery, Frank- 
fort ; St. Paul (1636), Rembrandt's Mother 
(1639), Vienna Museum ; Raphael leaving 
Tobias (1637), Good Samaritan (1648), St 
Matthew (1661), Supper at Emmaus (1648), 
Philosopher in Meditation (1633), Mi'nage 
du Menuisier (1640), Venus and Cupid, 
Four Portraits of Rembrandt (1633, 1634, 
1637, 1660), Old Man (1638), Young do. 
(1658), Woman at the Bath (2, one dated 
1654), Male (1651), and Female Portrait, 
Louvre, Paris ; Artemisia, Madrid Museum ; 
Deposition from the Cross, Woman taken 
in Adultery (1644), Adoration of the Shep- 
herds (1646), Jew Merchant, Woman Bath- 
ing (1654), Landscape with Tobias and the 
Angel, Capuchin Friar, Rabbi (?), Portraits 
of Rembrandt (2, one dated 1640), do. of a 
Woman (1666), Male Portrait (1659), Old 
Lady (1634), Male Portrait (1635), National 
Gallery, London ; The Door of the Sepul- 
chre (1638), Portrait of Rembrandt (1642?), 
Shipbuilder (1633), The Burgomaster and 
his Wife, Woman with the Fan, Adoration 
of the Magi (1657), Buckingham Palare ; 
Portraits of Burgomaster Pellicorne, his 
Wife, Son, and Daughter, Unjust Steward, 
Hertford House ; Woman token in Adul- 
tery, Isaac blessing Jacob, Blenheim sale, 
London, 1886 ; Visitation, Man with Falcon 


and Wife, Portraits of Berghem and "Wife, 
Landscape, Grosvenor House ; Rembrandt's 
Mill, Marquis of Lansdowne ; Male Portrait, 
St. John Preaching, Lord Dudley ; Old Wom- 
an, Landscape, Lord Overstone ; Feast of 
Belshazzar, Lord Derby ; Tribute Money, 
Interior with Figures, Hope Collection ; 
Daniel before Nebuchadnezzar, Lord Scars- 
dale ; Standard-Bearer, Lord Warwick ; Bust 
of a Young Man (1632), Girl at Window 
(1645), Dulwich Gallery; Jewish Eabbi, 
Turin Gallery ; Old Man, Portrait of Rem- 
brandt, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Cottage 
Interior, Landscape, Uffizi, Florence ; Le 
Doreur (1640), William Schaus, New York. 
Ch. Blanc, 
L'CEuvre complet 
de R. (Paris, 
1880); Dutuit, 

1880); Amand- 
/~~^ , f Durand, CEuvre 

C/Te/m wcunat de R - (Paris, 

" 1880); Scheltema, 

Eembrandt (Par- 
is, 1866); Mollett, 
Rembrandt (London, 1882); Vosmaer, Rem- 
brandt (2d ed., 1877) ; Bode, Studien, 24, 
29, 354, 359-611, 617; Burger, Trt-sors 
d'Art (3d ed., 1855), 244 ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures ; Eug. Fromentin, les Maitres d'Autre- 
fois ; Immerzeel, iii. 9 ; Jal, 1046 ; Kramm, 
v. 1346 ; vii. 122 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 363 ; 
Middleton, Descriptive Catalogue ; Richter, 
Dulwich Cat.; Riegel, Beitriige, i. 67, 73, 88, 
133, 146, 154 ; ii. 232, 265, 273 ; Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1885), xxxii. 328, 498 ; Graph. K, 
iii. 49 ; Kunst-Chronik, xii. 425, 457, 571, 
697, 785 ; xvii. 267 ; xviii. 473 ; xix. 10 ; xxi. 
705 ; Les Lettres et les Arts, i. 91 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, i. 192 ; iv. 101, 159 ; v. 169, 237, 
304 ; viii. 16, 145, 190, 234, 267, 343 ; x. 319 
(Mittheilungen, iii. 37) ; xi. 125, 222 (Mit- 
theilungen, iv. 42) ; xii. 32, 322 ; xiii. 224 ; 
xvii. 58, 386 ; xix. 30. 

REMBRANDT, portraits, Rembrandt. 
There are more than forty portraits by him- 

self, representing himself at different ages 
and with various accessories. Among those 
in public galleries are : Louvre (4, 1633, 
1634, 1637, 1660) ; National Gallery, Lon- 
don (2, 1640, and about 1664) ; Dresden, 
(1657) ; Cassel (4) ; Hague (2) ; Carlsruhe ; 
Brunswick ; Gotha ; Nuremberg ; Berlin (2, 
1634, and about 1634-35); Vienna (2, about 
1658, and 1666-68) ; Naples ; Uffizi, Flor- 
ence (2); Palazzo Pitti, ib. (2); Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge (1650) ; Dulwich Gal- 
lery (1632) ; Buckingham Palace (about 
1642) ; Lord Ashburton (old age) ; Bridge- 
water House (about 1657) ; Lansdowne 
House (old age) ; Grosvenor House (1630) ; 
Sir Richard Wallace (3, one dated 1643) ; 
Earl of Leconfield ; Earl of Portarlington ; 
Earl of Kinnaird ; Duke of Bedford ; Duke 
of Buccleugh ; Lord Caledon ; M. Secretan, 
Paris. Bode, Studien ; Vosmaer, Rem- 
brandt ; Smith, Cat. Raisonnee. 

brandt, Brunswick Gallery ; H. 4 ft. 4 in. 
x 5 ft. 9 in.; signed. A lady seated, with a 
child on her lap, while two little girls of five 
and seven stand beside her ; at left, stand- 
ing, a man with brown hair and moustaches, 
giving a flower to one of the girls. The 
same persons as those represented in the 
Jewish Bride. Mollett, Rembrandt, 73 ; 
Vosmaer, 301, 491. 

REMBRANDT'S MILL, Rembrandt, Mar- 
quis of Lansdowne, Bowood ; canvas, H. 2 
ft. 8 in. x 3 ft. 2 in. A mill and a house in 
a landscape, with water below and figures ; 
background, a luminous evening sky, with 
dark rain-clouds. Waagen, Treasures, iii. 

REMY, MARIE, born in Berlin, Nov. 21, 
1829. Flower painter, daughter and pupil 
of the history and portrait painter, August 
Remy, then studied with Hermine Stilke, 
and Theude Gronland ; visited England, 
Paris, Switzerland, Tyrol, and Italy. Works : 
Italian Flowers and Fruits (26), National 
Gallery, Berlin. Miiller, 435. 

RENARD, EMELE, born at Sevres ; con- 
temporary. Landscape, genre, and portrait 



painter, pupil of Cabanel and of Cesar de 
Cock. Medal, 3d class, 1876. Works: 
Path in Woods of Sevres, Pond in Woods of 
Chaville (1873); In the Woods, Autumn, Re- 
pose (1875); Grandmother's Portrait (187C), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Bad News, Violetta 
(1878); Flotsam (1879); Antonietta (1880) ; 
Palm Sunday, The Little Arm of the Orge 
at Athis (1882) ; Repose, Seamstress Day 
(1883); Sweet Slumber (1885). 

RENE D'ANJOU, surnamed the Good, 
born in castle of Augers in 1408, died in 
Provence in 1480. French school ; illumi- 
nator, painter, poet, and patron of arts ; 
second son of Louis IE., Duke of Anjou, 
Comte de Provence and titular King of Na- 
ples. Summonzio, the Neapolitan writer, 
says that King Reno was a good painter in 
the Flemish style, but several pictures at- 
tributed to him are now shown to be by 
another hand ; as, for example, the famous 
Triptych with the Burning Bush, etc., in the 
Cathedral at Aix, a work of Nicolas Froment 
of Avignon (1475), who was in King Rene's 
employ ; and another Triptych by the same 
hand in the Uffizi. The illuminated MS. of 
" La tres douce mercy " (1497), at Vienna, 
is admitted to be the King's handiwork. 
Many pictures attributed to him in churches 
at Aix, Angers, Lyons, Avignon, and Mar- 
seilles, were destroyed during the revolution. 
Works attributed to King Rene : Diptych, 
Vision of S. Bernardino of Siena, Coronation 
of Virgin, Hospital at Villeneuve ; Praying 
Cardinal, Avignon Museum ; Portraits of 
Charles VH., and Philip the Good, Duke of 
Burgundy. W. & W., ii. 78 ; Schuaase, viii. 
321 ; Mtintz, La Renaissance, 481 ; Michiels, 
iii. 187 ; CEuvres completes du Roi Rene 
avec une biographie (Angers, 1845). 
RENI, GUIDO. See Guido RenL 
RENOIR; contemporary. Genre, por- 
trait, landscape, flower, and fruit painter ; 
impressionist Of his works were exhibited 
in New York, 1886 : Femme au Corset, 
Head of Young Girl, The Bather (2), Flow- 
ers (2), Apples, Melons and Figs, Young 
Lady in a Garden, Fishermen's Children, 

On the Terrace, Dejeuner at Bougivol, Box 
at the Opera, Rain in Paris, Dmiee at Bou- 
gival, Windy Day at Guernsey, In the Cir- 
cus, A Servant, The Bath, Sail-Boats on the 
Argenteuil, Bather on Seashore, Woman 
Reading, Venice, After the Bath, Peonies, 
Child's Toilet, Preparing for the Bath, Gera- 
niums and Cats, Summer, Winter, On Shore, 
Six Portraits. La France, Dec. 8, 1884. 

RENOUF, EMILE, born ill Paris, June 
23, 1845. Land- 
scape, marine, aud 
genre painter, pupil 
of Boulanger, Jules 
Lefebvre, and Caro- 
| lus-Duran. Medals : 
Paris, 2d class, 1880; 
Munich, 1st class, 
1883. Visited Amer- 
ica in October, 1886. 

J Works : Views near Honfleur (1870, 1872, 
! 1873, 1875, 1877) ; After the Rain at Sun- 
set, Tounie done, mousse ! (1876) ; Valley 
in Finistere (1877) ! Maisou du Haut-du- 
Vent at Mouth of the Seine (1878) ; End of 
Day, Last Repair, my poor friend ! (1879) ; 
The Widow, La Pierre-des-Pendus (1880) ; 
A coup de main, Corcoran Gallery, Wash- 
ington ; After a Gust of Wind (1881) ; The 
Pilot (Wm. Sclwus, New York), Lizzie 
(1883); Sunset (1884); ATar(1885); Adrift 
(1886). Meyer, Conv. Lex., xxi. 758 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K., six. 258. 

Paris in 1795, died there, March 15, 1846. 
Landscape and architecture painter. Med- 
! als : 2d class, 1822 ; 1st class, 1831 ; L. of 
' Honour, 1838. Works : Interior of Saint- 
Etieune-du-Mont (1824), formerly in Lux- 
embourg Museum ; Views at MonU'-limart, 
Corps, and near Gerame, Subterranean do. 
in the Arena at Aries, Interior in 16th Cen- 
tury (1831); Taking of Chateau de 1'Esoal- 
cette, 1676, do. of Ghent, 1678, do. of Phil- 
ipsbourg, 1688, do. of Roses, 1693, do. of 
Palamos, 1694, Treaty between the Crusa- 
ders and Venetians in St. Mark's, 1201 
(1839), Marriage of the Due de Berry, 1816 


(1843), Opening at the Louvre of the Leg- 
islative Session in 1823 (1843), Versailles 
Museum ; Henri d'Albret received into the 
Chapter at Auch, Amiens Museum ; Land- 
scape with Factories, Interior of Monastery 
near Aries, Interior of a Vault, Landscape, 
do. with Figures, Bordeaux Museum ; In- 
terior of Basle Cathedral, Colmar Museum ; 
Vault Interior, Lisieux Museum ; Rocks, 
Nantes Museum ; Rhine View (1831), Or- 
leans Museum ; The Antiquary, Leipsic 
Museum. Bellier, ii. 361. 

RENT-DAY, Sir DcmdWUkie, John Chap- 
man (?); canvas. Tenants paying their rent 
to the landlord, who is seated behind a table 

Rent-Day, Sir David W.lkie, John Chapman ( 

at left ; at right, a table with several persons 
eating ; 18 figures. Painted in 1808 ; sold 
for 150 to Earl of Mulgrave, after whose 
death it was offered for sale, but bought in 
for 750 guineas; afterward sold to J. Chapman 
for about 2,000. Engraved by A. Raimbach. 
Heaton, Works of Sir D. W. ; Mollett, 30. 
rienwerder, West Prussia, in 1810. Genre 
painter, pupil in Berlin of Karl Begas ; 
went for some time to Diisseldorf and set- 
tled in Berlin ; represents comical situations 
and little fatalities of human life. Works : 
Cab in Rainstorm claimed by Several Per- 
sons ; Late Packing (1842); Picture Dealer 

in Tyrolese Village ; In the Stable ; First 
Ride ; Sunday Morning ; Alpine Hunter ; 
Travellers on Austrian Frontier ; Afternoon 
on Lake Vierwaldstiidt ; Mid-day Rest in the 
Open, Sleeping Grandmother (1847), Raveno 
Gallery, Berlin. Rosenberg, Berl. Maler- 
schule, 70. 

REPOSE IN EGYPT, Paul Delaroche, Sir 
Richard Wallace, Bart., London. The Vir- 
gin seated with Infant Jesus asleep on her 
knees ; in background, St. Joseph. Called 
sometimes Vierge au lezard. Painted for 
Lord Hertford. Engraved by Martinet. 
Larousse, xiii. 995. 

By Anton van Dyck, Hermitage, St. Pe- 
tersburg ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 
x 9 ft. 1 in. Same as the 
Palazzo Pitti picture, ex- 
cept that the angels are re- 
placed by some partridges, 
whence sometimes called 
Madonna with the Par- 
tridges. In Collection of 
Charles I, valued at 40 ; 
Collection of M. van Loo, 
Amsterdam (1713), 12,050 
florins ; Collection of M. 
Valkenburg, Rotterdam 
(1731), 12,150 florins; 
bought by Earl of Orford 
for 800 for Houghton 
Collection, and sold, with 
other pictures, to Empress 
Catherine in 1795 for 36,000. Engraved 
by S. G. and J. G. Facius ; lithographed by 
Huoi Guiffrey, 245 ; Smith, iii. 81. 

By Anton van Dijck, Munich Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 1 in. x 3 ft. 6 in. The Vir- 
gin seated under a tree, with Jesus sleeping 
on her breast ; at left, St. Joseph. En- 
graved by Bolswert ; Ragot ; C. Waumans ; 
Edelinck ; J. Burger. Smith, iii. 17 ; Klas. 
der Malerei, PI. 13 ; Guiffrey, 244. 

By Anton van Dyck, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 3 in. x 5 ft. 3 in. The 
Virgin seated on a bank under trees, hold- 
ing Jesus erect in her lap, and St. Joseph 
sitting behind ; their attention is directed 


toward eight boy angels dancing in a ring 
before them ; above, in clouds, a choir of 
four angels. Passed from Collection of 
Marquis Gerini to Palazzo Pitti in 1818. 
Engraved by Bolswert ; J. Coelemans 
(1698) ; J. Troyen ; Susanna Verbruggen ; 
L. Martelli ; Pilizotti. Replica (3 ft. 8 iu. 
x 4 ft. 9 in.), Collection of Lord Ashburton. 
Gal. du Pal. Pitti, ii. PL 110 ; Guiffrey, 
245 ; Smith, iii. 81 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 

By Luc Olivier Merson, S. A. Coale, Jr., 
St. Louis ; canvas, H. 2 ft. x 4 ft. Night 
scene, the Nile in the distance ; in fore- 
ground, left, the Sphinx, with the Virgin 
and Child reposing between its paws ; at its 
foot, St. Joseph, asleep, and the ass, teth- 
ered beside him, cropping the herbage. Sa- 
lon, 1879. Art Treasures of America, iii. 

By Murillo, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft. 11 in. The Vir- 
gin, seated by a tree, in centre, watches Je- 
sus sleeping on a rock beside her ; at right, 
St. Joseph, holding the bridle of the ass ; 
at left, beside the Virgin, two cherubs ; in 
foreground, a bottle, a pack, and a broad- 
brimmed hat ; background, landscape. Gai- 
gnat sale (1768), 17,535 livres. Mezzo-tint, 
J. Walker. Repetitions : Earl of Northbrook, 
London ; Leigh Court Collection, Somer- 
set ; Glasgow Museum. Copy (?) by Tobar 
in Munich Gallery. Engraved by Sanders. 
Descr. de 1'Ermitage, 25 ; Curtis, 169 ; 
Hermitage Cat., 129. 

By Murillo, Earl of Strafford, Wrotham 
Park, Herts, Eng. ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 8 in. x 
6 ft. 3 in. The Virgin, seated in centre, 
adores Jesus in her lap ; at left, St. Joseph, 
holding the ass, also in adoration ; on 
ground, between the group, a gourd bottle, 
a straw hat, and a bundle ; at right, two 
cherubs in adoration ; above, three cherubs, 
one of them hanging a curtain between trees, 
as a screen ; background, mountains. Waa- 
gen, Treasures, iv. 320 ; Curtis, 170. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 2 
ft 3 in. x 1 ft. 7 in. The Virgin seated, 

holds on her knees Jesus, who caresses the 
young St. John, who is presented by St. 
Elizabeth, kneeling; behind, St Joseph 
standing. Painted in 1651 for Due de Crv- 
qui Engraved by J. Pesne ; Massard ; Ni- 
quet FilhoL vii. 487 ; Cat. Louvre. 

By Paolo Veronese, Munich Gallery ; can- 
vas, H. 7 ft. 4 in. X 5 ft 2 iu.; signed. The 
Virgin gives the breast to Jesus while some 
angels gather fruits. 

REPUBLICAN COURT, Daniel Hunting, 
ton, A. T. Stewart Collection, New York ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. x 10 ft A reception at Wash- 
ington in the second term of President 
Washington's administration. Mrs. Wash- 
ington at left, standing, with Nelly Custis and 
Mrs. Robert Morris on her left, Alexander 
Hamilton, John Adams, and Johu Jay at her 
right, and other celebrites of the time be- 
hind her ; in centre, background, General 
Washington in conversation with Harriet 
Chew and surrounded by Jonathan Trum- 
bull, Oliver Ellsworth, Thomas Jefferson, 
the Duke of Kent, and others ; at right, 
Mrs. George Clinton, seated, in conversation 
with Mrs. Ralph Izard, with Mrs. John Jay 
and other ladies iu foreground and many 
prominent men in background. Painted iu 
1876. Engraved by Alexander H. Ritchie. 

RESPECT, Paolo Veronese, Cobham Hall, 
England ; canvas, 5 ft 10 in. square. A 
woman, nude, lying asleep, toward whom 
Cupid is drawing a man, who is held back 
by an old man in the background. Waagen 
thinks it wrongly named, and says it ap- 
pears rather to exemplify the triumph of 
passion over reason. From collection of 
Queen Christina of Sweden to Orleans Gal- 
lery ; valued at sale in 1793 at 150, sold 
for 44 guineas. Engraved by L. Desplaces ; 
M. Pelletier. Waagen, Treasures, ii. 499 ; 
iii 20 ; Cab. Crozat, ii. PL 25. 

RESTOUT, JEAN, the younger, born at 
Rouen, March 26, 1692, died in Paris, Jan. 1, 
1768. French school ; history painter, son 
of Jean Restout, the elder (1663-1702), pu- 
pil of his uncle, Jean Jouvenet In 1717 he 
won the grand prix de Rome and was ac- 


cepted as an honorary member of the Acad- 
emy. Full member of the Academy in 1720, 
professor in 1733, and 
director in 1760. Was 
also associate of 
the Academies 
of Rouen and 
Caen. Works : 
Venus asking 
Vulcan for Arms 
for .ZEneas 
(1717) ; Ananias 
laying Hands on 

St. Paul (1718), Louvre ; Arethusa 
escaping from Alpheus (1720), Com- 
piegne Palace ; Christ healing a 
Paralytic (1725), Louvre ; Alexander 
the Great taking the Potion from 
Philip, Last Supper, Amiens Muse- 
um ; Good Samaritan (1736), An- 
gers Museum ; Prophet Ezekiel, 
Presentation in the Temple, Bor- 
deaux Museum ; St. John having 
baptized Christ, humbles himself 
before the Son of God, Dijon Mu- 
seum ; Martyrdom of St. Andrew, 
Grenoble Museum ; Christ at Em- 
maus (1735), Lille Museum; Christ's 
Charge to St. Peter, Marseilles Mu- 
seum ; Portrait of himself, Metz 
Museum ; Portrait of an Architect, 
Nancy Museum ; Christ on Mount 
of Olives, Annunciation, Orleans 
Museum ; Presentation of the Vir- 
gin, Rouen Museum ; Telemachus 
relating his adventures to Calypso, Rennes 
Museum ; Old Man's Head, Valenciennes 
Museum ; Portrait of a Physician, Versailles 

sumption, Sens Cathedral. Villot, Cat. Lou- 
vre ; Ch. Blanc, ficole franaise ; Jal, 1054. 
Paris, Feb. 22, 1732, died there, July 18, 

/ 7 J4 

Museum ; Herminia at the Shepherd's, Toi- 
let of Herminia, Fontainebleau Palace ; As- 

Resurrection, Annibale Carracci, Louvre. 

1797. French school ; history painter, son 
and pupil of preceding ; won the second 
prize in 1755, and the grand prize in 1758 ; 
then studied in Rome, returned in 1765, 
and was received into the Academy in 1769, 
but severed his connection in 1771, not wish- 
ing to submit to its regulations. Member 
also of Caen, Rouen, and Toulouse Acad- 
emies. Works : St. Bruno in Prayer in the 
Desert (1763), Louvre ; Diogenes, Phile- 
mon and Baucis (sketch), Toulouse Muse- 
um ; Anacreon singing his Poems to his 
Mistress (1765), Jupiter and Mercury at the 



Table of Philemon and Baucis (1769), Tours 
Museum. Bellier, ii. 364 ; Chennevieres, 
Peintres provinciaux de 1'ancienne France, 
iii. 317. 

RESURRECTION, Annibale Carracci, 
Louvre ; canvas, arched, H. 7 f t 1 in. x 5 ft 

Resurrection, Pietro Perugino, Vatican, Rome. 

3 in. ; signed, dated 1593. Christ, within a 
glory of angels, has risen from the tomb ; 
one of the soldiers is sleeping on the sepul- 
chre, the seals of which are unbroken ; an- 
other, at left, runs with a flag ; a third, at 
right, is about to draw his sword ; others 
stricken with fear. Painted for the Luchi- 
ni, rich merchants ; bought for Louis XIV. 
in 1685 for 4,000 livres. Copy, small with 
variations, on copper, in Louvre ; engraved 
by G. M. Mitelli. Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Lan- 
don, Musee, xi. PI. 33. 

By Filippino Lippi, Munich Gallery ; 
wood, H. 5 ft. x 4 ft. 10 in.; predella, 1 ft.X 

4 ft. 10 iu. Christ appears to the Virgin 

with the marks of the Crucifixion on his 
body ; above, in a glory of cherubim, God 
the Father, with the Virgin and Gabriel 
kneeling on clouds at sides ; below, in laud- 
scape, people in adoration. In the predella, 
Christ rising from the sepulchre, supported 
by angels and attended on right by SS. 
Dominic, Clara, and Catharine of Siena ; on 
left, by SS. Francis, Louis of Toulouse, and 
Bernardino of Siena. Belonged to the Bare- 
foot Monks of Palco, near Prato. The order 
was given to Domenico Ghirlandajo in 
1491, but it was executed by Filippino Lip- 
pi in 1495. C. & C., Italy, ii. 444. 

By Francesco Manteyna (?), National Gal- 
lery, London ; wood, H. 1 f t 6 in. x 1 ft. 
Christ, partly clad in a red mantle, stands 
on edge of the sepulchre, which is built 
into a pyramidal rock that rises in centre 
nearly to top of picture ; five soldiers at 
base, four asleep and one watching. The 
expressions are excellent, and the execution 
is marked by careful finish. Bought in 
1881 from A. W. Thibaudeau for 300. 

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Resurrection, Raffaellino del Garbo, Florence Academy. 

Athenseum (1881), No. 2807, 216 ; Richter, 
68, 110. 

By Murillo, Academia S. Fernando, Ma- 
drid ; canvas, H. 8 ft X 5 ft 4 in. Christ 
ascending, with a red banner in his left 


hand and pointing up with his right ; be- 
low, guards sleeping by the tomb. Former- 
ly in Convent of the Merced Calzada, Sev- 
ille ; carried off by Marshal Soult ; returned 
to Madrid in 1814. Engraved by Franch. 
Study was in Standish Collection. C. Ber- 
mudez, ii. 59 ; Ponz, Viage, ix. 107 ; Curtis, 

By Pietro Peritgino (and Raphael ?), Vati- 
can, Rome ; wood, arched. Christ, in an 
almond-shaped glory, with an angel on each 
side, has risen from the tomb ; three sol- 
diers sleeping and one running away. The 
flying soldier is said to be the portrait of 
Perugino, and the sleeping youth on the 
right that of Raphael, who probably had a 
share in the painting of this picture. Paint- 
ed for S. Francesco de' Conventuali, Peru- 
gia, after 1504 Taken to Paris ; returned 
in 1815. C. & C., Italy, iii. 219 ; Pistolesi, 
Vaticano, vi. PI. 69 ; Miintz, 53 ; Passavant, 
ii. 4. 

By Baffaellino del Garbo, Florence Acad- 
emy ; wood, figures half life-size. Christ 
rises from the sepulchre, the cover of which 
has fallen on one of the guards ; other sol- 
diers running away in terror ; landscape 
background of a town, ruins, rocks, and 
trees. Formerly in S. Bartolommeo at 
Monte Oliveto. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 235 ; 
C. & C., Italy, iii. 419. 

By Raphael, Vatican ; wood, H. 7 ft. 6 in. 
x 5 ft. 6 in. Christ, supported on a cloud, 
blesses the world as he rises from the tomb ; 
two guards, thought by some to resemble 
Raphael and Perugino, sleep near ; in dis- 
tance, two more run away. Attributed to 
Perugino, but probably by Raphael when 
under him (1495-1500). Painted for S. 
Francesco, Perugia ; carried to Paris in 
1797 ; sent to Vatican in 1815. Engraved 
by Graffonara ; Rehberg. Studies for the 
two groups of soldiers in Oxford Collection. 
Passavant, ii. 2. 

By Rembrandt, Munich Gallery ; canvas, 
arched, H. 2 ft. 10 in. x 2 f t. 2 in. An an- 
gel is removing the stone from the entrance 
to the sepulchre, within which Christ is seen 

in his grave-clothes ; some of the guard have 
fallen to the ground, others are endeavour- 
ing to escape. Engraved by Hess. Smith, 
vii. 43. 

By H Sodoma, Naples Museum ; wood, 
signed, dated 1535. Christ, with the ban- 
ner of victory, rising above the clouds ; at 
the tomb, two angels. Formerly in S. Tom- 
uiaso, Naples. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 214, 

By Tintoretto, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. Christ rising 
from the sepulchre, with white banner in 
his hand ; soldiers dazzled by the light, and 
flying, abandoning their arms ; background 
of military tents. Engraved by Viviani. 
Gal. du Pal. Pitti, iv. PI. 78. 

By Tintoretto, S. Cassiano, Venice ; can- 
vas, signed, and dated 1565. Not a picture 
of the Resurrection, but of Saints thinking 
about the Resurrection ; a mass of Renais- 
sance absurdities. On one side of the tomb 
is S. Cassiano, a bishop in full robes, on the 
other a female saint, St. Cecilia ; beneath 
it an angel playing on the organ, which a 
cherub is blowing ; above, cherubs flying 
about with flowers. Ruskin, Stones of Ven- 
ice, iii. 290 ; Zanotto, 383. 

By Tintoretto, S. Giorgio Maggiore, Ven- 
ice ; canvas. Christ rising, and some por- 
traits of the Monsini family. Zanotto, 633. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Eocco, Venice ; 
canvas. " Characteristic of the worst points 
of Tintoret. Christ bursts out of the tomb 
like a thunderbolt, and the angels them- 
selves seem likely to be crushed under the 
rent stones. The best part is the two dis- 
tant figures of the Marys." Ruskin, Stones 
of Venice, iii. 337. 

RETHEL, ALFRED, born at Diepen- 
bend House, near Aix-la-Chapelle, May 15, 
1816, died at Diisseldorf, Dec. 1, 1859. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy 
under Schadow, when a mere lad, and with 
his earliest compositions excited the admi- 
ration of his instructors ; -visited Munich 
and the Bavarian Alps in 1835, went in 1837 
to Frankfort, where he became an enthu- 



siastic follower of Philip Veit, and widely 
known throughout Germany by his Neme- 
sis ; visited Italy in 
184445, and execut- 
ed his famous frescos 
in the Coronation 
Hall at Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle in 1847-51, liv- 
ing alternately in 
Dresden in 1848-51 ; 
visited Borne again 
in 1852, when the 
first signs of a men- 
tal disease appeared, resulting in softening 
of the brain. Works : St. Boniface (1832), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; do. Preaching 
(1835) ; several others from life of this 
Saint ; Charles Mortel in Battle of Tours 
(1833) ; Prayer before Battle of Sempach 
(1834) ; Nemesis (1837), Herr von Keuter, 
Frankfort; Daniel in Lions' Den (1838), 
Guardian Angel of Emperor Maximilian I., 
Stadel Gallery, ib.; Charles V., Maximilian 
I. and II., Philip of Suabia (1838), ROmer, 
ib.; Finding of Gustavus Adolphus after 
Battle of Ltitzen, Stuttgart Museum ; Rec- 
onciliation of Emperor Otto I. with his 
Brother Henry, St. Martin (1837-39); Scenes 
from Life of Rudolph von Hapsburg, Battle 
of the Huns, Prayer of Crusaders, Job, sev- 
eral pictures in History of David, Theodo- 
sius and Ambrosius, Death of Barbarossa, 
Battle of Merseburg (about 1839); Emperor 
Max on the Martiuswand, Charles V. enter- 
ing St. Yuste, Coffin of Henry IV., St. Peter 
and St. John healing the Lame (1840-41), 
Leipsic Museum ; Joshua, Absalom, Ba- 
laam's Ass, David anointed King, Moses 
destroying Tables of the Law (1842-43); St. 
Sebastian's Body taken by Christians from 
Cloaca Maxima, Martyrdom of St. Stephen ; 
Resurrection, St. Nicholas, Frankfort ; Cycle 
(6) representing Hannibal crossing the Alps 
(1844-45). Frescos : Opening of Charle- 
magne's Tomb by Otto HI., Destruction of 
the Irmen Column, Battle of Cordova, Char- 
lemagne's Entry into Pavia, Baptism of Wit- 
tekind, Coronation of Charlemagne, Build- 

ing of Minster at Aix-la-Chapelle, Delivery 
of the Crown to Louis the Pious (1847-51), 
City Hall, Aix-la-Chapelle ; cartoons of do.i 
and of Resurrection, National Gallery, Ber- 
lin. Allgem. Zeitg. (1859), 5985 ; Art Jour- 
nal (18C5), 337 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole allemaude ; 
Jordan (1885), ii. 180 ; Wolfg. Mailer, Dds- 
seldf. K., 64 ; do., Alf. Rethel (Leipsic, 1861); 
Nagler, Mon., i. 507 ; Pecht, ii. 129 ; Reber, 
ii. 141 ; Riegel, D. Kunststud., 326 ; Vischer, 
Altes u. Neues, iii. 1 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., vi. 
132 ; x. (Mittheilungen, iii. 49) ; xx. 208, 287. 

RETHEL, OTTO, born at Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle, Dec. 26, 1822. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, brother of Alfred ; pupil of 
DUsseldorf Academy under his brother, Karl 
Sohn, and Schadow. Works : Boaz and 
Ruth (1855), Leipsic Museum ; Return of 
Tobias ; Paul and Silas ; Christ on Mount 
of Olives ; Reunion after Sickness ; Little 
Congratulators ; At the Hearth ; In the 
House of Mourning ; Serious Infancy ; Hap- 
py Age ; Artist's Portrait (Jubilee Exhibi- 
tion, Berlin, 1886). Midler, 435. 

senhagen, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, in 1841. 
Landscape painter, pupil in Munich of Lier, 
then in DUsseldorf (1862-67) of Albert 
Flamm and Theodor Hagen ; lived in Dres- 
den in 1867-70 and settled in Weimar in 
1871. Medals; London, 1874 
1876. Works : After Sunset 
Morning ; Landscape in Holstein 



After the 

Storm ; Sheep on Baltic Coast ; Norwegian 
Coast ; Devastation of Baltic Coast by 
Storm Tide ; Cows on Baltic Coast. M(ll- 
ler, 435. 

Stone Age. 

Sir Edwin Landseer, Windsor Castle. A 
young chief and his old companion, a 
mountaineer, are going carefully down a 
hill, with two magnificently antlered staga 
bound across the backs of a black and a 
white pony ; two dogs accompany them, 
one of which turns to a deer's skull lying 
in the grass. Royal Academy, 1827. 


heim Palace ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 11 
in. The Virgin, holding Jesus by her right 
hand, is advancing to left ; on farther side, 
Joseph leading the ass ; in middle of pict- 
ure, a palm tree. Painted about 1G10. En- 
graved by Vorsterman (1620); Lowrie ; Voet ; 
McArdell ; in reverse, anonymous. Blen- 
heim sale (1886), 1,500, to Murray. Waa- 
gen, Treasures, iii. 124 ; Smith, ii. 243. 

By Mubens, Metropolitan Museum, New 
York ; wood, H. 8 ft. 7 in. x 5 ft. 10 in. 
The Virgin and St. Joseph lead Infant Je- 
sus by the hand ; above, the Father looking 
down from heaven. Painted for Jesuits' 
Church, Antwerp, in 1620 ; bought at sale 
after suppression of Jesuits (1777), by M. 
Danoot ; at his sale (1828), bought by Mr. 
Buchanan, London. Transferred to can- 
vas, 1880. Engraved by Bolswert. Smith, 
ii. 21 ; Van Hasselt, Hist, de Eubens, 248 ; 
Cat. New York Mus. 

win Landseer, Ellesmere Collection. The 
party have just halted under an arch at the 
entrance to the mansion ; Lord Francis 
Egerton (afterwards first Earl of Ellesmere), 
who has dismounted from a white horse, 
held by a page, stands leaning upon the 
neck of a black horse, on which is seated 
his wife with a child in her arms ; at left, 
the falconer with the victorious bird on his 
gloved hand and others on a perch sus- 
pended from his neck ; in front, a little girl 
teasing one of the falcons, game, hounds, and 
pet dogs. Eoyal Academy, 1837. Engraved 
by Samuel Cousins. Landseer Gallery. 

gustus Wall Callcott, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 7 in. x 4 ft. 9 in. Dutch 
peasants, two girls on foot and a woman 
and child on ponies, fording a brook on 
their way home from the market-town, 
which is seen between the trees in back- 
ground. Eoyal Academy, 1834 ; Vernon 
Collection, 1847. Engraved by Finden ; J. 
Cousen. Cat. Nat. Gal.; Painters of Geor- 
gian Era, 76. 

VON, born at Rosthof, Livland, July 18, 
1794, died in Frankfort, March 22, 1865. 
History and genre painter, pupil in 1834 of 
Diisseldorf Academy under Schadow and 
Hildebrandt, after having served in the 
Eussian army and lost his right arm in the 
campaign of 1813 ; became court painter to 
Czar Nicolas I. in 1835 and settled in Frank- 
fort in 1844. Works : Page in Mediaeval 
Costume, Girl opening Jewelry Box (1835); 
Girl Knitting ; Children's School ; Domes- 
tic Devotions of Schwalmer Peasants ; 
Mother and Child praying at a Grave ; St. 
George issuing from Church Door ; Sacri- 
fice of Isaac (1849), Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Mother with Sleeping Child (3 times); 
Madonna, Girl under a Tree, Three Singers 
in a Boat (1858-59), Summer Palace at Zars- 
koe Selo ; Trinity, Crucifixion, Last Supper, 
Fall of Man, Temptation of Christ. Andre- 
sen, iii. 223. 

EEVOTL, PIEEEE, born at Lyons, June 
13, 1776, died in Paris, March 19, 1842. 
History and genre painter, pupil of David 
with Fleury Francois Richard, whom he 
greatly surpassed ; founder of the roman- 
tic school, which turned from the hack- 
neyed gods and heroes of antiquity to more 
appealing episodes in history. Happy in 
the choice of his subjects from the middle 
ages and renaissance, he combined with an 
attractive conception great care in repre- 
senting costumes and accessories with his- 
torical truthfulness, and a brilliant colour- 
ing. Became professor at Lyons Academy 
in 1809, but resigned in 1830 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1814 ; corresponding member of the 
Institute, 1825. Works: The Ring of 
Charles V. (1810), formerly in Luxembourg 
Museum ; The Tourney (1812), Lyons Mu- 
seum ; Convalescence of Bayard (1817) ; 
Jeanne d'Arc imprisoned at Eouen (1819) ; 
Jeanne d'Albret (1819), Fontainebleau Pal- 
ace ; Mary Stuart's Farewell of her Servants 
(1822); Tancred taking Possession of Beth- 
lehem in 1099 (1840), Philippe Auguste tak- 
ing the Oriflamme at Saint-Denis in 1190 



(1841), Versailles Museum ; Giotto as a Child 
(1841), Grenoble Museum ; Ransom of Chris- 
tians by the Trinitarians, Aix Museum. 
Bellier, ii. 367 ; Meyer, Gesek, 150 ; Nag- 
ler, xiii. 68. 

REX TIBICEN (King Flutist), Jean Louis 
G'ertime, private gallery, Paris. Frederick 
the Great, full-length, standing, playing the 
flute in his cabinet, before a table on which 
are a music book, writing implements, and 
papers. The floor is strewn with books 
and rolls and at the right a hound is lying 
asleep. Salon, 1876. 

REYN, JAN DE, born at Dunkirk in 
1610, died there in 1678. Flemish school ; 
history and portrait painter, pupil at Ant- 
werp of Van Dyck, whom ho followed to 
England, and assisted in bis works, until 
that master's death, when he returned to 
his native town. Very probably many of 
his works, especially portraits, are attrib- 
uted to his master. Works : The Four 
Chief Martyrs, St. Eloy's, Dunkirk ; Death 
of Totila, English Convent, ib. ; Herodias 
with the Head of St. John, St. Martin's, 
Bergues, near Dunkirk ; Thetis and Peleus, 
Madrid Museum ; Female Portrait (1637), 
Brussels Museum. Kramm, v. 1632. 

REYNOLDS, Sir JOSHUA, born at 
Plympton, Devonshire, 
July 16, 1723, died in 
London, Feb. 23, 1792. 
Son of Rev. Samuel 
Reynolds, master of the 
grammar school at 
Plymptou St. Mary, 
Plymouth. Went to 
London in 1741 as a 
pupil of Thomas Hud- 
son, and after less than two years' study 
returned home and painted many portraits 
at a low price. In 1746 he began practice 
in London, and in 1749 accompanied Com- 
modore (afterward Lord) Keppcl in the ship 
Centurion to the Mediterranean. At Rome, 
where he caught a cold while working in 
the Sistine Chapel, which made him deaf 
for the rest of his life, he remained two 

years ; he then visited other parts of Italy 
before returning to England via Paris, in 
October, 1752, and spent three months in 
Devonshire before settling in London, at 
first in St. Martin's Lane, where in 1763 he 
painted the portrait of Commodore Keppel 
(Collection of Lord Albemarle), which laid 
the foundation of his fortune. In 1768, on 
the establishment of the Royal Academy, 
he was chosen its first president, and was 
knighted by George HI.; and in 1769, Jan. 
2, he delivered his first discourse to the 
students of the Academy. On the deatli 
of Allan Ramsay (1784), he became princi- 
pal painter in ordinary to the king. He 
exhibited 245 works at the Royal Academy, 
his contributions averaging eleven annually. 
He died unmarried, and was buried in St. 
Paul's Cathedral, near Sir Christopher Wren. 
Reynolds painted many historical and fancy 
subjects, but it is as a portrait painter that 
he excelled all his contemporaries. Ruskiu 
calls him the " prince of portrait painters " 
and "one of the seven colourists of the 
1 world," placing him with Titian, Giorgione, 
f Correggio, Tintoretto, Veronese, and Tur- 
ner. But though his pictures still have a 
peculiar grace and elegance from the artis- 
tic pose of the figures and the happy ar- 
rangement of accessories, many of them 
have lost their freshness in consequence of 
his use of fading colours and his experi- 
ments with fugitive mediums. Among the 
best preserved of his works arc those in the 
National Gallery. A collection of Reynolds's 
works was exhibited in the winter of 1883- 
84 at the Grosvenor Gallery, London, in- 
cluding the following : Portrait of Sir Joshua 
(1748), Mrs. Gwatkin ; Mrs. Field (1748), 
I E. R Pearce, Esq.; Caricatures (1751), Duke 
of Devonshire ; Admiral Keppel (1753), Earl 
of Albemarle; Lord Cathcart (1754), Earl 
Cathcart; Lord Brownlow ; Lord Anson 
(1755), Earl of Lichfield ; Lady Cathcart 
and her Daughter (1755), Earl Cathcart; 
Alderman W. Beckford (1755), Duke of Ham- 
ilton ; Hon. W. Keppel (1758), Earl of Al- 
bemarle ; Duke of Hamilton (1758), Duke 



of Hamilton; Lady Caroline Fox (1758), 
Lady Holland; Hon. John Byron (1759), 
W. Byron, Esq.; 1st Marquis of Hertford 
(1759), Marquis of Hertford ; Earl of Sus- 
sex (1759), Lord Donington ; Marchioness 
of Tavistoek (1759), Earl of Albemarle ; 
Duchess of Gloucester (1759), Earl Walde- 
grave ; Lady Selina Hastings (1759), Lord 
Douington ; Venus and Cupid (1759), Lord 
Castletown ; 2 Portraits of Admiral Keppel 
(1860-G5), Lord Albemarle ; Miss Jacobs 
(1761), Marquis of Hertford ; Countess 
Waldegrave, Earl Waldegrave (17G1), Lord 
Carlingford; Lord Erroll (1763), Earl of 
Erroll ; Miss Abington as Miss Prue (1764), 
Sir Charles Mills ; Master T. Lisker (1764), 
Lord Eibblesdale ; Mrs. Collyer as Lesbia 
(1764), Sir W. Knighton ; Lady Ann Stan- 
hope (1765-66), Earl of Mesborough ; Earl 
of Pembroke and Son (1765), Earl of Pem- 
broke ; Lord Borringdon (1766?), Earl of 
Morley ; Warren Hastings (1766), Lord 
Northwick ; Marquis of Eockingham and 
his Secretary, Edmund Burke (1766), Sir 
Frederick Leigh ton, P.E.A.; Eev. Zachariah 
Mudge (17G6), Mrs. Gwatkin ; 2 Portraits 
of Sir Joshua's Black Servant (1767?), Et. 
Hon. George Cavendish Bentinck, and Sir 
George Beaumont ; Et. Hon. Sir John Cart 
(1767), Lord Brownlow ; Crossing the Brook 
(1767), Mrs. Buchanan Eiddell ; Lord Am- 
herst (1768 ?), Hon. Paive C. Glyn ; Garrick 
as Kitely (1768), L. Huth, Esq.; Duchess 
of Devonshire (1769), Earl Spencer ; Por- 
trait of Sir Joshua (1770), Dilettanti Soci- 
ety ; Mrs. Pelham (1770), Earl of Yarbor- 
ough ; Lord George Seymour (1770), Hon. 
G. S. Conway ; Miss Palmer (1770), G. W. 
Currie, Esq.; Bartolozzi (1771), Earl of 
Morley ; Venus chiding Cupid (1771), Earl 
Northbrook ; Duchess of Buccleuch and her 
Child (1772), Duke of Buccleuch ; Strawberry 
Girl (1773), Col. Copley Wray ; repetitions, 
Sir E. Wallace and Marquis of Lansdowne ; 
Nymph and Young Bacchus (1773), I. Bent- 
ley ; Lady Borringdon and her Sou (1773), 
Earl of Morley ; Joseph Baretti (1774), Lady 
Holland ; Mrs. Morris (1775), W. B. Beau- 

mont, Esq.; Infant St. John (1776), Sir 
Watkin W. Wynn ; 2d Earl of Spencer 
(1776), Earl Spencer; Lord Porchester as 
Infant Bacchus (1776), Earl of Carnarvon ; 
Young Fortune-Tetter (1777 ?), Duke of Marl- 
borough ; Countess of Powis (1777), Earl of 
Powis ; Two Groups of Members of Dilet- 
tanti Society (1777-79), Dilettanti Society ; 
Ariadne (1778), Th. Evans, Esq.; Earl of 
Dalkeith (1778), Duke of Buccleuch ; Lady 
Beaumont (1779), Sir G. Beaumont ; The 
Gleaners (1780), Eobert Gosling, Esq. ; 
Lord Cavendish (1780), Duke of Devon- 
shire ; Portrait of Sir Joshua (1780), Eoyal 
Academy ; Prince William Frederick (1780), 
Trinity Collection ; Miss Nesbitt as Circe 
(1781), Lady Stanley of Alderley ; The 
Three Ladies Waldegrave (1781), Lord Car- 
lingford ; Mrs. Thrale and her Daughter 
(1781), Lady Ashburton ; Hon. Mrs. Beck- 
ford (1782?); W. Beckford, M P. (1782), 
Duke of Hamilton ; Calling of Samuel (1782), 
Earl of Darnley ; Countess Spencer, Bich- 
ard Burke (1782), Earl Spencer ; Sir Abra- 
ham Hume (1783 ?), Earl Brownlow ; Miss 
Fanny Kemble (1783), Et. Hon. George 
Cavendish Beutinck ; Countess of Erroll 
(1783), Earl of Erroll; Infant Academy 
(1783), Lord Mount Temple; Girl with 
Dead Dove, Lord Houghton ; Marchioness 
of Thomond (1784), Mrs. Gwatkin; Lady 
Spencer and Child (1784), Earl Spencer ; 
Muscipula (1784), Lady Holland ; Lady Or- 
mond, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse 
(1784), Grosvenor House ; Adoration of the 
Shepherds (1785), Earl Fitzwilliam ; Duch- 
ess of Devonshire and her Child (1786), 
Duke of Devonshire ; Dr. Johnson (1786), 
Ch. Morrison, Esq.; Lady Cornwall (1786), 
Miss A. Duff Gordon ; Lady Anne Bingham 
(1786), Earl Spencer ; Felina (1787), Earl 
of Feversham ; Sir George Beaumont (1787), 
Sir G. Beaumont ; Miss Gwatkin as Sim- 
plicity (1788), E. F. Watson, Esq.; Portrait 
of Sir Joshua (1788), Mrs. Gwatkin ; Guard- 
ian Angel, Portrait of Sir Joshua (1788), 
Duke of Leeds ; Babes in the Wood (1788), 
H. N. Pym, Esq.; Infant Hercules (1788), 



Lord Northwick ; do., Earl Fitzwilliara ; 
View from Richmond Hill (1788), Earl of 
Northbrook ; Death of Dido, Cimon and 
Iphigenia (1789), Buckingham Palace ; Lady 
Francis Cole (1789), Earl of Darnley ; Sheri- 
dan? (1789), H. N. Pym, Esq.; Man's Head 
in Profile (1773), Holy Family, The Graces 
(1774), Banished Lord, Lord Heathfield, 
Hon. William Wyndham, Infant Kamuel, 
Lord Ligonier on Horseback, Sir A. Hume, 
Admiral Keppel (1780), Sir William Hamil- 
ton (1784), Aye of Innocence, Captain Orme, 
Heads of Angels (1787), Portraits of Two 
Gentlemen (1788-89), Snake in the Grass, 
Dr. Johnson, Bos well, Portrait of Sir Joshua, 
George TV. as Prince of Wales, Portrait of 
a Lady, Robinetta, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Mother and Sick Child, 2 Portraits 
of Sir Joshua, Death of Cardinal Beaufort, 
A Sketch, Prophet Samuel, Mrs. Siddons as 
the Tragic Muse, Dulwich Gallery ; Snake 
in the Grass, Soaue Museum and Baron 
Rothschild's Collection ; Lord Ashburton ; 
Earl of Bath ; Admiral Boscawen ; Earl 
Camden ; Sir W. Chambers ; Duke of Cum- 
berland ; Viscount Keppel ; Marquis of 
Lansdowne ; Portrait of Sir Joshua. Other 
noted works are : Kitty Fisher (1759), Hope 
nursing Love, Sleeping Girl, Lausdowue 
House ; Nellie O'Brien, Miss Bowler, Hert- 
ford House ; Death of Cardinal Beaufort, 
Macbeth and Witches, Lord Lecoufield, Pet- 
worth House ; Mrs. Barrington as St. Ce- 
cilia, Bowood ; Garrick between Tragedy 
and Comedy (1761), Sir W. W. Wynn ; 
Vgolino (1773), Earl Amherst, Knole Park ; 
.Picfc-a-Back (about 1779), Lord Monson ; 
Venus and Cupid, Continence of Scipio, 
Hercules strangling the Serpents (1788), 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Puck (1787), 
Earl Fitzwilliam ; Penelope Boothby (1788), 
Earl of Dudley. Sir Joshua was distin- 
guished also for literary ability. His "Dis- 
courses on Painting," which formed his an- 
nual addresses as head of the Academy, are 
admirably composed and excellent in their 
precepts. His sister, Frances Reynolds 
(1729-1807) painted miniatures and copied 

his pictures. Leslie and Tom Taylor, Life 
(London, 1865) ; Northcote, Memoirs (Lon- 
don, 1813) ; Farington, Memoirs (London, 
1819); Malone, Works of J. R (1801); Cot- 
ton, Sir J. R and his Works (1856) ; Cun- 
ningham ; Redgrave, Century ; Ch. Blnne, 
Ecolo anglaise ; Waagen, Art Treasures ; 
Quarterly Review, April, May, and July, 
18G6 ; Pulling, Biog. Great Artists ; Knight, 
Works of J. R (1798) ; Beechey, Literary 
Works, etc., of J. R (London, 1835) ; Ste- 
phens, English Children painted by J. R, 
witli 15 photos.; Portfolio (1873), 66, 82. 

trait, Titian, Spedalo Maggiore, Milan ; can- 
vas, figure to thigh, life-size. Painted in 
1558 ; left to the hospital by Rezzouico, a 
benefactor, at his death in 1584. Injured 
by cleaning and repairing. C. & C., Titian, 
ii. 266. 

born at Cassel in 1778 or 1782, died Sept. 
19, 1868. Landscape painter, studied in 
Rome, whither he returned in 1833, having 
been called to Cassel as court painter in 
1827. Works : View near Lake of Albano, 
Gotha Museum ; Italian Landscape with Pil- 
grim and Hermit ; Villa of Hadrian ; Con- 
vent of S. Benedetto near Subiaco. Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1842), 112 ; D. Kuustbl. (1858), 
285 ; Furster, iv., vii. ; v. 543 ; Riegel, 
Gesch. des Wiederauflebens der d. K., 124, 

RHOMBERG, HANNO, born in Munich 
in 1819, died at 
Walchsee, Tyrol, July 
17, 1869. Genre 
painter, son and pupil 
of Josef Anton Rhom- 
berg, then pupil of 
Munich Academy un- 
der Schnorr, and of 
Bcruhard ; was much 
influenced by Enhu- 
ber and rapidly won 
fame with his humorous scenes from every- 
day life. Works: Watchmaker, National 
Gallery, Berlin; Village Painter's Studio 


(1857) ; Votive Tablet (1858) ; Tight Boot, 
Best Scholar (1859) ; Punished for stealing 
Tid-Bits, Acrobats at Village Inn (1860) ; 
The Second Glass (1860) ; Sledge Carver 
(1861), Buying a Bird, First Trial in Smok- 
ing (1853), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Ink- 
Spot, Juggler (1861); Boy at Whetstone 
(1862) ; Badly Sewed Shoe, Mother's Er- 
rand (1863) ; Children begging Father to 
buy a Dog (1864); Little Patient, Breakfast 
in Tyrol (1865); Tavern Scene (1869); Buy- 
ing the Rabbits, R. L. Stuart, New York. 
D. Kunstbl. (1854), 6 ; (1856), 72 ; (1857), 
403 ; (1858), 226 ; Propyliien (1869), 720 ; 
Eegnet, ii. 93 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, v. 285. 

Dornbirn, Vorarlberg, in 1786, died in Mu- 
nich, Dec. 3, 1853. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Peter von Langer, and won first prize in 
1814 ; lived alternately in Vienna and Mu- 
nich, where he finally settled and became 
professor at the Polytechnic School in 1827. 
Works : Noah's Sacrifice (1814) ; Rebekah 
at the Well, Holy Family (1820) ; Sybilla 
(1822), Innsbruck Museum ; Death of Abel, 
Deluge, Swiss on the Riitli (1822) ; Adora- 
tion of Shepherds, Frauen- 
kirche, Munich; Chamois 
Hunter and Girl Cow-Keeper 
(1832), Leipsic Museum. 
Soltl, 251 ; Wurzbach, xxvi. 4. 

Castellon de la Plana, Valencia, between 
1550 and 1560, died in Valencia, Jan. 12, 
1628. Spanish school ; studied in Valencia 
and afterwards in Italy, where he was influ- 
enced by the works of Raphael, Sebastian 
del Piombo, and the Carracci. On his re- 
turn to Spain he was received with honour 
and patronage, and painted many pictures 
for the churches and convents of Valencia. 
His best works are remarkable for grandeur 
and freedom of drawing, good taste in com- 
position, and knowledge of anatomy. Among 
his best scholars were his son Juan, Grego- 
rio Castaneda, and Spagnoletto. Cean Ber- 
mudez gives a list of six pages of his works. 


Among the best are : Dead Christ and An- 
gels, St. Francis, Blessed Soul, Lost Soul, 
Madrid Museum ; St. Francis embracing 
Christ, Assumption, St. Peter the Apostle, 
Conception, St. John Baptist, and others, 
Valencia Museum ; The Virgin and St. John 
walking homeward from the Sepulchre, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; St. Joachim and St. 
Ann, Christ on the Cross (1582), The Magda- 
len at the Sepulchre, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. Stirling, i. 491 ; Viardot, Peintres 
de 1'Espagne, 145 ; Ch. Blanc, cole espa- 
gnole ; Madrazo, 520 ; C. Bermudez. 

RIBALTA, JUAN DE, born in Valencia 
in 1597, died there, Oct. 10, 1628. Spanish 
school ; son and pupil of Francisco de Ri- 
balta, and painted so nearly in his father's 
style that their works are often confounded. 
When only eighteen years old he painted 
the admirable Crucifixion, now in the Va- 
lencia Museum. Had he lived he would 
probably have taken rank among the most 
famous of Spanish painters. Works : SS. 
John and Matthew ; SS. Mark and Luke ; 
Singer, Madrid Museum ; Pope Gregory 
the Great celebrating Mass, Dresden Muse- 
um ; Jephtha's Sacrifice, Martyrdom of St. 
Catherine, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Stirling, i. 496 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole espagnole; 
Madrazo, 524. 

Rome, of Spanish parents, in 1812. Span- 
ish school ; history painter, son and pupil 
of Juan Antonio Ribera, then pupil of De- 
laroche in Paris, where he lived for many 
years. Medals : Paris, 3d class, 1839 ; 2d 
class, 1845. Works : Legislators of the 
Spanish Nation, Room of the Cortes, Ma- 
drid ; Tellez Giron rescuing Alfonso I. ; 
Apocalypse of St. John ; Virgin worshipping 
Infant Christ ; Mary Magdalen at Christ's 
Tomb ; Don Roderigo de Calderon led to 
Execution (1839); Assumption (1840); Bat- 
tle against the Moors at Toledo (1845) ; View 
of Notre Dame in Paris (1848) ; Origin of 
Los Girones Family (1855). Vapereau 
(1880), 1534. 

RIBERA, JUSEPE DE. See Spagnoletto. 



RIBEEA, ROMAN; contemporary. Genre 
painter. Works : Popular Paris Types, 
Vengan Penas ! Unforeseen Case, At the 
Theatre (1883); At Break of Day (1884). 
La Ilustracion (1883), L 26, 91, 210, 362 ; 
(1884), i. 26. 

ANTONIO, born in Madrid, May 17, 1779, 
died there, June 15, 1860. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Bayeu, and of San 
Fernando Academy, then in Paris of David ; 
afterwards went to Rome and in 1811 be- 
came court painter to Charles IV. and mem- 
ber of Accademia di S. Luca ; in 1820 hon- 
orary member of Academia S. Fernando ; 
lived at Navalcarnero from 1835, became 
professor in 1838, and afterwards second 
director of the Madrid Museum. Works : 
Cincinuatus, Wamba, Allegories of Summer, 
Autumn, Evening, Night, Madrid Museum ; 
St. Ferdinand surrounded by Famous Span- 
iards, Royal Palace, Madrid ; Paradise of 
Great Spaniards ; Christ crowned with 
Thorns, Resurrection, Aranjuez ; Portrait 
of Cardinal Ingranzo, Toledo Cathedral ; 
do. of Sculptor Jose- Alvarez. 

born at Breteuil 
(Eure), Aug. 8, 
1823. History, 
genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of 
Glaize. Style vig- 
orous, realistic, and 
somewhat coarse. 
Medals: 1864,1865; 
3d class, 1878 ; L. 
of Honour, 1878. 
Works : Cooks at Dinner Time, Merry Cook, 
Chickens Roosting (1861) ; Rooster's Song, 
Tinsmiths (1864) ; St. Sebastian (1865), 
Christ and the Doctors (1866), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Torture (1867), Rouen 
Museum ; Philosophers ; Lawyers and the 
Oyster (1868) ; Good Samaritan (1870), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Old Man (1882) ; 
Parchments, Artist's Daughter (1884); Pere 
Bresteau, Marie (1886) ; Artist's Children, 

Col. Erwin Davis, Now York. L'Art 
(1880), XXL 127 ; Bellier, ii. 370 ; Claretio 
(1874), 62, 110 ; Gaz. des 13. Arts (1869), L 

RICARD, GUSTAVE, born at Marseilles, 
Sept. 1, 1823, died in Paris, Jan. 23, 1872. 
Portrait painter, pupil of Cogniet ; took the 
great colourists of the Italian school and 
Van Dyck for his models. He excelled in 
rendering individual characteristica Med- 
als : 2d class, 1851 ; 1st class, 1852. Works : 
Madame Sabatier (1850) ; Marshal Comte 
Harispe, Versailles Museum ; Diodore Rn- 
hoult, painter, Grenoble Museum ; milo 
Loubon, painter, Marseilles Museum ; Male 
Portrait, Moutpellier Museum ; do., and 
Artist's Portrait, Luxembourg Museum. 
Bellier, ii. 371 ; Meyer, Gesch., 386. 

RICCI, CAMILLO, bom at Ferrara in 
1580, died there in 1618. Lombard school ; 
pupil and assistant of Scarsellino, whose 
manner ho followed so exactly that his 
works are sometimes confounded with his 
master's. Although he died young ho left 
enough pictures of merit to insure him on 
place among his 
Lanzi, iii. 209 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole ferrar- 

RICCI, MARCO, born at Bellunoin 1679, 
died in Venice in 1729. Venetian school ; 
nephew, pupil, and associate of Scbastiano 
Ricci, whom he accompanied in 1710 to 
France and England, where he painted 
landscapes and architecture pieces, to bo 
found in many collections. Thougli seldom 
without merit, these are little more than 
studies, executed, like the pictures of his 
uncle, in a slight and hasty way. In the 
Dresden Museum are ten of his landscapes. 
In Vienna: Landscape with Baptism of 
Christ, Museum ; Two Landscapes, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery. Ch. Blanc, Ecole vi'niti- 
enne ; Bartsch, xxi. 312. 

RICCI, SEBASTIANO, born at Cividale 
di Belluno in 1659, died in Venice, May 15, 
1734. Venetian school ; pupil in Venice of 



F. Cervelli, whom he accompanied to Milan ; 
resided several years in Florence, Rome, and 
other Italian cities, studying and executing 
many works. From Vienna, where he deco- 
rated the Palace of Schonbrunn, he went to 
England, in the reign of Queen Anne, and 
during a ten years' residence painted the 
chapel at Bulstrode for the Duke of Port- 
land, the hall of Burlington House, an altar- 
piece for the chapel of Chelsea College, and 
other works, some of which are at Hampton 
Court. In 1718 he returned to Venice, 
where he lived rich and honoured until his 
death. With a fertile invention and great 
facility of execution, Sebastiano excelled in 
imitating the great masters of the Venetian 
school, especially Paolo Veronese. There 
is much grandeur and force in his composi- 
tions, but they generally want finish ; per- 
haps because he had more orders than he 
had time to fill. Among his works in Ven- 
ice are : Christ appearing to the Holy Wom- 
en, Academy ; Resurrection, S. Geminiano ; 
Communion of the Apostles, and St. Domi- 
uick, Corpus Domini ; Massacre of the In- 
nocents, Scuola della Carita ; Baptism of 
Christ, and Apostles' Supper, Capucines ; 
Madonna with Saints, S. Giorgio Maggiore ; 
Discovery of the Cross, and Miracle of St. 
Francis, S. Rocco. Other works : Moses 
striking the Rock, Magdalen washing the 
Feet of Christ, Turin Gallery ; Ascension, 
SS. Apostoli, Rome ; Apostles adoring the 
Sacrament, S. Giustina, Padua ; Continence 
of Scipio, Polyxenes before the Tomb of 
Achilles, Louvre ; Venus Sleeping, National 
Gallery, London ; A Sacrifice, Similar Sub- 
ject, Ascension, Dresden Museum ; Tempta- 
tion of St. Anthony, Schleissheim Gallery ; 
Battle between Romans and Sabines, Rape 

of the Sabine 
/ 730 Women, Liech- 
' tenstein Gal- 

lery, Vienna. Ch. Blanc, Ecole venitienne. 

RICCIARELLI. See Volterra. 

RICCIO. See Brusasorci. 

RICCIO, portrait, Raphael, Munich Gal- 
lery ; wood, H. 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 4 in.; signed. 

Bust of a youth of the Riccio family, with 
straight hair falling from beneath a little 
black cap ; background, marble columns 
and a meadow with a wood. Long in pos- 
session of Riccio family, Florence ; bought 
from Trautmann, banker, by King Louis of 
Bavaria. Many of Michelangelo's letters are 
addressed to Luigi del Riccio, his intimate 
friend ; but whether this portrait is of that 
individual in his youth is not certain. Pas- 
savant, ii. 26. 

at Lyons, Feb. 25, 1777, died at Scully 
(Rhone), March 14, 1852. History and genre 
painter, pupil of David, and leader of the 
older romantic school of art in Lyons. L. 
of Honour, 1815 ; painter to the King, 1825 ; 
director of the Lyons School of Art, 1825. 
Works : St. Blandine (1801); Valentine de 
Milan (1802); Blind Man's Buff, Francis I, 
Charles VH. leaving Agnes Sorel (1804) ; 
Vert- Vert (1804), Lyons Museum; Bayard 
consecrating his Arms to the Virgin, St. 
Louis (1807); Henri IV. and Gabrielle d'Es- 
trt-es, Jacques Molay going to the Scaffold 
(1808) ; Funeral of Henri IV. in St. Denis, 
Louis XIV. and Mile, de la Valliere, Mile, de 
la Valliere as a Carmelite, Gil Bias and Can- 
on Sedillo (1814) ; Mary Queen of Scots ; 
Duchesse de Montmorency at the Monas- 
tery of Moulins (1817), Hermitage of Vau- 
couleurs (1819), formerly Luxembourg Mu- 
Montaigne visiting Tasso (1822), 
Lyons Museum ; Tanneguy-Duchatel saving 
the Dauphin ; Death 
of Talmont at Pavia 
(1823) ; Louis de la 
Tremouille (1824) ; Comminge and Adelaide 
(1846). Bellier, ii. 372 ; Larousse ; Meyer, 
Gesch., 150. 

RICHARD, THEODORE, born at Millau 
(Aveyron), Nov. 24, 1782, died at Toulouse, 
Dec. 10, 1859. Landscape and porcelain 
painter, pupil of Bertin, Aubry, and Ingres. 
Medals : 2d class, 1831 ; L. of Honour, 
1854. Works : Don Quixote and Sancho, 
River Tarn, Wood-Choppers, Crossing the 
Brook, Pic du Midi near Pau, Forest of 


Beeches, Castle of Roque, Mill of Creissels, 
Forest in Winter, Game-Keeper and Poach- 
er, Pau ; Sheep in a Pasture, Morning, Last 
Tree of the Forest, Hollow Roatl, Sunset 
(1831 to 1848) ; Woods in Autumn (1853); 
Spring, Leafless Oaks (1857) ; Torrent 
(1859) ; Three Landscapes, Herd March- 
ing, Bordeaux Museum ; Farm near Pau 
(1841), City and Chateau of Pau, Land- 
scape with Figures, Montpellier Museum ; 
Forest in the Mountains (1842), Orleans 
Museum. Bellier, ii. 373 ; Negrin, Ar- 
tistes vivants du Midi (Toulouse, 1857). 

RICHARD H., portrait, Jerusalem Cham- 
ber, Westminster, formerly in the Choir of 
the Abbey. The King on his throne. This 
precious and carefully painted portrait, 
which had been covered with several coats 
of paint, and converted into a different per- 
sonage, was cleaned and repaired by George 
Richmond and H. Merritt. Engraved in Car- 
ter's Specimens (1780-94). Geo. Scharf, 
Hist, of Old London, 285 ; Observations on 
the Westminster Abbey Portrait, reprinted 
from Fine Arts Quarterly (Jan. 1867). 

SAINTS, probably English, Wilton House, 
England ; diptych, wood, tempera ; assumed 
date, 1381. The King in a scarlet mantle 
embroidered with his badge (white hart), 
accompanied by SS. John Baptist, Edward 
the Martyr, and Edward the Confessor, 
kneels, in one panel, facing the Madonna 
and angels on the other. The Virgin is clad 
in deep blue, Christ in a mantle of cloth of 
gold, and the angels have blue wings and 
white hart badges. Charles I. obtained this 
picture from Sir T. Jermyn, and James H. 
(1688) gave it to Lord Castlemaine, at whose 
death it passed to 8th Lord Pembroke 
(1705). Engraved by Hollar (1C39) ; H. 
Shaw in "Dresses of the Middle Ages" (i. PI. 
43). Waagen thought it an Italian work. 
Arundel Soc. Chromolithograph, Essay by 
Geo. Scharf (1883) ; Athenaeum (March 17, 
1883) ; Waagen, Treasures, iii. 150. 

in London, Dec. 3, 1820. Landscape paint- 

er ; went, when a boy, to Georgia with hw 
parents, and removed thence, in 1845, to New 
York, where he has since lived, with the ex- 
ception of occasional trips to Europe. Pu- 
pil of National Academy in 1845-47 ; elect- 
ed an A.N.A. in 1848, N.A. in 1851 ; Los 
been corresponding secretary since 1852. 
He was the first director of the Cooper Un- 
ion School of Design for Women in 1858-GO ; 
since 1867, professor of art in University of 
New York. Studio in New York. Works : 
Alastor, or the Spirit of Solitude, Mr. Wool- 
sey, New Haven ; Indian Paradise (1854) ; 
Edisto River, French Broad River (1859) ; 
Rhine, Warwick Castle (1869); LakeWinni- 
piseogee ; Chatsworth England ; Lake 
Thun Switzerland ; Sunnyside ; Lake Bri- 
enz Switzerland (1879); Squantum Road 
Providence, Meadow Brook, At Hunt's Mill 
Providence (1880); Dingman Creek Pa., 
Lilacs (1881) ; Flower of the Period, Mar- 
shal Niel Roses (1882); Pennsylvania Home- 
stead, Van Elton's Peak Delaware River 
(1883); Ferry Road at Dingman, In the Val- 
ley of the Delaware, Basket of Roses (1884); 
Mountain Brook, Delaware River (1885) ; 
Midsummer on the Delaware, River Road at 
Dingman's Ferry (188G). 

Philad elphia, Pa. , Nov. 
14, 1833. Landscape 
and marine painter, 
pupil of Paul Weber, 
a German artist in 
Philadelphia. In 1855 
visited Florence, in 
18G6-C7 France and 
Germany, and in 1878 
-79-80 London and 
the coast of England. 
Exhibited at Royal Academy, London, in 
1869 and 1878-81*; Paris Salon, 1873. Hon- 
orary member of National Academy. Med- 
als : Philadelphia, 1876 ; Temple, 1885. 
Works in oil: Wood Scene (1861); Leafy 
June (1862); June Woods (1864); Mid- 
Ocean ; New England Coast ; At Atlantic 
City (1873); Yellow Cam at Cornwall (1879) ; 



On the Wissahickon, Indian Summer, C. P. j 
Huntington, New York ; Portsmouth Light | 
New Hampshire, J. J. Astor, ib.; Forest, 
Wissahickon, Land's End Cornwall, G. 
Whitney, Philadelphia ; Atlantic Coast, Fair- 
man Rogers, ib. ; Narragansett Pier, K. C. 
Taft, Providence ; Sea Shore, Charles Par- 
sons, St. Louis; do., Daniel Catlin, ib.; 
Trebar with Strand Cornwall (1881) ; G. 
Schwabe, Henley on Thames ; Marine View 
(1882) ; On the Coast of New Jersey (1883), 
Corcoran Gallery, Washington ; Wild New 
England Shore (1884); Trevalga Head- 
Cornwall, England (1885); Summit of Mount 
Tacoma (1886). Water-colours : 47 Land- 
scapes and Marine Views (1871-76), Metro- 
politan Museum, New York ; Marine At- 
lantic City, T. B. Clarke, New York ; South- 
west Point Conanicut ; Gooseberry Island 
Newport ; Gull Kock ib., Limits of the 
Unresting Sea (1884). 

1665, died in London, May 28, 1745. Por- 
trait painter, pupil of John Riley ; ranked, 
after the death of Kneller and Dahl, at the 
head of his profession. His heads are in- 
dividual and characteristic, but his full- 
lengths are weak. Among his best known 
portraits are those of Anne Oldfield, Pope, 
Prior, Steele, Vertue, and Lord Chancellor 
Talbot, National Portrait Gallery, London ; 
Pope and his Dog Bounce, Lord Lyttleton. 
He was also distinguished as the author of 
" An Essay on the whole 
Art of Criticism in rela- 
tion to Painting " (1719), 
" An Argument in be- 
half of the Science of a 
Connoisseur" (1719), 
and other works. His son, 
Jonathan (1694-1771), 
was an amateur portrait painter and often 
assisted him in his labours. Redgrave ; 
F. de Conches, 84 ; Portfolio (1872), 66. 

RICHMOND, GEORGE, born in 1809. 
Portrait painter, pupil of Royal Academy ; 
elected an A.R.A. in 1857, and R.A. in 1867. 
Has painted a few ideal pictures, such as 

Christ's Agony in the Garden (1858), and 
Scene from Comus (1864), but he owes his 
reputation to his 
more than 3,000 por- 
traits, among which 
are those of the Earl 
of Elgin (1860), Bish- 
op of Oxford, Duke 
of Buccleugh (1865), 
Dr. Keble, Sir R. H. 
Inglis, Sir Moses 
Montefiore (1875) ; 
Earl Granville, Bishop of Carlisle, Marchion- 
ess of Salisbury (1877). 

RICHMOND, WILLIAM B.; contempo- 
rary. History and portrait painter, and 
sculptor, son of George Richmond, and pu- 
pil of Sir Frederick Leighton. Gold medal, 
Berlin, 1886. Works : Electra at Tomb of 
Agamemnon (1877) ; Phidyle, Sarpedon 
(1879) ; Calves, Song of Miriam (1880) ; Be- 
hold the Bridegroom Cometh (1881) ; Re- 
lease of Prometheus (1882) ; May (1884) ; 
Audience in Athens during the Representa- 
tion of the Agamemnon (1885), Birming- 
ham Gallery ; Cicely Worinald, Hermes 
(1886). Among his portraits are those of 
Princess Louise, Gladstone, Darwin, Brown- 
ing, William Morris, Holman Hunt, and 
Lord Lyttleton. 

RICHOMME, JULES, born in Paris, 
Sept. 9, 1818. His- 
tory and portrait 
painter, son of the 
engraver Joseph 
Theodore Richom- 
me, pupil of Droll- 
ing. Paints relig- 
ious subjects chief- 
ly, in a cold and 
correct style. Med- 
als : 3d class, 1840 ; 
2d class, 1842, 1862, 1863 ; L. of Honour, 
1867. Works : Abraham taking Hagar as 
his Wife (1842) ; St. Sebastian saved by 
Holy Women (1843) ; Incredulity of St. 
Thomas (1845) ; Christ appearing to St. 
Martin, St. Peter's Repentance, Leda (1848); 


Erigone, King of Garb's Betrothed (1849) ; 
View of St Peter's in Rome, Lamentano 
Bridge, Tower of Cervaro, Mary Magdalen's 
Conversion (1850) ; Italian Beggar Woman 
(1852) ; Christ healing the Paralytic, Love 
fleeing from Drunkenness (1853, bought by 
State); Christ healing a Sick Woman (1855); 
St. Nicholas saving the Sick (1857) ; Christ 
and the Children, Young Mother (1861) ; 
St. Peter of Alcantara healing a Child (1864), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Baptism of Christ 
(1865), Prefecture de la Seine, Paris ; Be- 
heading of John Baptist (1866), Besanyon 
Museum ; Christ on the Cross (1868), Pa- 
lais de Justice ; Castle in Spain (1870); For- 
get-Me-Not (1872) ; Education of Achilles 
(1873); Don't awaken a Sleeping Cat, Toilet 
(1874) ; First Lesson on the Violin (1875) ; 
Dove (1876) ; Arab Woman, Chinese Doll 
(1877) ; The Feast in the Pharisee's House 
(1882) ; Around the Fountain (1884) ; Port 
de la Joliette (1886) ; Ignorance is Bliss, j 
Mrs. D. D. Colton, San Francisco ; decora- 
tions in St. Vincent de Paul and St. Suverin, 
Paris, and in other churches. Bellier, ii. 376. 

Richter ; went in 1820 with Prince Narisoh- 
kin through France to Nice, travelled and 
studied afterwards in 
the German Alps, and 
in 1823-26 in Italy. 
Appointed instructor 
in drawing at the por- 
celain factory in Meis- 
sen in 1828; called to 
the Dresden Academy 
in 1836, and professor 
there in 1841-76. 
Has illustrated many works. Ph.D., Leipsio 
University ; honorary member of Berlin, Mu- 
nich, and Vienna Academies ; Commander, 
Saxon Order of Albert ; Order of Francis Jo- 
seph ; Bavarian Order of Michael. Works : 
The Watzmann at Sunset (1824) ; Valley of 
Amain, View near Roccadi Mezzo (1823-26); 
Lauterbrunn Valley ; Views in the Campa- 
gna and in the Apennines ; Ariccia, Civitella 
(1827) ; Storm on Monte Serrono near Ole- 
vano (1830), Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; Ferry 
at the Schreckenstein near Aussig (1837), 
Spring Landscape with Bridal Procession 

RICHTER, ADOLF, born at Thorn in I (1847), Dresden Gallery; View in Sabine 
1816, died at Ddsseldorf, Nov. 20, 1852. Mountains (1825), Valley near Amalfi (1826), 
Genre painter, pupil of Academy at DUssel- 1 The Schreckenstein near Aussig( 1835), Even- 
dorf, where he settled, and became very ] ing Landscape with Worshippers (1842), 
popular with well composed and effectively Harvest Procession in Roman Campagna, 
coloured scenes from home life, especially i Leipsic Museum ; View in the Riesenge- 
such as introduced children. Works : Christ- birge (1839), National Gallery, Berlin ; Rich- 
mas Eve (1837) ; Vintage on the Moselle ter Album. Hoff, A L Richter (Frankfort, 
(1839) ; do. on the Rhine (1840) ; Hessian 1877) ; Jahn, Biogr. Aufsiitze ; Richter, Le- 

Emigrants on Seashore (1841) ; Souvenir of 
Cologne Carnival (1841); Sunday Afternoon 

benserinnerungen ; Wessely, Ad. L. R (Vi- 
enna, 1883) ; Allgcm. K. C., viii. 531, 573 ; 

in the Country (1842) ; Morning on the Ahr j Brockhaus, xiii. 693 ; Fr.rster, v. 434 ; II- 
(1846) ; Last Comfort (1847) ; The Fifth | lustr. Zeitg. (1883), ii. 266 ; Jordan (1885), 
Child (1848) ; Children's Breakfast (1849) ; i ii. 182 ; Reber, ii. 261 ; Graph. K, vi 1 ; D. 
Rhenish Village Life (1850) ; Return of ' Kunstbl. (1850), 407 ; (1851), 208, 410 ; 
Landwehrruann (1851) ; Before the Village (1852), 12 ; (1853), 251 ; (1855), 131, 390 ; 

School (1852). Wolfg. Muller, Ddsseldf. 
K., 268 ; Wiegrnann, 316. 

in Dresden, Sept. 28, 1803, died at Losch- 
witz, near Dresden, June 19, 1884. Land- 
scape and genre painter and illustrator, son 

(1856), 451 ; Kuiist-Chronik, xix. 605, 645 ; 
Kunst f. Alle, i. 47 ; Mflller, 437 ; Pecht, L 
57 ; Land und Meer (1869), i. 171 ; Zeitsohr. 
f. b. K, x. 257 ; xviii. 377 ; xxi. 36 ; xii. 
(Mittheilungen, v. 1). 
RICHTER, AUGUST, born at Dresden, 

and pupil of the engraver Karl August June 3, 1801, died at Pirna, Nov. 19, 1873. 


History painter, pupil of Dresden Academy, 
then in DUsseldorf under Cornelius, for 
whom he painted in fresco one of his wall 
pictures at Helldorf. Spent several years 
in Italy, and became professor in Dresden 
Academy. His style suggests Kaphael ; sud- 
denly he fell into mannerism, and soon af- 
ter became insane. Works : Hagar and Ish- 
mael in the Wilderness, Dresden Museum ; 
Kebekah and Eliezer, Weimar Museum. 
Forster, v. 421 ; Nagler, xiii. 134. 

EICHTEE, EDOUARD, born in Paris ; 
contemporary. Genre and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Hubert and Bonnat. Works : 
News at the Studio (18G8); Waiting (1870); 
At the Fortune-Teller's, Baby's Photograph 
(1875) ; The Slave's Narrative (187G) ; Veil 
Dance (1877) ; Jewess of Morocco (1880) ; 
Othello, Salome (1881); Harem in Old Gra- 
nada (1883) ; Sultana going to the Bath, 
Young Girl with Narghileh (1884) ; Nym- 
phea lotus (1885); Bazaar in Tunis, Jewess 
of Algiers (1886). In United States : Ju- 
dith, B. Wall, Providence ; Gallery of the 
Louvre, J. H. Stebbins, New York ; In the 
Cathedral, W. B. Bement, Philadelphia ; 
Love Song, T. M. Scott, San Fi-ancisco. 

RICHTER, GUSTAV, born in Dessau, 
May 12, 1847. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Berlin Academy (18G3-G8) and of Max 
Schmidt, then studied from nature, travel- 
ling in Middle Germany ; paints chiefly 
mountain landscapes. W T orks : Group of 
Black Poplars on the Elbe, Ducal Palace, 
Dessau ; Forest Border ; Castle Giessmanns- 
dorf (1873); Landscape in Hartz Mountains 
(1874) ; Entrance into Bode Valley (1876). 

born in Berlin, Aug. 31, 1823, died there, 
April 3, 1884. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Berlin Academy under Ed uard Hol- 
bein, and in Paris (1844-46) of Coguiet ; 
studied in Rome in 1847-49, visited after- 
wards France and Italy repeatedly, Egypt 
in 1861, and the Crimea in 1873. One of 
the most successful portrait painters of 
modern times. Member of and professor 
in Berlin Academy ; honorary member of 

Munich and Vienna Academies. Medals : 
Berlin, Paris (1855, 1857, 1859), Brussels, 
Vienna (1873), Phila- 
delphia (1876), Mu- 
nich (1883); Order 
pour le merite. 
Works: Portrait of his 
Sister(1852); Daugh- 
ter of Jairus (1856), 
National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Baldur, The 
Walkyrieg, Walhalla, 
New Museum, ib.; Building of the Pyramids 
(1859-73), Maximiliaueum, Munich ; Fe- 
male Portrait (1852) ; do. (1856) ; Portrait 
of Painter Hoguet (1862) ; do. of him- 
self (1862-G4) ; do. of Eduard Hildebrandt 
(1865), Dantzic Museum ; Egyptian Girl, 
Odalisque, Neapolitan Fisher-Boy, Egyptian 
Dancers (1870) ; Pygmalion ; Gypsy Girls 
in the Crimea (1873) ; Sultan Abdul Aziz 
(1867) ; Count and Countess Koberinsky ; 
Princess Carolath (1872) ; Duchess of Ed- 
inburgh ; Duchess Marie of Mecklenburg 
(1874) ; Hon. George Bancroft ; Artist with 
Boy, Artist's Wife with Younger Child 
(1874); Banker's Wife (1876); Emperor Will- 
iam (187G, 1877); Empress Augusta, Count- 
ess Karolyi (1878) ; Prince Pless ; Queen 
Louise (1879), Cologne Museum ; Countess 
Donhoff ; General Count von Blumenthal 
(1883), National Gallery, Berlin. Allgem. 
K. C., viii. 446, 902 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1884), 
i. 338 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 182 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, v. 83 ; ix. 712 ; x. 51 ; xiii. 2 ; xiv. 5 ; 
xix. 442, 541 ; Leixner, Mod. K., i. 87 ; ii. 
43 ; Miiller, 438 ; Eosenberg, Berl. Maler- 
seh., 191 ; D. Rundschau, ix. 471 ; xiii. 327 ; 
xvii. 303 ; xx. 461, 463 ; xxi. 148 ; Land und 
Meer (1872), i. 23 ; (1880), i. 47 ; (1884), ii. 
710 ; Westermann's Monatshefte, liii. 40, 
168 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., vi. 92, 105. 

RICHTER, WILHELM, born in Vienna 
in 1820. Genre, battle, and animal painter, 
pupil of Vienna Academy. Works : Girl 
before Shrine (1838) ; View from St. Mi- 
chael; Street Sweeper (1839); Uhlans March- 
ing ; Storming of a Church (1844) ; Sally 


from a City (1845) ; Attack of French Cav- 
alry (1846) ; Death of Hensel at Malbor- 
ghetto (1847) ; Piedmonteao Prisoners of 
War (1858); Dragoons in a Skirmish (18C5); 
Equestrian Portrait (1870) ; Horses at Past- 
ure (1870) ; Kennel (1871) ; Royal Hunt in 
Hungary (1882). Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 87 ; 
xix. 518 ; Wurzbach, xxvi. 65. 

RICO, MARTIN, born in Madrid ; con- 
temporary. Architecture painter, pupil of 
Federico de Madrazo, then studied in Paris 
and Rome. Medals : Paris, 3d class, 1878 ; 
L. of Honour, 1878. Works : Doge's Pal- 
ace in Venice, Samuel Hawk Collection, 
New York ; Grand Canal Venice, Miss C. 
L. Wolfe, ib. ; Italian Garden, Metropolitan 
Museum, ib. ; Court Interior Granada, 
Boating Party in Bois de Boulogne, Washer- 
women at Poissy, The Seine at Poissy, J. H. 
Stebbins, ib. ; On the Seine, Morris K. Jes- 
up, ib. ; Ferry of San Stefano Venice, C. L. 
Smith, ib.; Ancient Convent Walls near Se- 
ville, On the Seine, R. L. Cutting, ib.; Ven- 
ice, Canal near Poissy, A. J. Drexel, Phila- 
delphia ; The Seine, Alex. Brown, ib. ; Canal 
in Venice, Boric Collection, ib. ; Gathering 
Oranges at Toledo, Venice, W. T. Walters, 
Baltimore ; Entrance to Canale Grande 
Venice, H. L. Dousman, St. Louis ; Village 
of Bougival, Daniel Catlin, ib. ; Bridge of, 
Toledo (1883) ; S. M. del Giglio in Venice 
(1884). La Ilustracion (1883), i. 2 ; ii. 307 ; 
(1884), i. 267. 

AS, born in Ulm, 
Feb. 16, 1698 (Feb. 
15, 1695 ?), died in 
Augsburg, April 10, 
1767. German 
school ; animal and 
landscape painter, 
pupil in Ulin of 
Christoph Resch 
and in Augsburg of 
Johann Falk, then 
lived for three years in Ratisbon ; returned 
to Augsburg, where he was much influenced 
by Rugendas, and in 1759 became director of 

the Academy. Unsurpassed in tho reprewn- 
tation of wild animals. Works : Three Stags, 
Grosvenor Gallery, London ; Stag pursued 
by Dogs, Cassel Gallery ; Stag Resting (2), 
FUrstenberg Gallery, Donaueschingen ; Two 
Bears in a Wilderness (1710), Schwerin Gal- 
lery; Pheasant Hunt at 
Night, Weimar Museum. 
Ch. Blanc, colo alle- 
maude ; Kugler (Crowe) ; 
Nagler, xiii. 160; N. Bibli- 
othek der Wisseuschaften, ii. 137 ; Thiene- 
mann, Leben (Leip., 1856); Weyennann, 437. 
RIEDEL, AUGUST, born at Baireuth, 
Dec. 27, 1802, died in 
Rome, Aug. 8, 1883. 
Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Mu- 
nich Academy under 
Peter von Langer; 
went in 1828 to Rome, 
where he adopted a 
manner differing wide- 
ly from the academic 
style, and excelling in brilliancy of colour- 
ing, which made his pictures very popular. 
Was member of and professor in Accademia 
di S. Luca in Rome, member of Berlin, Mu- 
nich, Vienna, and St. Petersburg Academies. 
Works : Sakuntala, Medea, Stuttgart Gal- 
lery ; Girls Bathing, Two Albanian Women 
(1838), National Gallery, Berlin ; Child and 
Nurse (1865), Raczynski Gallon-, ib.; Wom- 
en of Albano, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Vit- 
toria d'Albano, Wittelsbach Palace, Munich ; 
Neapolitan Fisher Family (1834), Judith 
(1840), Young Girl in Mother's Lap (1848), 
Portrait of Carl Rottmann (1827), five other 
portraits (1831, 1842, 1865), New Pinako- 
thek, ib.; Roman Woman ; Bayadere (1862); 
Neapolitan Mother by tho Sea ; Bacchante, 
Sappho, Herodias, Sakuntala, King of Wflr- 
trmberg's Collection ; Puck ; Cupid and 
Psyche feeding Nightingales ; Beautiful 
Stella ; Agrippina with Ashes of Germani- 
cus ; Rezia ; Spring ; Angel of Light ; The 
Peri ; Love among the Roses, J. J. Astor, 
New York; Italian Woman, August Bel- 


mont, ib.; many portraits. Allgem. K. 
C., viii. 491, 902 ; Brockhaus, xiii. 690 ; 

ACotta's Kunstbl. (1844), 105 ; D. 
Kunstbl. (1851), 139 ; (1853), 427 ; 
(1857), 39 ; Mailer, 439 ; Land 
und Meer (1880), i. 499. 

Dobling, near Vienna, Sept. 30, 1796, died 
in Vienna, Sept. 8, 1880. History, genre, 
and portrait painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy, and afterwards professor ; in 1857 be- 
came custodian of the Belvedere Gallery ; 
visited Tyrol and North Italy in 1830, Flor- 
ence and Rome in 1833. Works : Christ on 
Mount of Olives ; St. Rosalia (1820); Lily of 
St. Leonard (1841), Vienna Museum ; Mary 
Stuart taking Farewell of her Ladies (1843); 
Scene from Walter Scott's Prison of Edin- 
burgh (1844) ; Portrait of Franz Schubert ; 
Emperor Francis I., Gratz University. D. 
Kunstbl. (1857), 325 ; Wurzbach, xxvi. 107. 

born at Constance, Jan. 22, 1829. Land- 
scape painter, pupil in Carlsruhe (1856-G1) 
of J. W. Schirmer, then lived for some time 
in Strasburg and Frankfort, and settled in 
Stuttgart in 18G4. Medals : Carlsruhe and 
London. Baden court painter since 1873. 
Works : Heidenlocher on Ueberling Lake ; 
Charcoal-Burner's Hut ; View on the Ko- 
nigssee ; do. on Lake Constance ; do. near 
Berchtesgaden ; do. near Strasburg (1875) ; 
Stuttgart Museum ; Italian Landscapes ; 
Views in Grand-ducal Garden at Carlsruhe. 
Miiller, 440 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex. , xviii. 821. 

strelitz, Mecklenburg, 
Aug. 15, 1827. Land- 
scape and figure paint- 
er, pupil of Berlin 
AcademyunderF. W. 
Schirmer ; studied 
nature on Isle of Rii- 
gen, afterwards visit- 
ed Middle Germany, 
the banks of the 
Rhine, Tyrol, Switzerland, and Rome (1869); 
was professor at the Carlsruhe Art School 

in 1870-73, and director in 1875-77 ; settled 
in Munich in 1878. Excels in harmonious 
combinations of landscape scenery with fig- 
ures. Member of and professor in Berlin 
Academy ; honorary member Munich Acad- 
emy, 1881. Gold medal : Berlin, 1864 ; 
Vienna, 1873. Works: Northern Heath; 
Coast of Rilgen ; Westphalian Village 
Church ; Procession of Capuchins ; Mourn- 
ing Assembly in Appenzell, Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; Similar subject, Wiesbaden Gallery ; 
Bridal Procession in Passeyer Valley ; Re- 
turn from Baptism ; Pilgrimage in the Moun- 
tains ; In the Refectory ; Shepherds' Devo- 
tions in the Fields (1864), All Souls' Day 
(1869), National Gallery, Berlin ; Funeral 
Procession in Front of Pantheon (1871), 
Dresden Gallery ; Blessing of the Alps 
(1881) ; Missionaries in Rhatia (1884) ; 
Child's Burial in Passeyer (Jubilee Exhibi- 
tion, Berlin, 1886) ; Wedding Procession in 
Tyrol, J. J. Astor, New York ; do., Israel 
Corse, ib. ; Chapel in Tyrol, D. H. McAlpin, 
ib. ; Return from Christening, Mrs. Wils- 
tach, Philadelphia. Allgem. K. C., viii. 942 ; 
Brockhaus, xiii. 700 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1863), 
i. 96 ; Jordan, 250 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 8, 
380 ; xix. 644, 661 ; Miiller, 440 ; D. Rund- 
schau, ix. 477 ; xiii. 336 ; Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 348 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iv. 117 ; 
v. 123 ; vi. 175 ; xx. 76. 

RIEGER, ALBERT, born in Vienna; con- 
temporary. Landscape painter ; has trav- 
elled in Europe and the East. Works : Ru- 
ins of Mosque in Greece, Storm on Coast 
of Dalmatia, Sunset, Coast View in Istria, 
Eddystone Lighthouse in Stormy Night, 
do. at Sunrise, Storm in the Tropics (1871- 
72); Waterfall in the Pryenees(1872); Rainy 
W T eather on the Danube ; Summer Even- 
ing near Florence (1874) ; Ruins of Athens 
(1878) ; Polar Night in Spitzbergen (1880) ; 
Castle Hohenbaden, Queen Waldlieb (1881); 
Shipwreck on Norwegian Coast (1882). 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1873), ii. 16 ; (1875), ii. 383 ; 
(1878), ii. 271 ; (1881), ii. 369, 378 ; (1882), 
ii. 465 ; (1883), i. 293 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii.; 
Wurzbach, xxvi. 133. 


RIENZI, Holman Hunt, private gallery, 
England. Rienzi vowing to revenge his 
brother's death. Painted in 1849 ; Hunt's 
first Pre-Raphaelite picture. 

HANN, born in 
Gottingen in 1786 
and 1788, died in 
Rome, Franz, Jan. 
3, 1831, Johann, 
Sept. 17, 1860. His- 
tory painters, sons 
of and first instruct- 
ed by the engraver 
Ernst Riepenhau- 
sen, then studied 
under W. Tischbein in Gottingen and in 
Cassel (1804), and after Hartmann's draw- 
ings from Pre-Raphaelite masters in Dres- 
den (1805), where they embraced Catholi- 
cism ; returned to Gottingeu, and weut in j 
1807 to Italy. In 1810 they published a 
history of painting in Italy. The portrait 
is of Johann Riepenhausen. Works : The 
Minstrel (after Goethe); Maiden from Afar 
(after Schiller) ; Magnificat ; Casting off of 
Hagar; Christ blessing Children (1819), 
Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Madonna and 
St. John (1820), Schwerin Gallery ; View 
of Rome (1820) ; Legend of St. Elizabeth 
(2,1821) ; Raphael's Vision (1822), Raczyn- 
ski Gallery, Berlin ; Conradin hearing his 
Death Sentence ; Henry the Lion defending 
Barbarossa in Rome (1825), Royal Palace, I 
Hanover. By Johann : Duke Erich saving i 
Emperor Maximilian's Life in Battle of Re- 
gensburg (1834); First Communion of Girls j 
in Rome ; Cupid as Musician ; Madonna j 
and St. John, New Pinakothek, Munich ; Cu- j 
pid and Psyche (1835), Provinzial Muse- 
um, Hanover ; Raphael's Death, Apparition 
(1836) ; Charity, Cupid instructing Two 

Girls in Love, Duke Ernst of Brunswick J 
interceding for Prisoners (1837) ; Beatrix ', 

before Emperor Otto IV. (1838); Extinction 
of Cenci Family (1839); Poetry, Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg. Andresen, iii. 86 ; Brockhaua, 
xiiL 702 ; Furster, iv. 232 ; N. Necrol. d. D. 
(1831), 38 ; Reber, i. 325 ; Riegel, Gesch. 
des Wiederauflebens der d. K, 258. 

born in Paris, Jan. 21, 1808, died in 1878. 
Figure and portrait painter, pupil of his 
father, Henri Francois Riesener (portrait 
painter, 1767-1828), and of Gros. Medals : 
3d class, 1836 ; 2d class, 1855, 1864 ; L. of 
Honour, 1873. Works : Flora, Bacchante 
(1836) ; Egyptian Girl and Nurse (1855) ; 
Idyl in Normandy (1863) ; Erigone (1864), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Bacchus and Ari- 
adne, Awaking, The Toilette (1875) ; Brook 
in the Wood ; Country Pleasures. Bellier, 
ii. 379 ; Meyer, Gesch., 286. 

RIESER, MICHAEL, bom at Schlitters, 
Tyrol, Sept. 6, 1828. History painter, pu- 
pil of Munich (1848-50) and Vienna (1852- 
61) Academies, at the latter under Ruben, 
then studied for three years after the old 
masters in Florence, Rome, and Venice. 
Member of Vienna Academy in 1864 ; pro- 
fessor at Industrial Art School in Vienna 
since 1868. Works : Holy Family (1858) ; 
Baptism of Christ ; Death of St. Weuces- 
laus (1859) ; Eve of Nativity, Prague Gal- 
lery ; many cartoons for church glass-paint- 
ings. Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 511 ; Mflller, 
440 ; Wurzbach, xxvi. 148. 

Hoorn in 1652, died there in 1719. Dutch 
school ; marine painter, pupil of Backhuy- 
zen, whose style he imitated very skilfully. 
Works : Calm Sea, Stormy Sea, Amsterdam 
Museum. Kugler (Crowe), ii. 505. 

RIGAUD, HYACINTHE, born at Per- 
pignan, July 18, 1659, died in Paris, Dec. 29, 
1743. French school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Pezet, Verdier, and Ranc ; 
won grand prix in 1682, but, by Le Brun's 
advice, instead of going to Rome, devoted 
himself to portrait painting, in which he be- 
came a master. Member of Academy, 1700 ; 
professor, 1710 ; rector, 1733 ; Order of St 



Michael, 1727. Works : Cain building the 
City of Enoch (1C82) ; Crucifixion (1G84) ; 
Presentation in the 
Temple, St. Andrew, 
Portrait of Louis 

XIV. (1701), Philip 
V. of Spain, Bossuet 
(1705), Le Brun and 
Mi guard, Cardinal 
Polignac, and nine 
others, Louvre ; 
Louis XIV., Louis 

XV. (4, two dated 
1715, 1730), Mignard, Portrait of him- 
self, twelve others, Versailles Museum ; 
Pierre Puget, Amiens Museum ; Saint-Si- 
mon, Bishop of Metz, Marshal Noailles, 
Grenoble Museum ; Louis XIV., Metz Mu- 
seum ; Fontenelle, Montpellier Museum ; 
Marshal Turenne, Nimes Museum ; Louis 
XV., Rouen Museum ; Philip of Orleans, 
Eacine, Toulouse Museum ; Louis XIV., 
Valenciennes Museum ; others in Museums 
at Chartres, Douai, Lyons (2), Nantes, Or- 
leans, Strasburg, Basle, Geneva, Zurich (2); 
Sculptor Bogaert, Berlin Museum ; Portrait 
of himself, Cassel Gallery ; Cardinal Fleury, 
Knight of St. Michael, Darmstadt Museum ; 
Augustus III. of Poland, Dresden Museum ; 
Louis XPV., Madrid Museum ; Fontenelle, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Bossuet, Por- 
trait of himself, Uffizi, Florence ; Cardinal 
Fleury, National Gallery, London ; others 
in Bamberg and Carlsruhe (2) Galleries ; 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Museum (2), 
Liechtenstein (1740) and Czernin Galleries, 
Vienna ; Naples Museum ; Historical Soci- 
ety, New York (2). His brother Gaspard 
(born at Perpignan, baptized June 1, 1661, 

/ iLy 


died in Paris, March 27, 1705), was also a 
portrait painter of merit, several of whose 

works are probably attributed to his more 
famous brother. Bellier, ii. 381 ; Ch. Blanc, 
tfcole franyaise ; Dohme, 3 ; Houssaye, 140 ; 
Jal, 1062 ; Mi'moirs inedits, ii. 114 ; Nagler, 
xiii. 179 ; Wurzbach, Fr. Mai. des XVIH. 
Jahrh., 6. 

rin, Italy, May 18, 1742, died at Packing- 
ton, England, Dec. G, 1810. History and 
portrait painter, son of a French merchant ; 
early studied art and became painter to 
the King of Sweden ; afterwards studied in 
Rome, Bologna, and Parma, and in 1766 
was elected a member of the Bologna Acad- 
emy. Went in 1772 to Paris, and thence 
to London, where he became an exhibitor 
at the Royal Academy, was elected an A.R.A. 
in 1782, and R.A. in 1784. His diploma 
picture was entitled Samson. He painted 
also in fresco, and decorated ceilings, and 
translated into English Leonardo da Vinci's 
"Treatise on Painting" (1806). Redgrave. 

born in Paris in 1810. Battle painter, pu- 
pil of L. Cogniet. Medals : 3d class, 1857 ; 
2d class, 1859, 1861, 1863. Works : Bona- 
parte at Siege of Toulon 1783 (1849), Min- 
istry of Interior, Paris ; Crossing of the 
Tagliamento in 1809, Taking of Zaatcha 
, 1849 (1853), French Surgeons at Battle of 
Inkerman 1854 (1857), Marshal Canrobert 
in Trenches of Sebastopol (1859), Portrait 
of Mayor of Versailles (1856), Versailles 
Museum ; Baptism of Clovis (1859, bought 
by the State) ; Battle of Magenta (1861) ; 
do. of Solferino (1866) ; Totila King of the 
Goths visiting St. Benedict (1865), Com- 
munion of St. Benedict (1867), St. Etienne 
du Mont, Paris ; Crossing of the Beresina 
1812 (1870); Charge of Cuirassiers at Reichs- 
hoffen (1879) ; Start for the Promenade 
(1880). Bellier, ii. 382. 

RILEY, JOHN, born in London in 1646, 
died there in 1691. Portrait painter, pupil 
of Gerard Soest and of Isaac Fuller; be- 
came noted after death of Lely, and had 
among his sitters Charles H., James H. and 
his Queen, and William and Mary, to whom 


be was appointed court painter. Works : heads of Ubaldo and his companion. Eu- 
Bishop Bumet, James II, William Lord graved by P. do Jodo (1644). Same sub- 
Russell, Waller, National Portrait Gallery ; ject, Bordeaux Museum. Cat. Louvre ; 
others at Hampton Court. Redgrave ; F. 

Waagen, Treasures, iv. 511. 

By Antou van Dyck, Duke of Newcastle, 
England ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft 8 in. 
Armida, iu floating red drapery, leans over 
Rinaldo, who sleeps at the foot of a tree, 
and envelopes him iu garlands of flowers 
which cupids bring to her ; above, other 
cupids flying ; at left, a siren, her head 
and bust out of the water, sings to prolong 
the enchantment to which the hero has suc- 
cumbed. A copy, formerly iu collection of 

de Conches, 61. 

Tasso's " Gerusalerame liberata" (Jerusalem 
Delivered). Rinaldo, who has fled from the 
camp of the Crusaders after slaying Gernan- 
do, gives himself up to amorous delights iu 
the gardens of the enchantress Armida. 

By Agostino Carracci, Naples Museum ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 4 in. x 7 ft. 9 in. Armida, 
seated upon a hillock under a tree, arranges 
her hair with the aid of a 
mirror which Riualdo, re- 
clining, holds for her ; at 
left, Ubaldo and Charles 
the Danish knight con- 
cealed in foliage ; in back- 
ground, left, palace of Ar- 
mida. From the Farnese 
Collection. Engraved by 
Lasinio fils. Museo Bor- 
bonico, viii. PL 1. 

By Domenichino, Louvre; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. 
5 in. Annida and Rinaldo 
in nearly same position as 
above ; a cupid, in the air, 
aims an arrow at Armida, 
while two others embrace, 
a fourth lies asleep, and a 
fifth sits on the bank near Armida ; at left, 
Ubaldo and Charles the Danish knight ; iu 
background, middle, the palace of Armida. 
Collection of Louis XIV., who bought it iu 
1685. Engraved by Croutelle. Villot, Cat. 
Louvre ; Musue francais, i.; Landon, Vies, 
PI. 142 ; Reveil, xi. 733. 

By Anton van Dyck, Louvre ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. 4 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. Rinaldo, disarmed, 
reclines on the sward with his head on Ar- 
mida's knees ; at left, cupids play with his A 

sword ; at right, a cupid holds his hands distance, two warriors near a column 
to receive fruit from another one in a tree ; ried to Paris ; returned in 1! 
in foreground, two cupids near an open 
coffer of jewels ; at left, behind a bush, the 

Rinaldo and Armida, Domenichino, Louvre. 

the Due do Tallard (1756), was sold at his 
sale for 7,000 florins to the King of Prussia. 
Engraved by F. Ragot ; P. de Baillu. 

By Nicolas 7'oiissin, Berlin Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft. 9.1 in. Armidn, 
clothed in a yellow mantle, bearing away 
the sleeping Rinaldo. She supports his 
head, four cupids bear up his body and 
legs, and a fifth flies in advance towards a 
river. On the opposite side an aged man, 
personifying a river, and two nymphs ; at a 

by Chasteau ; anonymous. Smith, viii. 147. 
By Nicolas Poussin, Dulwich Gallery ; can- 



vas, H. 2 ft. 7 in. x 3 ft. 7 in. Armida, 
armed with a dagger, is bending cautiously 
over Kinaldo, who, clad in splendid armour, 
lies sleeping at the foot of a tree ; overcome 
by love, as she contemplates his beautiful 
face, she withholds the blow, her arm being 
restrained by a cupid who has alighted be- 
side her. Engraved by J. Audran ; P. Du- 
pin. Smith, viii. 145. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. C in. Ar- 
mida bends affectionately over the sleeping 
Kinaldo and places her hand on his breast ; 
at his head are two cupids, a third plays 
with his shield, and a fourth is on the 
farther side of a bank ; on opposite side, 
emblems of fertility and abundance ; on a 
cloud, Armida's splendid car, with spirited 
coursers, held by two nymphs. Engraved 
by Sanders. Smith, viii. 146. 

Subject treated also by Alessandro Tia- 
rini, Munich Gallery ; Francois Boucher 
(1734), Louvre ; Auguste Leloir (1879). 

OP, David Teniers, younger, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; copper. Series of twelve pictures, 
each H. 9 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. : 

1. Armida arrives at the Christian camp 
and presents herself to Godfrey de Bou- 

2. Godfrey deliberates with his compan- 
ions concerning the means of giving Armida 
the aid she asks for ; in the background, the 
death of Gernando at the hands of Rinaldo. 

3. Charles and Ubaldo, seeking for Ri- 
naldo, who has fled the camp to escape the 
punishment of his deed, arrive on the banks 
of a river near Ascalon, where they hear of 
his ensnarement by Armida. 

4. Rinaldo in the Island of Orontes. 

5. Armida, in her chariot, conveys Ri- 
naldo asleep to the Fortunate Isles. 

6. Charles and Ubaldo land in the Fortu- 
nate Isles. 

7. The Gardens of Armida ; Rinaldo, dis- 
armed, with his head on the breast of the 

8. Separation of Rinaldo and Armida. 

9. Rinaldo and his companions flee from 
the Fortunate Isles, and Armida disappears 
into the air in her chariot. 

10. Prowess of Rinaldo against the Sara- 

11. Armida in her chariot incites the 
Saracens against Rinaldo. 

12. Armida is about to stab herself when 
Rinaldo arrests her hand and is reconciled 
to her. 

RINCON, ANTONIO, born in Guadala- 
jara about 144G, died in Seville about 1500. 
Spanish school ; doubtfully said to have 
studied in Italy, either with Andrea del 
Castagno or Domenico Ghirlandajo ; paint- 
ed chiefly at Toledo ; became painter to 
Ferdinand and Isabella, whose portraits he 
frequently painted. Best extant work, al- 
tarpiece in Church of Robleda de Chavila, 
containing seventeen panel pictures of the 
Life of the Virgin. His son Fernando was 
also a painter. Stirling, i. 89 ; Ch. Blanc, 
cole espagnole. 

RING, HERMAN TOM, born at Mtin- 
ster in 1521, died there in 1597. German 
school ; history and portrait painter, son 
and pupil of Ludger the elder, but influ- 
enced by the Italians. "Works : Waking of 
Lazarus (1546), Crucifixion, Companion- 
piece to do., Minister Cathedral ; Crucifix- 
ion and others, also portraits, Art Union, 
Mi'mster ; twelve Prophets and Sibyls, Augs- 
burg Gallery ; Portraits of John of Leyden 
and Wife (1535), Schwerin Gallery. His 
son Nicolaus, who flourished second half 
of 16th and beginning of 17th century, was 
a follower of the Italian schools. Work : 
Entombment (1598), Ludgeri Church, Miin- 
ster. Kugler (Crowe), i. 268 ; Schlie, 524 ; 
W. & W., ii. 504 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xii. 
256, 319. 

RING, LUDGER TOM, the elder, born 
at Miinster in 1496, died there in 1547. 
German school ; a versatile master, of a 
family of painters that flourished in Miin- 
ster in the 16th century. Works : Portraits 
of Man and Wife, Bust Portrait of Young 
Man (1536), Museum, Miinster ; God the 


Father as Avenger (1538), Art Union, ib.; 
Male Portrait, Berlin Museum. Kugler 
(Crowe), i. 268; Liibke, Mittelalterliche 
Kunst in Westfalen, 3G6 ; W. & W., ii. 
503 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xii. 257. 

RING, LUDGER TOM, the younger, 
born at Miinster after 1521, died at Bruns- 
wick in 1583 or 1584. German school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, son and pupil of 
Ludwig the elder ; settled in Brunswick, 
where he obtained the freedom of the city 
in 1561. Works : Portrait of Doctor Chem- 
mitzer (1569), Art Union, Mttnster ; others 
in private collections there ; Marriage at 
Cana (1562), Berlin Museum ; Portrait of a 
Lady (miniature), Suermoudt Museum, Aix- 
la-Chapelle. Kugler (Crowe), i. 268 ; W. & 
W., ii. 505 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xii. 320. 

RING, PIETER DE, flourished about 
1650-60. Dutch school ; fruit, flower, and 
still-life painter, and a successful follower of 
Jan D. de Heem ; master of 
Guild at Leyden in 1648. 
Works : Still-Life, Amster- 
dam Museum ; Vanitas (1650), 
Berlin Museum ; Table with 
Oysters, Lobster, and Fruits, 
Dresden Gallery ; Breakfast 
Table (2, one dated 1659), 
Schwerin Gallery. Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 520 ; Krainm, v. 1370 

Montdidier (Somme), Oct. 26, 1780, died in 
Paris, March 10, 1855. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of David and Regnault. Won second 
grand prix in 1814. First exhibited in 181 9 ; 
soon after, having lost the use of his right 
hand, he learned to paint with his left. 
Medals: 2d class, 1844; 1st class, 1838. 
Works : Endymion Asleep (1822); Angelica 
rescued by Roger (1824), Compiegne Palace ; 
School Boy giving his lunch to a Poor Mau 
(1824) ; Women Bathing (1827) ; Calabrian 
Brigand (1829); Going into the Bath (1831); 
Bath at the Fountain (1834) ; Torregiano, 
Two Girls in a Boat (1835); St. Jerome Pray- 
ing, Two Girls in a Bath (1836) ; Siege of 

Ostend (1837), Versailles Museum; Girl 
with a Goat, Magdalen (1838) ; Death of 
Chevalier d'Assas, Girl with Dogs (1841) ; 
Visitation, Diana Bathing, Leda Bathing, 
Woman Bathing with a Zephyr, Wounded 
Love (1850); Battle of Hastcmbeck, 1757, 
Portraits of the Grand Condi', and his Wife, 
of Philip V. of Spain, Princesse de Lam- 
balle, Count and Countess of Albany, Ma- 
dame de Genlis, and twenty-one others, 
Versailles Museum ; Little Savoyard Asleep, 
Douai Museum ; Dorine and Tartuffe, Mou- 
targis Museum ; Aurora, Saint-foienne Mu- 
seum. Bellier, ii. 384 ; D. KunstbL (1851), 
188 ; Larousse. 

RIPOSO, IL. See Ttyow in Egypt. 

RISSE, ROLAND, born in Cologne in 
1835. History, genre, and portrait painter, 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under Karl 
Sohn, Schadow and Bendemann ; visited 
afterwards Munich, Dresden, the Nether- 
lands, and Paris. Works : Christ before 
Pilate (1856) ; Christ with a Dove (1858) ; 
Christ presenting a Child as Example to his 
Disciples (1862) ; Johanna Sebus (1864) ; 
Snowdrop and the Dwarfs (1866); Sleeping 
Beauty (1867); Cinderella (1868); Last Days 
of Pompeii ; Ophelia ; God and Bayadere ; 
Portraits of 11 Members of Academy Senate 
in Tdbiugen (1878). Mailer, 441. 

Glasgow, Scotland, Jan. 14, 1822. Por- 
trait and genre painter, and engraver ; stud- 
ied under Sir William Allen in the Royal In- 
stitution, Edinburgh. Removed in 1841 to 
New York, where he has since lived. Elect- 
ed N.A. in 1871. Works : Washington and 
his Generals ; Death of Lincoln ; Mercy at 
the Wicket Gate ; Fitting out Moses for the 
Fair; Baby, who's that? Portraits: Presi- 
dent McCosh and Professors Charles Hodge 
and H. M Alexander of Princeton College 

RTTTER, EDUARD, born in Vienna in 
1808, died there in 1853. Genre painter, 
pupil of Vienna Academy. Works : Scene 
in Peasant Family (1838), Country People 
around Well (1846), Sick Bugle-Player 


(1847), Vienna Museum ; End of Church- 
Day (1846) ; Bequest of Grand-parents 
(1847) ; Ballad Singer (1848) ; Farewell of 
the Bride (1850) ; Rural Meal, Singing Re- 
hearsal (1851) ; Bout at Inn, End of a Vil- 
lage Church-Day (1852). Wurzbach, xxvi. 

RITTER, HENRY, born at Montreal, 
May 24, 1816, died at Diisseldorf, Dec. 21, 
1853. Genre and landscape painter, pupil 
of Groger in Hamburg, whither he went 
early in life, then of Dusseldorf Academy 
under Sohn, where he was much attracted 
by Jordan ; excelled in representing epi- 
sodes from sailor-life, with great vividness 
and brilliant colouring. Works : Smug- 
glers attacked by Dragoons (1839) ; The 
Boaster (1841) ; Betrothal in Normandy 
(1842), Leipsic Museum ; Fisherman's Son 
Drowned (1844), Ravene Gallery, Berlin ; 
Poacher (1847); Fire in the Prairies (1851), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Middy's Sermon 
(1852), Cologne Museum. Cotta's Kunstbl. 
(1846), No. 63 ; Forster, v. 395 ; Hagen, i. 
353; Wolfg. Miiller, Dusseldf. K, 224; 
Wiegmann, 313. 

RITTER, PAUL, born in Nuremberg, 
March 4, 1829. Architecture painter, pupil 
of Heideloff ; became deaf and dumb when 
four years of age ; travelled in France, Aus- 
tria, Denmark, and Italy. Gold medal, Ber- 
lin, 1880. Works : Sacrament Shrine in St. 
Lawrence, Nuremberg ; Choir of St. Law- 
rence, ib. ; Court of Old Post Office, ib. ; 
Peller Hof, ib. ; Well in Time of Thirty 
Years' War, ib. ; Arrival of Crown Jewels in 
1424 (1883), City Hall, Nuremberg. His 
brother, Lorenz (born Nov. 27, 1832), paint- 
ed for the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg 
many views in Nuremberg and Heidelberg; 
View of Pentagonal Tower in Nuremberg 
(1882), Entry of Gustavus Adolphus into 
Nuremberg (1884). Mttller, 441 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xvii. 353 ; xix. 94 ; Ulustr. Zeitg. 
(1884), i. 131; Land und Meer (1887), 
i. 15. 

RIVALZ, ANTOINE, born at Toulouse, 
March 6, 1667, died there, Dec. 7, 1735. 

French school ; history and portrait painter, 
son and pupil of Jean Pierre Rivalz (1625- 
1706), then studied in Paris and in Rome, 
where he received the first prize of the Ac- 
cademia di San Luca from the hands of Pope 
Clement XI. After his return to his native 
city he painted, during thirty years, many 
pictures relating to its history, and in 1726 
established an art school, which was raised 
to the rank of an academy in 1750. Works : 
Foundation of City of Ancyra, Sosthenes 
King of Macedon taken Prisoner, Litto- 
rius vanquished by Theodoric, Raymond de 
Saint-Gilles taking the Cross in 1096, Defeat 
of Henry H. of England before Toulouse in 
1159, The Huguenots expelled from Tou- 
louse in 1562, Pope Urban H. consecrating 
Church of St. Saturnin, Portrait of the Ar- 
tist, five others, Toulouse Museum ; Diana 
and Actseon, Narbonne Museum. Bellier, 
ii. 387 ; Ch. Blanc, cole fran9aise, ii. 

Tadema, W. H. Vanderbilt Collection, New 
York ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft. A Ro- 
man lady, attended by her little daughter 
and a slave-girl, descending stairs leading 
down to the Tiber, with two ferrymen clam- 
ouring for custom ; at right, the river, with 
a marble bridge in background, and a galley 
coming into view through one of its arches. 
Art Treasures of America, iii. 95. 

RIVEY, ARSENE, born at Caen; con- 
temporary. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Picot, Couture, and Bonnat. Med- 
al, 3d class, 1880. Works : Intimacy (1870); 
Brenda (1873); St. Sebastian (1876); David 
appeasing the Anger of Saul (1878); Nea- 
politan Woman (1881); Flemish Gentleman 
(1882); Estudiante (1883); In the Armoury, 
A Missive (1884); Study (1886). 

RIVIERE, BRITON, born in London, 
Aug. 14, 1840. Subject and animal painter, 
son and pupil of William Riviere (1806- 
1876), teacher of drawing at Cheltenham 
College and afterwards at Oxford, where 
Briton took his degree of A.B. in 1867. Ex- 
hibited in 1858-59, at the Royal Academy, 
pictures entitled Rest from Labour, Sheep 



on the Cotswolcls, and Road to Gloucester. 
In 1876 he received a medal at Philadel- 
phia. Obtained much re- 
pute in 1866 by the Poach- 
er's Nurse. Elected an 
AR.A. in 1878, and R.A. 
in 1881. Works: Strayed 
from the Flock, Long 
Sleep (1866) ; Charity 
(1870); CTree and the Com- 
panions of Ulysses, Come 
Back (1871) ; Daniel in the Den of Lions 
(1872) ; Argus (1873) ; Apollo (1874) ; War 
Time, Last of the Garrison (1875) ; A Stem 
Chase, Swineherd's Dogs, Pallas Athenso 
(1876) ; Legend of St. Patrick, Lazarus 
(1877) ; Lions, Sympathy, An Anxious Mo- 
ment, Victims (1878) ; Poacher's Widow, In 
manus tuas Domine (1879); Night- Watch, 
Endymion, Last Spoonful (1880); Envy, Ha- 
tred and Malice, Hope Deferred, Roman 
Holiday, Let Sleeping Dogs Lie (1881) ; 
The King Drinks, Magician's Doorway 
(1882); Giants at Play, Herd of Swine, Old 
Playfellows, Last of the Crew (1883) ; Eve 
of St. Bartholomew, King and his Satellites, 
Actseon, Enchanted Castle (1884) ; Stolen 
Kisses, After Naseby, Sheepstealers, Vse 
Victis (1885) ; Rizpah, Union is Strength, 
The Exile (1886). Art Journal (1878), 
5, 145 ; Meynell, 141 ; Portfolio (1880), 

RIXENS, JEAN ANDRti, born at Saint- 
Gaudens (Haute-Garonne) ; contemporary. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Gt> 
rome. Medals : 3d class, 1871 ; 2d class, 
1881. Works : Morning Farewell (1868) ; 
Death of Cleopatra ; Caesar's Body ; May 
Jane (1879) ; Harvesters in the Pyrenees 
(1880) ; Death of Agrippina (1881) ; Head 
of Old Man (1882); Glory (1883); Coquetry, 
Study (1884) ; Don Juan (1886). 

RIZI, FRANCISCO, born in Madrid in 
1608, died in the Escorial, Aug. 2, 1685. 
Spanish school ; son of Antonio Rizi, a 
painter of Bologna, who accompanied Fe- 
derigo Zucchero to Spain in 1585 ; pupil of 
Vincenzio Carducho. Appointed in 1653 


painter to Cathedral of Toledo, and in 1G56 
painter to Philip IV., an honour which ho 
enjoyed also under Charles H A very 
rapid worker, who painted many superficial 
pictures in Madrid and Toledo, and did 
much to aid the decline of art in Spain. 
Works: Au- fTr\ 
to da Fe in LJr \J . . . 
1680, Por- J X^^-% 
trait of a <*S 

General, Madrid Museum. Stirling, ii. 696 ; 
Viardot, 272 ; Madrazo, 554. 

RIZI, Fray JUAN, born in Madrid in 
1595, died at Monte Cassiuo, Italy, in 1675. 
Spanish school ; brother of Francisco Rizi, 
pupil of Juan Bautista Mayuo ; in 1626 be- 
came a Benedictine monk at Montserrat, 
and, after filling several conventual offices, 
was made abbot of Medina del Campo. 
Painted many altarpieces and religious pict- 
ures, and won so much fame for hia talents 
and his piety that all the houses of his 
order were anxious to have him as an in- 
mate. In his old age he went to Italy, and 
the Pope conferred on him an Italian bish- 
opric, but he did not live to take it. Work : 
St. Francis receiving the Stigmata, Madrid 
Museum. Stirling, ii. 693 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
espagnole ; Viardot, 270 ; Madrazo, 561. 

RIZO. See Francem-o da Santa Croce. 

RIZPAH, Georges Jtttivr, canvas. The 
seven sons of Saul, whom David delivered 
to the Gibeonites to be hanged to avert the 
famine, are seen suspended from a lofty 
gibbet, beneath which Rizpah is fighting 
away a large eagle, come to prey upon the 
dead (2 Sam., xxi. 10). Painted in 1873 ; 
Philadelphia Exhibition, 1876. Art Gal. 
PhiL Ex., 33. 

By Joseph M. W. Turner, National Gal- 
lery, London ; canvas, H. 3 ft x 4 ft. Riz- 
pah watching the bodies of her sons. Tur- 
ner Collection. Engraved, with alterations, 
in Liber Studiorum. Cat. Nat. Gal. 

Jan. 23, 1836. Genre painter, pupil of St 
Petersburg Academy, where he won the 
grand prize in 1860 ; visited Germany, Bel- 


gium, Spain, and Portugal ; lived several 
years in Paris, and settled in Rome in 1865. 
Member of St. Petersburg Academy in 18G4 ; 
professor since 1869. Medals : London, Vi- 
enna. Works : Synagogue in Livonia ; In- 
terior of Koman Tavern ; Visit of Cardinal 
to S. Onofrio ; Vegetable Store at Frascati ; 
Refectory in Capuchin Monastery in Rome ; 
Cardinal Council. 

ROBBE, LOUIS, born at Courtray, Nov. 
17, 1806. Animal and landscape painter, 
self-taught, studying from nature since 1833 ; 
settled at Courtray in 1830, and at Brussels 
in 1840. Medals at Brussels (1839-42) ; 
Paris, 3d class, 1844 ; 2d class, 1855 ; L. of 
Honour, 1845 ; Order of Leopold, 1843 ; 
Officer, 1863 ; Spanish Order of Charles 
III., 1844. Member Amsterdam Academy, 
1855. Studio in Brussels. Works : Cam- 
pine in Brabant ; Sheep and Shepherd ; 
Rest in the Pasture ; Pond with Cows ; 
Roosters after Fight ; Bull attacked by 
Dogs, Brussels Museum ; Landscape with 
Cattle, Ghent Museum ; Sheep in Moun- 
tainous Landscape, Kunsthalle, Hamburg. 
His brother, Henri, is a still-life painter. 
Medals : Bruges, 1850 ; Ypres, 1855. Im- 
merzeel, iii. 18 ; Kramm, v. 1371 ; Vape- 
reau (1880), 1551 ; Sunaert, 123. 

in Mobile, Ala., Oct. 21, 1842. Landscape 
painter, pupil of August Weidenbach, Ger- 
man landscape painter, and of James M. 
Hart. In 1865 visited England, Holland, 
and France, where he received some in- 
struction from Rousseau in Paris, and in 
the same year sketched in Jamaica, W. I.; 
in 1866 sketched in Switzerland. Elected 
an A.N.A. in 1864, and N.A. in 1878. Stu- 
dio in New York. Works in oil : Blue 
Hills of Jamaica (1874) ; Roadside Elms ; 
Mt. Philip ; New England Homestead, Har- 
bour Islands Lake George (1878) ; Moun- 
tain Stream (1879) ; Summer Afternoon 
Keene Valley (1880) ; Cloudy Afternoon, 
Solitude (1881) ; Lake Katahdin Maine 
(1882) ; Early Autumn Adirondacks, Twi- 
light Hour (1883) ; Summer Afternoon- 

Essex County, Keene Valley Runway, Sun- 
set Island of Jamaica (1884) ; Showery Af- 
ternoon in the Mountains (1885) ; Darken- 
ing in the Evening Glory (1886). Water- 
colours : New England Road Scene (1877) ; 
New England Homestead (1878). 

ROBER, ERNST, born at Elberfeld, June 
23, 1849. History painter, pupil of Diissel- 
dorf Academy and of Bendemann. Works : 
Hunting Expedition of the Nibelungs ; Gods 
of Olympus, National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Nymphs surprised by Fauns, Faun's Love 
Song (1878). His brother, Fritz (born Oct. 
15, 1851), also pupil of Bendemann, paint- 
ed Death of Sophonisba ; The Great Elec- 
tor consoling the Peasantry after Battle of 
Fehrbellin ; then (together with his brother 
and with Rudolf Bendemann), Allegorical 
Figures, Cupid and Psyche, Groups of Ge- 
nii, National Gallery, Berlin. Miiller, 443 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 647 ; xxi. 243, 245 ; 
D. Rundschau, xvii. 300. 

ROBERT, ALEXANDRE, born at Traze- 
gnies, Renault, Feb. 17, 1817. Portrait and 
genre painter, pupil of Brussels Academy 
under Navez, then studied in Italy, 1843- 
48. Medals at Brussels, 1845, 1848 ; Paris, 
1855 ; Officer, Order Leopold ; Order Fran- 
cis Joseph of Austria. Member Royal Acad- 
emy of Belgium. Studio in Brussels. Works : 
Ransacking of Carmelite Monastery in Ant- 
werp, Luca Siguorelli painting his Dead Son, 
Brussels Museum ; Regret (1849), Ghent 
Museum ; Chorus of Capuchins ; Young 
Mendicant ; Dolce far nieute ; Charles V. 
before his Death ; Souvenirs of Rome and 
Naples. Miiller, 443; Vapereau (1880), 

ROBERT, AURELE, born at Les Epla- 
tures, near La Chaux-de-Fonds, Neuchatel, 
Dec. 18, 1805, died at Ried, near Bienne 
(Biel), Canton Berne, Dec. 21, 1871. Ar- 
chitecture and genre painter, brother and, 
from 1822, pupil in Rome of Leopold Ro- 
bert, whom he accompanied on study trips 
in 1828-29, and, after a short separation, 
joined again in Paris in 1831, then in Ven- 
ice in 1833, to return home after Leopold's 



suicide in 1835. Occupied in Paris mostly 
with copies after his brother's works in | 
1836-37, he went to Venice again in 1838, 
and five years later returned to Switzerland, 
whence he visited the Breisgau in 1869. 
His execution was very careful, though 
somewhat heavy. Medal, Paris, 2d class, 
1831. Works : Interior of St. Mark's, Ven- 
ice, Basle Museum ; do. (1854), Berne Mu- 
seum ; do. (1844), Interior of Baptismal 
Chapel, ib. ; Young Girl of Procida, Interior 
of Leopold Robert's Studio in Rome (1829), 
Neuchatel Museum ; Chapel in St. Mark's, 
Venice, Sacristy at Lugano, Zurich Gallery ; 
Baptismal Ceremony in Chapel in St. Mark's, 
Venice (1842), National Gallery, Berlin. 
Jordan (1885), ii. 186 ; Rahn, Kuust- und 
Wanderstudien in der Schweiz (Vienna, 
1883), 346. 

ROBERT, HUBERT, called Robert des 
Ruines, born in Paris, May 22, 1733, died 
there, April 15, 1808. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Pannini ; spent twelve years at 
Rome. Member of Academy, 1766 ; and 
appointed custodian of the Louvre by the 
Directory. Works : Harbour of Ripetta near 
Rome (1766), Triumphal Arch at Orange 
(1767), Portico of Octavius (1785), Temple 
of Jupiter in Rome (1787), Maison Carn'e 
(1787), Round Temple (1788), and seven 
others, Louvre ; Two Views in Gardens of 
Versailles (1777), Pont Notre Dame, Paris, 
Poiit-au-Change and Clock Tower, ib. 
(1788), National Confederation on the 
Champ de Mai's (1790), Versailles Museum : 
View of Ancient Aqueducts, Trianon Pal- 
ace ; Interior of Maison Carree at Nimes, 
Pont du Gard, Fontainebleau Palace ; Foun- 
tain of Minerva, Rome (1772), Angers Mu- 
seum ; Ruins of Imperial Palace Rome, do. 
of Temple, Interior of Thermae of Diocletian, 
Besanyon Museum ; Antique Ruins (2), 
Bordeaux Museum ; Aqueducts of Mainte- 
nant, Ruins of Forum Palladium, Chartres 
Museum ; Interior of Antique Temple with 
Religious Ceremony, Stable under Ancient 
Building, Dijon Museum ; others in Muse- 
ums of Marseilles, Montpellier, Orleans, 


f \ 
C l 

Rouen (6), Troyes ; View of the Pantheon, 

Darmstadt Museum ; Ruins of Temple at 

G i r g en ti, 

Stone Bridge, 

Hermitage, St. 


Bellier, il 391 ; tJ 

Ch. Blanc, 

cole franeaise ; Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Le- 

jeune, Guide, L 272 ; iii. 317. 

ROBERT, LEO PAUL, born at Bienne, 
Switzerland ; contemporary. History and 
genre painter, pupil of his father and of 
Gi'rome. Medal, 3d class, 1877. Works : 
Evening Zephyrs (1877); The Nymph Echo 
(1878) ; Christ with Lazarus, Genii of the 
Forest (1879); First Spring (1882); Beech- 
Woods at Romont (1883). 

La Chaux-de-Fonds, 
Neuchatel, Switzer- 
land, May 13, 1794, 
died in Venice, March 
25, 1835. Genre 
painter, pupil of 
David iu Paris, 
whither he had gone 
with the engraver 
Charles Ghirardet, 
his first instructor. After winning the 2d 
grand prix for engraving (1814), and fre- 
quenting for a short time the studio of Gros 
in 1815, he returned home, where he paint- 
ed many excellent portraits and found a 
patron in M. Roullet Mezerac, who offered 
him the means to go to Rome in 1818 ; 
there he devoted himself to painting scenes 
from the life of the people. This he did 
with a poetry which raised his popular sub- 
jects to the dignity of history, and made 
him equal to the foremost artists of his 
time. In 1824 he won the first prize in 
Paris, visited that city, and his native coun- 
try in 1831, but soon returned to Italy, set- 
tling at Florence, whence he removed to 
Venice to complete his picture, The Fish- 
ers of the Adriatic. In a fit of melancholia 
he committed suicide. Medal, Paris, 1822 ; 



L. of Honour, 1831. Works : Neapolitan 
Improvisator (1824); Peasant Woman of the 
Campagua (1824); Festival of the Madonna 
dell' Arco (1827), Arrival of Harvesters in 
the Pontine Marshes (1830), Louvre ; Her- 
mit of Monte Epomeo Isle of Ischia, Re- 
ceiving. Fruit from Young Girl, Nantes 
Museum ; Italian Bandit Wounded, Bandit 
Women in Flight, Basle Museum ; Roman 
Girl with Tambourine, Berne Museum ; 
Children of Canton Berne, Italian Girls, 
Sacristy of S. Giovanni in Laterano, Rome, 
Musee Rath, Geneva ; Basilica of S. Paolo 
fuori le Mura in Rome after the Fire (1823), 
Interior of do., Central Fragment of L'lm- 
provisatore, Fishers of the Adriatic (1834), 
Views iu Rome (2), Retreat of Brigands, 
Le Septembriseur, Portraits (4), and Stud- 
ies (5), Neuchatel Museum ; Italian Brigand 
Asleep (1822), National Gallery, Berlin; 
The Mowers (1835, last work), Raczynski 
Gallery, ib.; Woman of Procida with her 
Child " (182G), New Piuakothek, Munich ; 
do. (1831), Konigsberg Museum ; Robber 
Asleep guarded by his Wife (1823), Leipsic 
Museum ; Gipsy, August Belmont, New 
York ; Roman Ruins, B. Wall, Providence. 
Feuillet de Conches, Leopold Robert 
(Paris, 1849); 
Clement, Leopold 
Robert (Paris, 
1874) ; Hamertou, 
I French Painters, 
54 ; Meyer, Gesch., 514 ; Planche, Portraits 
d' Artistes, ii. 1. 

LAS, born in Cologne, Aug. 8, 1797, of 
French parents. History and genre painter, 
pupil of Girodet, Gros, and Horace Vernet. 
Lived much in Rome up to 1826, when he 
settled in Paris. In 1833 he exhibited Scene 
in the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, which 
at once gave him a high position. Medals : 
2d class, 1824 ; 1st class, 1834, 1855, 18C7 ; 
L. of Honour, 1836 ; Officer, 1849 ; Com- 
mander, 1867 ; Member of Institute, 1850 ; 
director of French Academy at Rome, 1866. 
Works : Tasso in Convent of San Onofrio 


I // / 
Ot- / JjQ^ 

(1827); Reading at Mme. de Sevigne's (1833); 
Eve of St. Bartholomew (1833), Compiegne 
Palace ; Procession of the Ligue, Religious 
Discussion (1834) ; Regent in Council, Con- 
stable Albert de Luynes (1835) ; Henri IV. 
brought back to the Louvre after his Assas- 
sination (1836); St. Francis de Sales (1837); 
Christ and Little Children (1837), Nantes 
Museum ; Coming out of Church (1837) ; 
Entry of Clovis into Tours (1838), Arrival 
of Baldwin of Flanders at Edessa, 1097 
(1839), Versailles Museum ; Conference at 
Poissy in 1561 (1840), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Release of St. Peter, Ambroise Pare, 
Children of Louis XVL in Temple (1840) ; 
Pierre de la Ramee awaiting the Murderers 
on St. Bartholomew's Day, Neuchatel Mu- 
seum ; Inquisition, Michelangelo tending 
his Sick Servant Urbino, Benvenuto Cellini 
at Work (1841) ; Marino Faliero ; Burning 
a Heretic ; Rembrandt's Studio (1845); Gali- 
leo, Christopher Columbus received at the 
Court of Spain (1847) ; Massacre of Jews in 
London on Coronation Day of Edward H. 
(1848), Report to the Cardinal (1849), Ra- 
vene Gallery, Berlin ; Jane Shore (1850), 
Luxembourg Museum ; The Venetian Sen- 
ate (1850); Death of Montaigne (1853); Sack 
of a Jew's House (1855), Luxembourg ; 
Charles V. at San Yuste (1857) ; Philip VI. 
of Valois, Connetables Dues de Luynes and 
de Lesdiguieres, Marshals Biron and Vil- 
leroy (1835), Versailles Museum ; The Toi- 
let, Montpellier Museum ; Three Portraits, 
Nantes Museum ; The Body of Titian lying 
in State in the Palazzo Barbarigo Venice, 
Portrait of the Artist, Antwerp Museum. 
Also executed important decorative works 
/7 x"~ in the audience hall of the 
T\ /I Tribunal de Commerce, Paris. 
VX V 1 Bellier, ii. 397 ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1869), i. 188 ; Larousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 
279 ; Saint Valliere, Notice sur la vie, etc. 
(Paris, 1847); Zeitschr. f. b. K, v. 121. 

Paris, Sept. 16, 1838. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, son of Joseph Nicolas, pu- 
pil of Paul Delaroche and Leon Cogniei 



Medals : 18GG, 1867, 1870 ; medal of honour, 
1870 ; 1st class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1873. 
Works : Roman Girl, 
Child kissing a Relic 
(1864); Warsaw on 
April 8, 1861 (1866) ; 
Old Women of the Pi- 
Navona (1867), 


Last Day of Corinth 
(1870), Luxembourg 
Museum; Danaids 
(1872) ; Charlotte 
Corday in Caen (1874); 
Pinel the Chief Physician of the Salpu- 
triere in Paris (1876) ; Vauban giving 
his Plans for the Fortification of Belfort 
(1882) ; Mazarin and his Nieces (1883) ; 
Leda (1885) ; Musical Cardinal, Miss C. L. 
Wolfe, New York. Larousse ; D. Rund- 
schau, xvi. 306 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xix. 259. 
CATION OF, Jean Paul Laurens, Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 10 in. x 7 
ft 2 in. Robert tt, King of France (996- 
1031), married his cousin and was excom- 
municated, on his refusal to put her aside, 
by Gregory V., who declared that the union 
was in violation of canonical law. Aban- 
doned by all his court he was finally (1001) 
forced to yield. Salon, 1875. 


ROBERTS, DAVID, born in Stockbridge, 
near Edinburgh, 
Oct. 24, 1796, died 
in London, Nov. 25, 
1864. Landscape 
painter; appren- 
ticed to a house- 
painter and decora- 
tor in Edinburgh, 
then devoted him- 
self to scene paint- 
ing there (1816), as 
afterwards in London whither he went in 
1822. First exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1826, a view of Rouen Cathedral, and 
then at the British Institute and the Socie- 

ty of British Artiste, of which he was vice- 
president. He visited Spain in 1832-33, 
and in 1835 exhibited his Cathedral at Bur- 
gos, in the Royal Academy, London. In 
1838-39 he went to the East, whence he 
drew many fine subjects, and where he made 
a series of sketches, exhibited in London in 
1840. Painted about 260 oil pictures. 
Elected A.RA in 1838 and RA. in 1841. 
The sale of his sketches and drawings in 
June, 1865, realized 16,450. Works : De- 
parture of the Israelites (1828); Interior of 
Old Buildings on the Darro, Entrance to 
Crypt of Roslyn Chapel, Bab-el-Mutaweller 
Gate at Cairo (1835), S. Kensington Muse- 
um ; Ruins of Baalbec Temple of the Sun 
(1840) ; Interior S. Miguel, Spain (1841) ; 
Burgos Cathedral (1835), Chancel of St Paul 
at Antwerp (1848), National Gallery, London; 
Sunset in Rome, National Gallery, Edin- 
burgh ; Tyre ; Sidon ; Melrose Abbey (1844); 
j Jerusalem ; Church of the Nativity at Beth- 
lehem ; Fete Day at St. Peter's. Mr. Rob- 
erts published several series of lithographed 
sketches : The best known are " Sketches in 
| the Holy Laud and Syria" (1842); "Italy, 
Historical, Classical, and Picturesque " 
(1859). Ballantyne, Life (London, 1866); 
Art Journal (1858), 201 ; (1865), 43 ; Sandby, 
ii. 169 ; Redgrave. 

ROBERTSON, ANDREW, born in Aber- 
deen, Scotland, Oct. 14, 1777, died at Hamp- 
stead, England, Dec. 6, 1845. Miniature 
painter, pupil of Alexander Nasmyth ; grad- 
uated at Aberdeen University in 1794. In 
1801 ho walked to London to see the exhi- 
bition and was noticed by Benjamin West, 
who sat to him for his portrait and advised 
him to study in the Academy schools. Ho 
painted the princesses at Windsor, the 
Prince Regent (1812), and was appointed 
miniature painter to the Duke of Sussex. 
He had pupils who became distinguished, 
and on his retirement in 1841 the miniature 
painters presented him with a piece of plate 
as the father of their profession. His elder 
brother Archibald went to New York in 
1791, to practise portrait painting, and was 



afterwards followed by another brother, 
Alexander, pupil in miniature painting of 
Shelley. Redgrave. 

EOBIE, JEAN BAPTISTE, born in Brus- 
sels in 1821. Still-life painter, pupil of 
Brussels Academy ; most of his works are 
in private collections in France, England, 
and America. Medals at Brussels (1848), 
Paris (1851, 1863), Hague (1861), Sydney 
(1879) ; Order of Leopold (1861) ; Officer 
(1866); Commander (1881). Studio in Brus- 
sels. Works : Garland, Grapes, The Win- 
dow, The Park (1846-51); Still-Life (1853), 
Ghent Museum ; Bread and Wine (1855) ; 
Flowers, Grapes (1863) ; Grapes and Still- 
Life (1864) ; Massacre of the Innocents, 
Promised Land (1865) ; Autumn, Fruits 
(1867) ; Flowers, Fruits and Accessories 
(1878); Flowerpiece, T. Wigglesworth, Bos- 
ton ; do., A. Adams, Watertown ; H. B. 
Hurlbut, Cleveland ; J. J. O'Fallon, St. 
Louis ; W. H. Fosdick, Louisville ; Charles 
Crocker, San Francisco. Vapereau (1880), 

ROBINETTA, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 5 
in. x 2 ft. A girl, half-length, seated, with 
a robin on her right shoulder, resting her 
left arm on its cage. Said to be a portrait 
of Miss Anna Lewis, afterwards the Hon. 
Mrs. Tollemache. Purchased with Peel pic- 
tures in 1871. Eeplica at Knole Park, Earl 
Amherst. A somewhat similar picture, 
without the cage, belongs to Lord Lons- 
dale ; engraved by J. Jones (1787), and S. 
W. Reynolds. Etched by A. Lalanze in 
Portfolio. Cat Nat. Gal.; Portfolio (1876), 
145 ; Waagen, Art Treasures, iv. 340. 

ROBINSON, THOMAS, born in Nova 
Scotia in 1835. Animal painter, pupil of 
Courbet, and for a short time of Auguste 
Bonheur. He has lived and painted in Prov- 
idence, Boston, and Paris. Works : Dog's 
Head, Sheep in Pasture, A New England 
Farmer, Bull's Head (1876); Sprague's String 
Team ; Beacon Street in Boston in January, 
In a Daisy Field (1884). Benjamin, 103. 

ROBUST! See Tintoretto. 

ROCH (Rocco), ST., Tintoretto, Scuola di 
S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas, in narrow inter- 
val between two windows. A fine figure, 
though rather coarse. Ruskin, Stones of 
Venice, iii. 342. 

Carracci, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H. 11 
ft. 9 in. x 17 ft. 1 in. St. Roch, at right, on 
a platform under a portico, giving alms to 
the poor and the sick, who throng the court 
in front ; background of architecture. Paint- 
ed for Chapel of S. Rocco, Reggio ; sold to 
Duke of Modena, whence passed to Dres- 
den. Copy in small, by Guido, in Zambec- 
cari Gallery, Bologna. Engraved by Guido 
Reni, who added two figures to it ; also by 
J. Camerata. Gal. roy. de Dresde, i. PI. 
21 ; Reveil, ix. 590. 

Tintoretto, S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas, H. 
about 10 ft. x 25 ft. A somewhat confused 
picture, with a flying angel in blue drapery ; 
altogether uninteresting. Ruskin, Stones 
of Venice, iii. 324. 

Tintoretto, S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas, H. 
about 10 ft. x 25 ft. " A wild group of 
horses and warriors in the most magnificent 
confusion of fall and flight ever painted by 
man. They all seem dashed different ways 
as if by a whirlwind ; and a whirlwind there 
must be, for a huge tree is torn up and 
hurled into the air, as if it were a shivered 
lance." Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 324. 

ROCH, ST., IN THE DESERT, Tintoret- 
to, S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas. A single re- 
cumbent figure in a not very interesting 
landscape. Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 

ROCH, ST., IN GLORY, Tintoretto, Scu- 
ola di S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas. The Saint 
ascends to heaven, looking down on a crowd 
of the sick and poor, who are blessing and 
adoring him. One of the worst of Tinto- 
rets. Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 338. 

ROCH, ST., IN HEAVEN, Tintoretto, 
Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; oval, central pict- 
ure of ceiling, Sala dell' Albergo. Painted 



m 1560. The brethren of the Scuola had 
asked some of the chief painters of Venice 
to send in trial sketches for the centrepiece 
in the ceiling. Tintoretto produced a fin- 
ished painting instead of a sketch, and had 
it placed in the oval. Both the brethren 
and his fellow competitors were offended, 
but as he offered the picture as a present, 
they were obliged to accept it. Buskin, 
Stones of Venice, iii. 351 ; Osier, Tintoret- 
to, 51 ; Kidolfi, Marav., ii. 193. 

pupil of Julea Lefi-bvre and of Boulanger. 
Medals : 3d class, 1882 ; 2d class, and prix 
| du Salon, 1883. Works : Vitellius dragged 
through the Streets of Rome (1882) ; An- 
dromache (1883); La Jacquerie (1885); Mad- 
ness of Nebuchadnezzar (1886). KunsU 
Chrouik, ss. 701 ; xxi. 294, 378 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, six. 258 ; xx. 234 ; xxi. 314. 

ROCKY MOUNTAINS, Albert ffienladl, 
James McHeury. A vast plain, with cotton- 
wood trees, oaks, and pines in the fore- 

~l.~! ''"" i-- 1 i \ff '-/' ! Kir 

5fe^dds===^/r.' Ii i 

^/^^sv^/j^ -^'^A 

.icz ,re^M^ 

St. Roch Giving Alms, Annibale Carracci, Dresden Gallery. 

retto, S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas, H. about 10 
ft. x25 ft. The Saint engaged in his minis- 
trations in the hospital. A very noble pict- ' 
ure, carefully composed and highly wrought, 
but a disgusting subject. Ruskin, Stones 
of Venice, iii. 323 ; Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 191. 

toretto, S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas. A delight- 
ful picture in his best manner, but hastily 
painted. Ruskiu, Stones of Venice, iii. 321. 

Versailles ; contemporary. History painter, 

ground, groups of wigwnms with Indians 
and ponies in middle distance, and beyond, 
a river ; in background, lofty snow-crowned 
mountains the highest peak Mount Lander. 
Painted in 1863. Kn graved by James 
D. Smillie. 

Lemberg, Galicia, in 1823. One of the best 
portrait painters of the day, pupil of Cogniet 
in Paris, where he settled ; painted also sev- 
eral good history and genre pictures. Med- 
als : Paris, 1st class, 1852 ; 3d class, 1855 ; 
L. of Honour, 1861. Works : General Dein- 


binski (1852) ; Artist's Mother (1853) ; 
Prince Sapieha ; Count Eaczynski (1859) ; 
Sigismund sanctioning Privileges of Nobil- 
ity (1872) ; War without Fight ; Galician 
Peasants at Church (1857) ; Battle near 
Choczym in 1673 ; King Sobieski receiving 
Envoy from Vienna (1861) ; A Preacher 
(1873). Wurzbach, xxvi. 218. 

BODDE, KARL GUSTAV, born in Dant- 
zic, Aug. 29, 1830. Landscape painter, pu- 
pil of Johann Karl Schultz, then of Diissel- 
dorf Academy (1852-57) under Schirmer 
and Gude ; studied in 1857 at Munich and in 
1858-61 in Borne. After his return he lived 
in Weimar and is now (1885) in Berlin. 
Works : Olivia ; After Sunset ; Valley Soli- 
tude, National Gallery, Berlin ; Landscape 
with Castle and Village, Wiesbaden Gallery. 
Miiller, 445. 

laud. German school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Cranach, the elder ; flour- 
ished in 1548-72 at Weimar, where he be- 
came court painter to the Elector John Fred- 
eric in 1553. Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 486 ; 
Nagler, Mon., iv. 884 ; W. & W., ii. 433. 

in Berlin in 1725, died there, June 24, 1797. 
German school ; history painter, pupil of 
Antoine Pesne in Berlin and Carle van Loo 
in Paris ; studied afterwards in Eome and 
Venice, and became director of the Berlin 
Academy in 1783. He was the most not- 
able native historical painter at the court 
of Frederick the Great, for whom he exe- 
cuted a number of pictures in palaces and 
churches. Works : Ceilings in New Palace 
of Sans Souci, Potsdam ; Descent from the 
Cross, St. Mary's, Berlin. Fiorillo, iii. 401 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 554 ; Nagler, xiii. 270 ; 
Eeber, i. 54. 

EODEIGUEZ, ST., Murillo, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 4 in. x 4 ft. 10 in. 
Standing before a balustrade, wearing a rich 
chasuble, a palm in his left hand, his right 
outstretched, looking up to a cherub about 
to crown him with a wreath of flowers. 
Louis Philippe sale (1853), 210. Engraved 

by Buchel ; Th. Langer ; etched by H. Biirk- 
ner; lithographed by Julien. Curtis, 266; 
Athenamm (1853), 657. 

EOED, JOBGEN, born at Eingsted, on 
Zealand, Jan. 13, 1808. 
Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Co- 
penhagen Academy un- 
der Han sen ; went in 
1837 to Italy, where he 
painted altarpieces and 
copied after Eaphael ; 
returned in 1842, be- 
came member of Co- 
penhagen Academy in 1844 and professor 
in 1862 ; Copied the Sistine Madonna in 
Dresden in 1851, and visited Italy again in 
1861. Danebrog Order, 1878. Works: 
Departure from Custom House (1835); View 
in Eoyal Garden at Frederiksborg (1836) ; 
Interior of Cathedral at Eibe (1837) ; Win- 
ter View of Cathedral in Eoeskilde ; Girl 
with Fruits (1835), Zealand Mowers after 
Work (1850), Girls at a Font (1851), Family 
Life of Fishermen (1855), Portrait of Ar- 
tist's Mother (1849), do. of Marstrand 
(1873), Copenhagen Gallery ; Crucifixion 
(1866), Eoyal Chapel, Frederiksborg. His 
son, Holger Peter (born Nov. 2, 1846, died 
Feb. 20, 1874), was a talented history paint- 
er, pupil of his father and of Copenhagen 
Academy ; won great gold medals in 1867- 
70 ; visited Paris, Eome, and Naples in 1870 
-72. Sig. Miiller, 281 ; Weilbach, 585. 

in Berlin, Sept. 5, 1824, died there, July 31, 
1860. Genre painter, pupil of Herbig, and 
of Berlin Academy ; studied nature in the 
Hartz Mountains and Thuringia ; grief over 
his young wife's death made him insane. 
Gold medal, Berlin, 1850. Works: Last 
Blessing (1850); Grape Seller, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin. Jordan (1885), ii. 188. 

EOELAS, JUAN DE LAS, born in Sev- 
ille about 1558-60, died at Oliviirez, April 
23, 1625. Spanish school ; supposed son of 
Admiral Pedro de las Eoelas ; received 
a university education ; studied painting 


probably in Venice, where he was influenced 
by the works of Titian and Tintoretto, his 
style being somewhat 
like the latter's. In 
1G03 he was appointed 
prebendary of the chap- 
el at Olivarez, whence 
commonly called El 
Clerigo Roelas, but 
lived at Madrid and 
Seville until 1G24, when 
he removed to Oliviirez. 
Cean Bermudez gives a list of his pictures. 
Among his best works are the Death of St. 
Isidore, S. Isidoro, Seville ; Martyrdom of 
St. Andrew, Seville Museum ; Santiago at 
Battle of Clavigo, Cathedral of Seville ; Mo- 
ses striking the Rock, Madrid Museum ; 
Conception, Dresden Gallery ; Communion 
of St. Theresa, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Viardot, 180 ; Stirling, i. 449 ; Ch. Blanc, 
35cole espagnole ; Madrazo, 563. 

ROELOFS, WILLEM, born in Amster- 
dam, March 10, 1822. Landscape painter, 
pupil in Utrecht of A. H. Winter, and at 
The Hague of H. van de Saude-Bakhuysen ; 
settled in Brussels in 1848. Orders of Leo- 
pold and of Francis Joseph, 1858 ; Officer 
Order of Oaken Crown, 1800. Works : 
View near Abcoude, do. near The Hague, 
Museum, Amsterdam ; Two Landscapes, 
Museum Fodor, ib. ; Landscape with Cattle, 
Rotterdam Museum ; Landscape with Sheep, 
H. P. Kidder, Boston ; Dutch Meadow ; Af- 
ter the Rain ; Banks of the Gain ; Landscape 
near Vreeland ; Forest in Autumn, Liege 
Museum ; Dutch Village (1883). Iinmer- 
zeel, iii.22 ; Kramm, v. 1376; Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xviii. 823 '; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xix. 261. 

ROEPEL, KOENRAAD, born at The 
Hague, Nov. 6, 

1 ? 78> d l ed 1 t ! 1 f c e ' 

Nov. 4, 1748. 

Dutch school; 

portrait, fruit, and 
lo flower painter, 
pupil of Constantin Netscher ; followed af- 
terwards the manner of Jan van Huysum, 

and in his best efforts approached him close- 
ly. Works : Flower-Piece, Fruit-Piece, Am- 
sterdam Museum ; Fruit and Flower-Piece, 
Cassel Gallery ; Flower-Piece, Dresden Gal- 
lery. Immerzeel, iii. 22 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 549. 

ROETH, PHTLTPP, born in Darmstadt, 
March 10, 1841. Landscape painter, pupil 
in Darmstadt (1857-59) of A. Lucas and 
Karl Seeger, in Carlsruhe (1859-60) of J. 
W. Schirmer, and in Darmstadt (1861) of 
Paul Weber ; went to DUsseldorf, and in 
1870 settled in Munich. Works : Banks of 
the Amper ; View in the Odenwald ; do. on 
the Main ; Rainy Weather ; Landscape with 
Cattle (1882). Zeitschr. f. b. K, xvii. 260. 

ROGER, ADOLPHE, born at Palaiseau 
(Seine-et-Oise) in 1800, died in Paris, Feb., 
1880. History and genre painter, pupil 
of Groa Medals : 2d class, 1822 ; 1st class, 
1831 ; L. of Honour, 1841. Works : Vil- 
lage Funeral (1822); Taking the Veil (1831); 
Revolution of 1793 in Rome (1833) ; Due 
d'Orleans working in Trenches of Antweq) 
(1834) ; Charles V. returning to the Louvre 
(1835), Trianon Palace ; Battle of Civitella 
St. Claire receiving her Sister into her Or- 
der (1845) ; Virgin with Violets (1847); Two 
Nuns, Providence turning aside War (1855); 
Human Justice, Divine Pity (1857). Bel- 
lier, ii. 405 ; Larousse. 

ROGER, EUGENE, born at Sens(Yonne) 
in 1807, died in Paris, July 29, 1840. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Hersent and of Ingres ; 
won the second prize in 1829, and the grand 
prix de Rome in 1833 ; great gold medal, 
Paris, 1837. Works : Jacob refusing to de- 
liver Benjamin (1829); Moses and the Brazen 
Serpent (1833) ; Finding of the Body of 
Charles the Bold (1837), Nancy Museum ; 
Charlemagne crossing the Alps (1837), Rais- 
ing of Siege of Salerno 1016 (1839), Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Preaching of Si John in 
the Desert (1840). Bellier, ii. 406 ; Nag- 
ler, xiii. 311. 

ROGGE, WILHELM, born at Osterkap- 
peln, Hanover, in 1829. History and genre 


painter, studied first at Osnabriick, then in 
Munich under Rhomberg and at the Acad- 
emy under Philipp Foltz ; visited North Italy, 
lived for several years in Diisseldorf, and 
settled in Munich. Works : Reconciliation 
of Otto I. with his Brother Henry, Provin- 
zial Museum, Hanover ; Last of the Hohen- 
staufen before Charles of Anjou ; Lying-in- 
Room of a Princess ; Quartering in IGth 
Century ; Return from Fair ; Violinist ; 
Sunday Morning ; Eaves-Dropper ; Treach- 
erous Hostess ; Before the Festival ; Leav- 
ing Home, L M. Scott, San Francisco ; Con- 
valescent, Mrs. D. D. Colton.ib.; three frescos 
in National Museum, Munich. Mttller, 446. 
ROGHMAN, ROELAND, born in Am- 
sterdam in 1597, died there after 1G8C. 
Dutch school ; landscape painter; travelled 
extensively in Germany and Tyrol. His rare 
landscapes in the warm tone of Rembrandt 
are particularly noticeable for their fine per- 
spective ; they may be seen in the Museums 
of Amsterdam and Berlin, Galleries of Cas- 
sel (3, two attributed to Rembrandt), Copen- 
hagen, and Oldenburg. Immerzeel, iii. 23 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 359 ; Kramm, v. 1380. 

ROHDE, KARL, born in Coblentz in 1840. 
Animal painter, pupil of Stuttgart Art School 
under Neher and Rustige, settled in Munich 
in 18C4 ; paints chiefly domestic poultry. 
Works : The Duellists ; Prize Race ; Hungry 
Folk ; Sparrow's Wooing ; Clucking Hen. 
Miiller, 446 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, vi. 247. 


Paris; contemporary. 
Military and genre 
painter, pupil of Ge- 
rome and Bonnat. 
Medals : 3d class, 1875 ; 
1st class, 1877; L. of 
Honour, 1883. Works : 
Environs of Baccarat, 
Evening(1870); Wound- 
ed Fugitive (1872); Bac- 
chante (1873); Don Juan and Haidee (1875); 
Halted! (1875); Huntress (1876) ; Inunda- 

tion of Toulouse in 1875 (1877) ; Festival of 
Silenus (1879) ; Miners on a Strike (1880) ; 
July 14th 1880 (1882) ; Normandy (1883) 
Luxembourg Museum ; Fight between a 
French Cuirassier and a Prussian Sharp- 
shooter ; Marianne Offrey Crieuse de vert 
(1884) ; At Work, Study of a Bull and Nude 
Woman (1885) ; Portrait of Damoye (1886). 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1882), xxv. 546 ; (1884), 
xxix. 468 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xxi. 315. 

ROLL-CALL, Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson 
Butler, Windsor Castle ; canvas. Calling 
the roll of the Grenadier Guards on a misty 
winter morning after an engagement in the 
Crimea. A line of soldiers worn out with con- 
flict, some wounded, some dying and fallen 
with their faces in the snow, inspected by 
the colonel as he rides slowly past. Royal 
Academy, 1874 ; purchased by the Queen. 
Engraved by F. Stacpoole. Art Journal 
(1874), 163. 

Charles Louis Miiller, Versailles Museum ; 
canvas, H. 14 ft. 4 in. x 26 ft. 11 in. Scene 
the prison of the Couciergerie, on the 8th 
Thermidor, 1794. An officer of the Revolu- 
tionary Tribunal is reading the names of the 
victims for whom the cart waits outside the 
door ; the Princesse de Chimay is already 
in the cart, and the Princesse de Monaco, 
who has just been called, rises in terror at 
right, while an informer points her out 
with his finger. The central figure, seated 
in a chair, is Andre Chenier, the author. 
Salon, 1850 ; replica (H. 4 ft. 3 in. x 7 ft. 10 
in.), bought in 1862 by John Taylor John- 
ston for $1,800 ; his sale (1876), $8,200, to 
J. J. Astor, New York. Original sketch, H. 
L. Dousman, St. Louis. Photogravure in 
Art Treasures of America, ii. 11, 14 ; iii. 58. 

ROLLMANN, JULIUS, born Dec. 13, 
1827, died at Soest, Westphalia, April 30, 
18G5. Landscape painter, pupil of Diissel- 
dorf and Berlin Academies ; settled in Mu- 
nich, and in 1853 in DUsseldorf ; visited 
Italy in 1858. Work: View in Bavarian 
Alps (1864), National Gallery, Berlin. Jor- 
dan (1885), ii. 189. 



BOMAKO, ANTON, born at Atzgers- 
dorf, near Vienna, in 1835. Genre painter, 
pupil of Vienna Academy and of Rabl ; 
lived afterwards mostly in Home ; is par- 
ticularly successful with Viennese children 
types and Italian figures. Works : Woman 
of Seville (1851), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Battle of Arminius (1852) ; Wine, Woman, 
and Song, Marietta, Serenade of Italian 
Peasants, Scene from Decameron (18GO) ; 
Vanity (1861) ; Poetry (1802), New Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Shepherd Boy from the Cam- 
pagna ; Roman Country Girl ; Girl from 
Sabine Mountains ; Lady blowing Bubbles ; 
Assault of Turks on Vienna ; Ristori as 
Phaedra ; Madonna ; Portrait of Pius IX. 
(1872) ; Wine, Woman, and Song (Jubilee 
Exhibition, Berlin, 188C) ; Last Hours of 
Beatrice Cenci, A. Adams, Watertown, Mass. ; 
Sentinel of Louis XV., D. W. Powers, 
Rochester. Wurzbach, xxvi. 315. 

ROMAN CHARITY (Caritas Romana), 
the title generally given to illustrations of 
an act of filial piety narrated by several 
ancient writers, in which a daughter nour- 
ishes with her own milk a parent con- 
demned to death by hunger. According 
to Valerius Maximus (v. 8) and Pliny (Nat. 
Hist., vii. 36) the imprisoned parent is a 
mother ; but Festus and Solinus make the 
characters of the drama a father named Ci- 
mon and his daughter Pern. The latter is 
the version adopted by the painters. There 
is an antique painting of the subject in the 
Studj Museum, Naples. In the Church of 
S. Niccolo in Carcere, Rome, supposed to 
stand on the site of the Temple of Piety, 
said by Pliny to have been erected over the 
dungeon, is shown a series of cells, one of 
which is reputed to be the scene of the 
Caritas Romana. This place inspired the 
beautiful lines in " Childe Harold" (iv. 

By Gerard Honthorst, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 9 in. x 4 ft. 8 in. 
Figures seen to the knees. The daughter, 
holding a lighted caudle in one hand and 
looking anxiously towards the right, pre- 

sents her breast to her aged father, who, 
half-nude, has chains on his wrists. One 
of Honthorst 's best pictures. Lithographed 
by Ferdinand Piloty, the elder. Etched by 
Joseph Hauber. Engraved by Johauu Karl 

By Jules Joseph Lefebvre, Melun Muse- 
um. The daughter, holding her infant in 
her arms and looking around anxiously lest 
somebody may observe her, presents her 
breast to her father through the barred 
window of his cell, outside of which she is 
standing. Painted in Rome, whence sent 
to the Iviole des Beaux Arts in 1803 ; Sa- 
lon, 1864 ; purchased by the State. 

By Itub'iis, Blenheim Palace ; canvas, H. 
6 ft. 4 in. x 6 ft. The old man kneeling on 
some straw, with his hands bound behind 
him ; his daughter, bending by his side, 
looks with anxious eyes towards the grated 
prison- window ; in foreground, her infant 
asleep on the straw. Engraved by J. Smith. 
Blenheim sale (1886), .1,200, to Murray. 
Smith, ii. 113, 248 ; Waagen, Treasures, iii. 

Subject treated also by Guido Reni, Mar- 
seilles Museum, Cologne Museum ; Jean 
' Jacques Bachelier, Louvre, Paris ; Parmigi- 
anino, Naples Museum ; Benedetto Crespi, 
Madrid Museum ; Francesco Migliori, Dres- 
den Gallery; Wenzel Marus (1857); Ru- 
bens, Hague Museum, Hermitage in St. 
Petersburg ; Nicolas Poussin (engraved by 
J. Pesue). Hobhouse, Historical Illustra- 
tions ; Larousse, iii. 995. 

ROMAN EMPEROR, .1/ma-Tadema, W. 
T. Walters, Baltimore ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 9 
in. X 5 ft. 8 in. ; dated 1871. Claudius 
hailed ironically as emperor by soldiers and 
others, who discover him hiding behind the 
terminal bust of Caligula, whose dead body 
lies at its foot. Engraved by Rajon. Art 
Journal, Feb., 1883 ; Portfolio (1877), 125. 

Lorrain, Earl Radnor, Longford Castle ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. x 4 ft. 6 in. A seaport at 
sunrise, with landing of ^Etieas in Latium. 
Liber Veritatis, No. 122. Engraved by 



Mason (1772). Eeplica in small, Grosve- 
nor House, London. Pattison, Claude Lor- 
raiu, 67, 217, 233 ; Waagen, Treasures, iii. 

Claude Lorrain, Earl Radnor, Longford 
Castle ; canvas, H. 4 f t. x 4 ft. 6 in. A sun- 
set, with antique ruins and an aqueduct. 
Liber Veritatis, No. 82. Engraved by J. 
Fittler (1772). Eeplica in small (1661), Gros- 
venor House, London. Pattison, Claude 
Lorrain, 67, 214, 219, 234 ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures, iii. 140. 

Academia S. Fernando, Madrid ; canvas, 
semicircular, H. 7 ft. 6 in. x 17 ft. 2 in. 
The Senator, seated in a chair asleep, his 
wife sleeping, on the floor beside him ; they 
behold the vision of the Virgin, who ap- 
pears holding the Child and pointing through 
the open door to the site on which she di- 
rects the founding of the Church of S. M. 
Maggiore. Painted, with following picture, 
about 1656, for S. M. la Blanca, Seville ; 
taken to Paris by Soult, who gave them, at 
the Eestoration, to the King, who placed 
them in the Louvre ; returned to Spain in 
1814. Engraved by D. Martinez ; etched 
by Galvan. Copy by Souchon in Lille Mu- 
seum. Curtis, 20G ; Huard, Vie des Pein- 
tres espagnoles (Paris, 1839-41). 

DEEAM, Murillo, Academia S. Fernando, 
Madrid ; canvas, semicircular, H. 7 ft. 6 in. 
x 17 ft, 2 in. The Senator and his wife, 
kneeling, relate their dream to Pope Libe- 
rius, who sits enthroned at left, attended 
by two cardinals ; at right, in distance, a 
throng of people, and the Pope under a 
canopy, assist at the founding of the church. 
Same history as above. Engraved by D. 
Martinez ; etched by Galvan. Copy by 
Souchon in Lille Museum. Curtis, 20G. 

CO, born at Viterbo in 1610 or 1612, died 
there, July, 1662. ' Eoman school ; pupil at 
Eome of Domenichino and of Pietro da Cor- 
tona ; won the favour of the Barberini family 

and executed frescos in the Vatican to the 
satisfaction of Urban VIII. Painted also 
Presentation of the 
Virgin, for a mosaic 
in St. Peter's, a very 
successful work. Be- 
came Prince of Acad- 
emy of St. Luke. 
Followed Cardinal 
Barberini to Paris in 
1648 and painted 
frescos in the Maza- 
rin Palace. Eomanelli returned to Italy in 
1651, but was recalled to Paris by Mazarin 
in 1659 and received with great favour by 
Louis XIV., who intrusted to him the dec- 
oration of several apartments in the Louvre. 
This work was finished in 1661, when ill- 
health compelled his return to Italy. He 
had just built a house near Viterbo, where 
he intended to retire and enjoy his wealth 
and honours, when he died. He was a 
weak, though pleasing, painter. His son 
Urbano, also a painter, died young in 1682. 
Most of Eomanelli's easel pictures are in 
churches in Eome, and in Viterbo ; among 
those in public galleries are : Venus and 
JSneas, Venus and Adonis (2), Gathering of 
Manna, Louvre, Paris ; Allegory on Eiches, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Martyrdom of St. 
Lawrence, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Herodias 
with the Head of St. John, Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Victory Dance of Jewesses before 
David, The Kings of India doing Homage 
to Alexander, Vienna Museum. Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole onibrienne ; Burckhardt, 768. 

EOMANINO, GIEOLAMO, born at Bres- 
cia about 1485, died there in 1566. Vene- 
tian school ; supposed pupil of Stefano Eizzi, 
or of Floriano Ferramola at Brescia, but 
probably studied also under one of the Fri- 
ulian masters. Free of guild at Brescia be- 
fore 1510, when he was a skilled artist in 
the manner of the Palmas and of Pellegrino. 
At this time he painted the Pietd, now in 
the collection of Sir Ivor Guest, England, 
which was quickly followed by the Madonna 
with Saints, and the Judith, in the Berlin 


Museum, and the Madonna with Saints 
(1502-12), S. Francesco, Brescia. After 
the sack of Brescia, Bomanino found a 
home among the Benedictines of S. Gius- 
tina, Padua, for whose church he painted 
(1513) a splendid altarpiece, Madonna with 
Saints, now in the Padua Gallery. His 
Last Supper, painted for the refectory and 
now in the same gallery, shows less care 
and skill. He returned to Brescia in 1510- 
17, and in 1521 contracted with Moretto 
to paint the chapel of Corpus Christ! in S. 
Giovanni Evangelista, where his frescos and 
canvases are still extant, though much in- 
jured ; worked in Cremona about and after 
1517, and in Trent about 1540. Among his 
best works is the Nativity (1525), National 
Gallery, London. Other noteworthy works 
are : Pieta, Madonna Enthroned and Saints, 
Berlin Museum ; Christ carrying his Cross, 
Tosi Collection, Brescia ; Assumption, S. 
Alessandro, Bergamo ; Christ's Sermon on 
the Mount, S. Pietro, Modena ; four large 
frescos (1519-20), Choir, Duomo, Cremona ; 
two do., Brescia Gallery ; Marriage of Vir- 
gin, S. Giovanni Evangelista, ib. ; Descent 
from the Cross, Gallery, ib.; Decorative 
Frescos, Episcopal Palace, Trent ; Organ 
Doors, Duomo, Brescia. C. & C., N. Italy, 
ii. 367 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., xi. 107, 2C2 ; 
Burckhardt, 734 ; Lermolieff, 445 ; Lflbke, 
Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 607. 

ROMANO. See Giulio Romano. 

Everett Millais, Bart, Sir I. Lowthian Bell, 
Washington Hall, Durham, England ; can- 
vas. The parting between a Roman legion- 
ary and his British mistress, on a cliff path 
overlooking the sea, where a large galley is 
waiting for the soldier. He kneels at her 
feet with his arms clasped about her and his 
face hidden in her breast ; she has her hands 
upon his shoulders and gazes with a passion- 
ate, savage stare on the sea. Royal Acad- 
emy, 1865. 

Thomas Couture, Luxembourg Museum, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 15 ft. 3 in. x 25 ft 4 in. 

Illustration of Juvenal (Sat VL). A Roman 
debauch in the decline of the Empire. A 
feast in the atrium of a magnificent house, 
where the statues of the fathers look down 
upon the degenerate sons, represented in 
every stage of intoxication. Salon, 1847. 
Study, Christian Herter, New York. La- 
rousse, v. 417. 

ROMBOUTS, J., nourished in Haarlem 
about 1660. Dutch school ; landscai>o 
painter in the style of Ruysdael and Hob- 
bema, but not an imitator of either; per- 
haps identical with Gilles Rombouts, who 
was received into Haarlem guild in 1652, 
and by whom is a Weaver Shop Interior 
(1056) in the Haarlem Museum. Works : 
Wood Landscapes in Museums of Amster- 
dam, Basle, Berlin, Brunswick, Gotha (2), 
Leipsic ; Winter Landscape with Skaters, 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Dutch Village (1658), 
Dresden Gallery ; Sea Shore with many peo- 
ple watching Sea Fight in the Distance, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Entrance to the For- 
est (figures and animals by A. van de Velde), 
Six Gallery, Amsterdam ; Windmill on a 
Canal (?), Historical Society, New York. 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 47!) ; Burger, ii. 132, 
293 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 399. 

BOMBOUTS, SALOMON, flourished in 
Haarlem about 1050. Dutch school ; land- 
scape painter ; circumstances of his life un- 
known. Works : Dutch Park with Figures 
(by Lingelbach), Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Coast near Scheveningcu with many Fig- 
ures, Leipsic Museum ; Farm-House and 
Yard near Pond with Fishermen, Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich. 

werp, bapti7.ed July 2, 1597, died there, Sept. 
14, 1637. Flemish school ; history and 
genre painter, pupil of Abraham Janssens ; 
went to Rome in 1616, whence he was invited 
to Florence by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, 
and then visited Pisa ; master of guild in 
Antwerp in 1625, and dean in 1628-30. 
In 1635 painted two large pictures of the 
Entrance of the Archduke Ferdinand into 
Ghent. Portrait painted by Van Dyck. 



Works : Allegory of Justice, The Five 
Senses, St. Joseph in a Dream advised by the 

Angel to Flee, 
Male Bust Por- 
trait, Museum, 
Ghent ; Descent 
from the Cross, 
Cathedral, ib.; 
Christ as Pilgrim 
received by St. 
Augustin (1636), 
Card Players 
(ascribed to Va- 
lentin), Museum, Antwerp ; Mystical Mar- 
riage of St. Catharine (1634), St. James', ib.; 
do. (1636), St. Martin's, Yperen ; Martyrdom 
of St. Rumbold, Finding of St. Rumbold's 
Body, Beguin Convent, Mechlin ; Peter's 
Denial, Lille Museum ; Ecce Homo, Mater 
Dolorosa, Hospital of St. John, Bruges ; 
Card Players, The Charlatan, Madrid Muse- 
um ; Irene drawing the Arrows from St. Se- 
bastian's Wounds, Carisruhe Gallery ; Male 
Portrait, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Com- 
pany of Singers, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Card Players, Kitchen Interior, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; St. 
John Preaching, 
Historical Society, 
New York. Cat. 
du Mus. d'Anvers, 
288; Ch. Blanc, 
cole flamande ; Immerzeel, iii. 24 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 294 ; Kramm, v. 1384 ; Michiels, 
ix. 351; Rooses (Reber), 340; Van den 
Branden, 885. 

W. Turner, National Gallery, London ; can- 
vas, H. 4 ft. 2 in. x 7 ft. 5 in. View, from 
near the Coliseum, of the Roman Forum, 
with the Arch of Titus at left and ruins of 
Basilica of Constautine at right. Painted 
about 1820. Engraved by E. Challis in 
Turner Gallery. 

M. W. Turner, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 5 ft. 9 in. x 10 ft. 11 in. A gen- 
eral view of Rome, seen from the Loggia of 


the Vatican, which was decorated by Raph- 
ael and his assistants ; but, instead of them, 
Turner has represented Raphael and the 
Fornarina in the foreground, with which he 
has taken many liberties. Royal Academy, 
1820. Engraved by A. Willinore in Turner 

croix, Mme. Gabriel Delessert, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 2 ft. x 1 ft. 7 in. ; signed, dated 
1845. Parting of Romeo and Juliet on the 
balcony, in moonlight. The two, seen full 
length, are embracing. Salon, 1846 ; Ex- 
position universelle, 1855. Study, sepia 
drawing, Riesener sale. Chesneau, (Euvre 
de Delacroix, 243 ; Larousse, xiii. 1358. 

By Eugene Delacroix, Montpellier Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. 10 in. X 8 in. Scene in 
the tomb ; figures full length, Romeo with 
Juliet in his arms. Painted in 1851 ; Ex- 
position universelle, 1855. Lithograph by 
Eugene Le Roux. Chesneau, CEuvre de 
Delacroix, 316. 

Subject treated Also by Charles Franjois 
Jalabert (Salon, 1857) ; Hermann Gold- 
schmidt (Salon, 1857) ; James Bertrand 
(Salon, 1874) ; Germann von Bohn, Nan- 
cy Museum ; Friedrich August Bouterwek 
(1836) ; Ferdinand Alexander Bruckmann ; 
Hans Makart ; Frank Dicksee (1884). 

ROMEYN, WILLEM, born in Haarlem 
about 1624, died after 1693. Dutch school ; 
landscape and animal painter, pupil of Ber- 
chem in 1642. Master of Haarlem guild in 
1646. He possessed pure feeling for nature, 
taste for picturesque arrangement, and drew 
welL His landscapes, with animals and 
herdsmen, show the strong influence of Du 
Jardin. Works : Landscapes with Sheep 
or Cattle, and Figures in the Louvre, in 
Museums of Amsterdam (5), Berlin, Dres- 
den, New York ; Galleries of Copenhagen 
and Frankfort ; Old Pinakothek, Munich 
, (3, one dated 1665); 
Liechtenstein (2) 
and Czernin (2) 
Galleries, Vienna ; Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg (3). Kugler (Crowe), ii. 451 ; Ch. 


Blanc, l5cole hollandaise ; Van der Willi- 
geu, 252. 

ROMNEY, GEORGE, born at Dalton-le- 
Furness, L a n c a- 
shire, England, 
Dec. 15, 1734, died 
at Kendal, Nov. 
15, 1802. After ac- 
quiring a little 
knowledge of 
painting from 
Steele, a painter 
at Keudal, he sup- 
ported himself by 

painting portraits in the north of England, 
at two guineas a head, until 1762, when he 
went to London. In that year, and in 1765, 
he gained premiums from the Society of 
Arts for his pictures of the Death of Wolfe 
and the Death of King Edward. In 1773 
he visited Italy with Ozias Humphrey, and, 
after a two years' absence, established him- 
self in London, where, until 1797, when he 
removed to Hainpstead, he divided public 
patronage with Reynolds and Gainsborough. 
His favourite model was the notorious and 
beautiful Lady Hamilton, whose face he re- 
produced under many disguises. Ho painted 
with few colours, with great breadth of treat- 
ment, and in some instances with exceeding 
grace and sentiment. Much of his work is 
sketchy, often careless in the accessories, 
but it is never without charm. His flesh 
tints are fresh, and his treatment of hair, 
though slight, is truthful and facile. Works : 
Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante, Parson's 
Daughter, National Gallery, London ; Por- 
traits of Richard Cumberland, Lady Hamil- 
ton, and Flaxman, National Portrait Gallery, 
ib. ; Lord Stanley and Sister, Lady Horton, 
Earl of Derby ; Lady Hamilton at Spinning 
Wheel, Earl of Normantou ; do. as Ariad- 
ne, Baron L. de Rothschild ; do. as Euphros- 
yne, Jeffrey Whitehead, Esq. Full list of 
works in Lord Ronald Gower's "Romney 
and Lawrence. "Hay ley, Life (1809) ; Rev. 
John Romney, Life (1830) ; Cunningham ; 
European Magazine, vol. 43 ; Cat. Nat. Port 

Gal. ; Cat. S. Kensington Mus , Nat. Port. 
Exhib. (1867) ; Redgrave ; F. do Conches, 
271 ; Ch. Blanc, tfcole anglaise ; Portfolio 
(1873), 18, 34. 

Sacchi, Vatican ; canvas, H. 10 ft. x 5 f t 6 
in. St. Romuald, founder of the order of the 
Camaldolensians, seated under a tree telling 
his companions of his dream, in which he 


r*i ' Jl.v..J N ? 6*vv--3*A 

Vision of St. Romuald. Andrei Sacchi, Vatican 

saw a ladder, like Jacob's at Bethel, and the 
; brethren of the order ascending to heaven. 

Painted for Church of the Camaldoli, Rome ; 

carried to Paris in 1799 ; restored in 1815, 

and placed in the Vatican. Called in its 
j time one of the four best pictures in Rome 

a verdict scarcely concurred in by modern 
! critics. Landon, Musee, viii. PI. 21 ; Muaee 


fran9ais, i. ; Lavice, 314 ; Burckhardt, 776, 

born in Pomarance, 
near Volterra, in 
1552, died in Eome, 
May, 1626. Eoman 
school ; sometimes 
called, from his 
birthplace, Cava- 
liere delle Poma- 
rance. Pupil of Nic- 
colo Circignani, 
called also Delle Pomarance, under whom he 
became a good historical painter. Employed 
in the decoration of the Vatican. Painted 
Death of Ananias and Sapphira, which was 
copied in mosaic for St. Peter's. Painted 
also the Baptism of Constantine, in S. Gio- 
vanni di Laterano ; but his most noted works 
are the frescos with which he decorated the 
cupola of La Santa Casa di Loreto. The 
walls of S. Stefano, Rome, are covered with 
frescos by him, representing the martyrdoms 
of saints from the Crucifixion to the reign 
of Julian. In the Old Pinakothek, Munich, 
is a Martyrdom of Simon of Cana, and in 
the Schleissheim Gallery a Joseph interpret- 
ing the Dreams. Lanzi, i. 467 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole ombrienne. 

in Parma about end of 15th century, died 
about 1548. Lombard school ; pupil of 
Correggio, and his assistant in S. Giovanni ; 
imitated his master's style very closely. 
Works : Frescos in fifth chapel of Duomo, 
Cremona ; Madonna in Glory, Parma Gal- 
lery ; Madonna and Saints (2), Galleria Es- 
tense, Modena ; Holy Family, Hermitage, 

St. Petersburg. Lanzi, ii. 399 ; Ch. Blanc, 
cole lombarde ; Burckhardt, 701. 

EONDEL, FEEDERIC, born in Paris in 
1826. Landscape painter, pupil of Auguste 
Jugelet and of Theodore Gudin. First ex- 

hibited in the National Academy in 1855. 
Elected an A.N. A. in 1860. Works : Water- 
Fall near Amherst, Mass. (1882); Old 
| Orchard at Newport, E. I. (1883) ; The 
| Eecluse (1884); View at Rhinebeck, Busch-a- 
Bouck Falls at Ehinebeck (1885). 

EONDINELLO, NICCOL6, of Forli and 
Ravenna, beginning of 16th century. Ve- 
netian school ; pupil of Giovanni Bellini, 
Venice, and one of his most industrious as- 
sistants, aiding in the production of pictures 
which Bellini sold as his own, and painting 
Madonnas which might well pass as the 
work of his master. All his early works 
show that he was impressed by one class of 
Bellinesque models ; in his later ones he is 
as much an imitator of Palmezzano as of 
the Venetians. His Madonna, in the Palaz- 
zo Doria, Eome, and another, in the Forli 
Museum, are examples of his earlier style ; 
and his Madonna and Saints, in the Eavenna 
Gallery, of his later style. C. & C., N. Italy, 
i. 591 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., v. 17 ; ix. 148 ; 
xi. 93, 147. 

born in Amsterdam, May 31, 1821. Animal 
painter, daughter and pupil of Josephus Au- 
gustus Knip ; paints domestic animals with 
fine observation and humour. Works : Af- 
ter the Meal ; Boy and Dog ; Waiting for 
Dinner ; Dog Begging ; Exodus of Dogs ; 
Hare-Hunt (1876) ; Cart drawn by Dogs, 
Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; The Exact 
Hour (1884) ; Fine Arts School (1885) ; 
Flowers and Accessories (1886) ; Unlocked 
Door, Dog and Pigeon, Stettin Museum ; 
j Coming from Market, Mrs. D. D. Colton, 
I San Francisco ; School of Painting (Jubilee 
Exhibition, Berlin, 1886). Immerzeel, ii. 
119 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1884), i. 224 ; Kramm, 
v. 1385. 

RONOT, CHARLES, born at Belan-sur- 
Ource (Cote d'Or), May 28, 1820. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Glaize. Paints 
popular life in the style of Courbet. Med- 
als : 2d class, 1876 ; 1st class, 1878. Works : 
Christ healing the Sick at Pool of Bethes- 
da (1855) ; Women and the Secret (1868) ; 



Women stripping Hemp (1874) ; Labourers 
of the Last Hour (1876) ; Anger of the 
Pharisees (1877); Charities of St. Elizabeth 
of Hungary (1878) ; Girl tending Cows, 
George Chastelain writing his Chronicles 
(1879) ; Last Members of the Mountain 
(1882) ; In the Other World (1885) ; A la 
Hotte !, The Daisies (1886). 

ROORE, JACOB DE, born in Antwerp, 
July 20, 1686, died at The Hague, July 17, 
1747. Flemish school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Kaspar Jacob van Opstal ; 
became master of the guild in 1707, exe- 
cuted important decorative works on a large 
scale, in Antwerp (1709-19), Amsterdam, 
and Rotterdam, and settled at The Hague, 
where he entered the guild. In 1728-29 he 
painted again in Antwerp for several prom- 
inent citizens. By his art, and a trade in 
pictures which he carried on together with 
Geeraard Hoet, he amassed a considera- 
ble fortune. Works: Ransom of Chris- 
tian Slaves by the Trinitarians' (1709), St. 
James's, Antwerp ; Ceilings with Allegories 
(1715, 1716, 1717), City Hall, ib. ; Chris- 
tians compelled to worship Idols, Meet- 
ing of Moses and Aaron, Tournay Muse- 
um ; Portraits of Artist and Wife (1707), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg. Immerzeel, iii. 26 ; 
Kramm, v. 1386 ; Rooses (Reber), 440 ; Van 
den Branden, 1172. 

Ottendorf, Palati- 
nate, Oct. 27, 1631, 
died in Frankfort, 
Oct. 3, 1685. Ger- 
man school ; land- 
scape and animal 
painter, pupil in 
Amsterdam of Ju- 
liaan du Jardin 
(1647), and of Bar- 
end Graat. Having 
visited Italy, France, and England in 1650- 
54, he settled in Frankfort about 1657 ; 
lived also in Cassel and Mentz, and became 
court painter to the Elector Palatine 
Charles Louis in 1673. Works : Landscape 


with Cattle (2), Historical Society, New 
York; Italian Landscape (1670), Hague 
Museum ; do., Berlin Museum ; Herd 
by Statue of Hercules, Male (1669), and 
Female Portrait, Aschaffeuburg Gallery ; 
Pastoral Scenes (7, two dated 16CO, 1668), 
Osteria in a Roman Ruin, Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery; Bull with Goats and Sheep (1662), 
Camp Scene (1665), Cow among Sheep 
(1676), Copenhagen Gallery ; Italian Laud- 
scapes (3, 1668, 1C80, 1685), Portrait of a 
Scholar (1676), do. of himself, Darmstadt 
Museum ; St. John with the Lamb (1684), 
Old Lady's Portrait, Anialienstift, Dessau ; 
Landscape with Cattle and Sheep (3, one 
dated 1681), Dresden Museum ; Cattle driv- 
en through Water (1670), Herd resting by 
Ruins (1674), Shepherd Family and Flock 
(1680), Artist and Wife surrounded by Al- 
legories, Artist's Portrait (?, 2, one dated 
1680), two others, Stiidel Gallery, Frank- 
fort ; Family on Garden Terrace, Leipsic 
Museum ; Landscapes with Cattle and Fig- 
ures (8, four dated 1661, 1665, 1668, 1675), 
Breaking up of Army Encampment (1677), 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Roman Land- 
scape with Ruins (16G9), Germanic Muse- 
um, Nuremberg ; Four Divisions of Day (4, 
1C67), Oldenburg Gallery ; Italian Land- 
scape (1674), Halt of Gypsies among Ruins 
(1675), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Artist's 
Portrait, Pastoral Scene (1676), View near 
Tivoli (1683), eight others, Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Cattle Pieces (2, 1662, 1682), Vi- 
enna Museum ; others in Galleries of Bolo- 
gna (2), Brunswick, Cassel (2), Schwerin (3, 
1684, 1685), Stuttgart (4), Turin (1682), 
Wurlitz ; Liechtenstein (1658), Czerniu, and 
Schiinborn (2) Galleries, Vienna ; Historical 
Society, New York (2). Hia brother The- 
odor (born at Wesel 
in 1638, died in 1698), 
pupil of Adriaen de 
Bie, lived in Mann- 
heim about 1657, . <J\j 
Strasburg in 1681, ^ 
and finally as court painter at Stuttgart, 
where he painted eight large historical pict- 


tires for the duke. His drawing is less 
commendable than his colouring. In the 
Schleissheim Gallery is by him a Nativity. 
Ch. Blanc, ficole allemande ; Immerzeel, 
iii. 27 ; Kramm, v. 1387 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 529 ; Nagler, xiii. 353 ; do., Moil., iii. 552 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, xiv. 391. 

Frankfort in 1659, died there in 1731. Ger- 
man school ; animal and portrait painter, 
son and pupil of preceding, studied in Italy 
in 168G-90 ; after his return married in Nu- 
remberg, and settled in Frankfort ; lived 
also temporarily in Switzerland, where he 
painted portraits at Schaffhausen, Winter- 
thur, etc.; employed several years by the 
landgrave of Hesse Cassel, for whom he 
painted some of his best works. Works : 
Landscape with Cattle (2), Bamberg Gal- 
lery ; Annunciation to the Shepherds, Cassel 
Gallery ; Boar Hunt, Deer Hunt, two others, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Cattle-Piece (1G87), 
Christ on Mount of Olives (1710), Amalien- 
stift, Dessau ; Stags under an Oak (1714), 
Dresden Museum ; Landscape with Lion 
Family (1716), Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Four Animal Pieces (two dated 1716, 1717); 
Meiningen Gallery ; "White Stag and Hind, 

White Bears ( 1729 )> 

Animal Life ( 1732 )> 

Schwerin Gallery; 
Boar Hunt, Stag Hunt, 
Stuttgart Museum ; 
Sheep and Goats, Wiesbaden Gallery. Na- 
gler, xiii. 360. 

Eosa di Tivoli, born in Frankfort in 1655, 
died in Borne in 1705. German school ; 
landscape and animal painter, son and pupil 
of Johanu Heinrich, in whose style he paint- 
ed in his earlier time ; in 1677 he went to 
Borne, where he studied under Brandi, whose 
daughter he married, and later settled at 
Tivoli, whence his surname. He painted 
life-size figures and animals in a broad yet 
superficial manner, and in a heavy brown 
tone. Works : Wolf tearing Lamb, Lou- 
vre ; Noah and Animals, seven others, Dres- 

den Gallery ; Falls of Tivoli, Flock of Sheep, 
Two Cavalry Skirmishes, Vienna Museum ; 
seventeen pictures, Cassel Gallery ; others 
in Galleries and Museums of Augsburg, 
Bamberg, Bologna (2), Brunswick, Brussels, 
Carlsruhe (2), Darmstadt (2), Gotha (3, one 
dated 1694), Leipsic (2), Madrid (8), Nu- 
remberg (2), Oldenburg, Schleissheim (5), 
Schwerin ; Eaczynski Gallery, Berlin (2) ; 
Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg (4) ; Uffizi, Florence. Hia 
son Jacob, called Eosa da Napoli (born at 
Tivoli in 1680), painted at Naples quite in 
the same manner. Kugler (Crowe), ii. 531. 

EOOS (Eosa), JOSEF, born in Vienna, 
Oct. 9, 1726, died there, Aug. 25 (or 30), 
1805. Landscape and animal painter, son 
of and first instructed by Cajetan Eoos (died 
in Vienna about 1735, son of Eosa da Tiv- 
oli), then studied after the works of his 
grandfather, and became pupil of the Vi- 
enna Academy ; setting out to travel, he 
worked at Dresden, with the interruption 
of a year's (1757) sojourn in Berlin, and on 
his return to Vienna became inspector of 
the Belvedere Gallery, of which he pub- 
lished in 1796 a valuable comprehensive 
description. He was court painter to Au- 
gustus IH. of Saxony, and member of the 
Dresden Academy. Works: Mountain Land- 
scape with Sheep (1770), Museum, Vienna ; 
do. and Shepherd Family (2, 1763), Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, ib. ; Four Great Land- 
scapes, Summer Palace of Schonbrun ; 
Landscape with Flock (1765), Dresden 
Museum. Wurzbach, xxvi. 335. 


born in Antwerp, March 11, 1808. His- 
tory, genre, and portrait painter, pupil of 
M. van Bree ; visited Italy, France, and 
England. Medal, 1836. Works : Last Mo- 
ments of Egmont (1836) ; Philip of Marnix 
fleeing from the Spaniards (1839) ; Eeturn 
of Nuns to their Convent ; Farewell of Al- 
brecht Beyling (1844). Immerzeel, iii. 29 ; 
Kramm, v. 1389. 



CAMILLE, called Rocoplan, born at Malle- 
mart (Bouches-du-Rhone), Feb. 18, 1800, 
died in Paris, Sept. 29, 1855. Genre, ma- 
rine, and landscape painter, pupil of Abel 
de Pujol and of Gros. One of the leaders of 
the new school of French art (1830). Med- 
als : 2d class, 1824 ; 1st class, 1828 ; L. of 
Honour, 1831 ; Officer, 1852. Works : Equi- 
noctial Tide, Death of the Spy Morris (1827), 
Lille Museum ; Sea View (1831), Havre Mu- 
seum ; Draught of Fishes (1828), Sick Moth- 
er (1830), Corn Field (1830), Meadow (1835), 
View with Bridge and Windmills, KiJnigs- 
berg Museum ; Incident in Life of Rous- 
seau, Water Mill, Walk in the Park (1833); 
Antiquary (sold for 30,000 francs at the Due 
d'Orleans' sale), St. Bartholomew's Day.Pacy- 
sur-Eure (1834); Rousseau picking Cherries, 
Amorous Lion (1830) ; Battle of Elchiugen 
(1837), do. of Rocoux, Versailles Museum ; 
Dutch Subscription, Gaston de Medicis 
(1837) ; Van Dyck in London, Magdalen in 
Desert (1838) ; Peasants of the Valley of 
Ossau, Spaniards of Penticosa, Passports 
on Spanish Frontier (1847) ; Leda, Girl 
with Flowers (1850) ; Fountain of Grand 
Figuier (1852), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Daughters of Eve (1855, last work) ; Valen- 
tine and Raoul, Bordeaux Museum ; Chil- 
dren playing with Cat, Chartres Museum ; 
Coast View, Grenoble Museum ; Castello 
Gaudolfo, Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; Har- 
bour of Boulogne in Approaching Storm, 
Leipsic Mu- ,* 

I i SI 

seum. Bel- li O 

lier, ii. 415 ; / \ Q Q L*jQ pAjCi"\ 
Ch. Blanc, 7 / J 

ficole fran- 

aise ; Lejeune, Guide, iii. 22f>, 317 ; Meyer, 
Gesch., 269 ; Nagler, xiii. 365. 

WESSELTOFT, born at Drammen, Nor- 
way, May 17, 1803, died in Copenhagen, 
Aug. 29, 1848. Genre and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Copenhagen Academy, and 
of Eckersberg ; visited, in 1834-37, Italy, 
Greece, and Turkey, and brought home 

numerous studies. On his return he won 
the Thorvaldsen medal, in 1838 became 
member of, and in 1844 professor at, the 
Academy, having gone to Italy meanwhile 
in 1839. His pictures are brilliant in col- 
our and carefully executed. Works : Turk- 
ish Notary making Marriage Contract 
(1837) ; Life in the East (1838) ; Market at 
Amalfi (1842) ; Arcade of City Hall at Co- 
penhagen (1832), Chapel of St Benedict's 
Convent at Subiaco (1843), Orientals be- 
fore Turkish Coffee-House (1845), Inhabi- 
tants of Cape Skagen amusing themselves 
(1848), Copenhagen Gallery. Weilbach, 

phonse de Nnurille, Sydney Gallery, New 
South Wales ; canvas, H. 7 f t x 9 ft. As- 
sault by the Zulus on the improvised de- 
fences at Rorke's Drift, on the evening of 
the defeat at Isandhlwana. Painted in 1880 
for Fine Art Society. Atheu., March, 1880, 

Subject treated also by Elizabeth Thomp- 
son Butler (1881). 


near Naples, June 20, 
1615, died in Rome, 
March 15, 1(573. Ne- 
apolitan school ; pupil 
of his uncle, Paolo 
Greco, and his broth- 
er-in-law, Francesco 
Fracanzano. When 
about eighteen years 
old he made a sketch- 
ing tour through the Abruzzi, and is said 
to have learned from banditti of that wild 
region many incidents which he afterwards 
painted. On his return home he was 
obliged, by the death of his father, to la- 
bour for the support of the family ; but he 
was fortunate enough to gain the friendship 
of Lanfranco and Aniello Falcone, through 
whose aid his pictures found a sale. Under 
Falcone's instruction he learned to paint 
I battle scenes with such success as to rival 

See 7?oos, Philipp. 
born at Eenelln, 



his master. About 1635 he went to Rome, 
was patronized by Cardinal Bz-ancaccia, and 
painted for him several works at Viterbo. 
After a visit to Naples he went to Rome 
again, in 1639, and soon became famous as a 
painter, a musician, and a satirical poet. In 
1647, on hearing of the insurrection of Mas- 
aniello, he hastened to Naples and joined the 
Compagnia della Morte, of which Falcone 
was the leader. On the downfall of Masa- 
niello he returned to Rome, where he got 
into trouble by a satirical picture, and there- 
fore accepted the invitation of the Grand 
Duke to visit Florence. In 1652 he returned 
to Rome, and spent the rest of his days there. 
Salvator Rosa was ambitious to excel as an 
historical painter, and his masterpiece is 
considered to be the Conspiracy of Catiline, 
in the Pitti, Florence ; but he was more 
successful in landscapes and marine views. 
He is at his best when he depicts a den of 
robbers amid the wildest surroundings 
naked crags, gloomy pools, foaming tor- 
rents, trees scathed by lightning or the 
tempest. He excelled also in battle scenes, 
his figures being full of movement and ex- 
pression. Among his works are : His por- 
trait (2), and Landscapes with Figures (2), 
Uffizi, Florence ; Two Marine Pieces, Selva 
de' Filosofi, Conspiracy of Catiline, Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony, Portrait of himself, 
nine others, Palazzo Pitti, ib. ; Souls in Pur- 
gatory, St. Paul in the Desert, Brera, Milan ; 
Scene from " Jerusalem Delivered," Grotto 
with Satyrs, Two Landscapes, Galleria Es- 
tense, Modena ; Parable of St. Matthew, 
Battle Piece, Christ and the Doctors, Naples 
Museum ; Court Scene, Landscape, Palazzo 
Colonna, Rome ; Prometheus, Four Battle 
Pieces, The Giant Titius, Palazzo Corsini, 
Rome ; St. Roch, Landscape, Belisarius, Pa- 
lazzo Doria, ib.; The Painter and Satyrs, 
Palazzo Chigi, ib. ; Battle Piece, Tobias and 
the Angel, Samuel appearing to Saul, Lou- 
vre, Paris ; Bay and City of Salerno, Madrid 
Museum ; Stormy Sea, Berlin Museum ; Jo- 
nah threatening the Inhabitants of Nineveh, 
Cadmus and Minerva, Italian Seaport, Co- 

penhagen Gallery ; Storm at Sea, Landscape 
with Temptation of St. Anthony, do. with 
St. Jerome and the Lion, Portrait of the 
Artist, Dresden Museum ; Three Monks by 
Stormy Sea, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Soldiers 
Resting, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Sol- 
diers of Gideon quenching their Thirst, Two 
Coast Views, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Pro- 
metheus on the Rock, Germanic Museum, 
Nuremberg ; Belisarius relating his Fate, 
Treasure Diggers in Subterranean Room 
chastised by Devils, Rocky Landscape with 
Jacob and his Herd, Oldenburg Gallery ; 
Prodigal Son, Nausicaa and Ulysses, De- 
mocritus and Protagoras, Soldiers at Dice, 
Male Portraits (3), Seaports (2), Landscapes 
(2), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Combat of 
Roman Horsemen (1645), four others, Vi- 
enna Museum ; Landscapes with Figures, 
etc., in Galleries and Museums of Bergamo, 
Aix-la-Chapelle, Cassel (2), Carlsruhe, Darm- 

stadt, Geneva (2), Stettin, Stuttgart (3), Tu- 
rin (2), Wiesbaden, London (3), and Edin- 

f burgh (2); Historical Society, New 

ITJ York (3). Baldinucci, v. 437 (ed. 
-J/V 1846); Ch. Blanc, Ecole napoli- 
taine ; Burckhardt, 768, 774, 782 ; Kugler 
(Eastlake), ii. 596 ; Nagler, xiii. 370. 

ROSA DI TTVOLI. See Boos, Philipp. 

ROSALBA. See Carriera, Rosalba. 

ROSALES, EDUARDO, born in Madrid 
in 1837, died in Rome, Sept. 13, 1873. 
History painter, pupil of Madrid Academy 
under L. Ferrant and Madrazo ; went in 
1857 to Rome and Siena, where he studied 
after the old masters. Afterwards lived for 
some time at Murcia, and then became di- 
rector of the Spanish Academy at Rome. 
Medals : Madrid, 1866, 1871 ; Paris, and 
L. of Honour, 1867. Order of Isabella. 



Works : Queen Isabel the Catholic dictat- 
ing her Will (1867), Madrid Museum ; St 
Joseph ; Presentation of Don Juan of Aus- 
tria at S. Yuste ; Entry of Amadeo into 
Madrid ; Death of Lucretia ; Portrait of ' 
Rio Rosas ; do. of Garcia Aznar, Madrid 
Museum ; Evangelists SS. John and Mat- 
thew, S. Tomas, ib. La Ilustracion, 1873. 

ROSARIO, IL. See Madonna del Rosa- 
rio, Domenichino. 

ROSE OF LIMA, ST., Murillo, Fred- 
erick E. Church, Hudson, N. Y. ; canvas, H. 
5 ft. 4 in. x 3 ft. 8 in. In Dominican habit, 
standing nearly front, holding in right hand ' 
a bunch of roses on which is seated the In- 
fant Jesus, who extends his hands towards 
her ; her left hand on her breast holds a 
rosary ; in air above, six heads. From Gal- 
lery of Don Aniceto Bravo ; thence to Don 
Jorge Diez Martinez and Don Luis Portilla, 
Madrid ; bought in 1873 by W. J. Shaw, 
at whose sale in New York (1880) sold to 
Mr. Church for $380. Repetitious : Sala- 
inanca sale (1875), 20,000 francs ; Pereire 
sale (1872), 25,500 francs. Curtis, 267 ; 
Tubino, Murillo, 185. 

(Rooshoff), FRANCISCUS, nourished in 
Nuremberg about 1666. German school, 
animal painter ; won the victory over Pau- 
diss with his picture in the Munich Gallery. 
Works : Wolf tearing Lamb (1666), Old Pi- 
nakothek, Munich ; do., Barnberg Gallery ; 
Rooster (1665), Fox devouring Chicken 
(1666), Augsburg Gallery. 

ROSEN, GEORG VON, Count, born in 
Paris, Feb. 13, 1843. History painter, pu- 
pil of Stockholm Academy, then of Weimar 
Art School (1861), and in Antwerp (1863) 
of Hendrik Leys, whose pictures had great- 
ly attracted him in London the year be- 
fore ; visited Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Tur- 
key, Greece, and Germany in 1864-65, then 
Italy and Antwerp, and lived for a time in j 
Munich. Member of Stockholm and Co- , 
penhagen Academies and of Societe beige 
des Aquarellistes. Medal, 1863 ; Order of 
Wasa ; L. of Honour, 1878. Works : Steu i 

Sture's Entry into Stockholm in 1471 (18G3); 
Wedding in Smedsgille Chapel in 1500 
(1865) ; Eric XIV. signing his Abdication 
(1871), Stockholm Museum ; Luther's Study 
at the Wartburg ; Portraits of King Charles 
XV. and of Artist's Father. Mttller, 448 ; 
Land und Meer (1874), i. 306. 

Breslau, July 18, 1813, died at KOnigsberg, 
April 18, 1881. History painter, pupil of 
Berlin Academy under Hensel (1832-36) ; 
was director of Kiinigsberg Academy in 
1845-74, visited Italy in 1851-52, and 
painted frescos in the Aula of Kiinigsberg 
University in 1865. Gold medal, 1850. 
Works : Narcissus ; Gideon ; Cola di Ri- 
enzi at Avignon ; Blinding of Prince Arthur 
(1838, from Shakespeare's " King John "); 
Landgrave Philip of Hesse taken Prisoner 
by Alva ; Scene in Dantzic during Reforma- 
tion ; Occupation of Marieuburg by Teuton 
Order in 1457 (1857), Kimigsberg Museum ; 
Worshippers beside Coffin of Henry IV., 
Cologne Museum ; Electress Elizabeth of 
Brandenburg taking Communion after Prot- 
estant Rite ; Charles L taking Farewell of 
his Children ; Christ Crucified ; Male Por- 
trait (1849), Dresden Museum. In fresco : 
Theology and Medicine (1865), Kunigsbcrg 
University. -D. Kunstbl. (1850), 78, 161, 
336; (1853), 436; (1855), 462; (1858), 
342 ; (1857), 122 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1880), ii. 
345 ; Muller, 448 ; Rosenberg, BerL Maler- 
sch., 88. 

ROSENHOF. See Ri'wl. 

born in Copenhagen, 
July 31, 1838. Genre 
painter, pupil of Mar- 
strand ; lives in Italy 
and paints characteristic 
scenes from Italian life. 
Medals, 1859, 1861. 
Works: Saxarmen at 
the Danne Earthworks 
(1865); Farewell of An- 
dreas Heiberg (1868) ; Village Hairdresser; 
The Congratulators ; Before a Cafe in Paris 



(Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 1886). Sig. 
Miiller, 297 ; Weilbach, 592. 
in New Haven, 
Conn., March 15, 
1848. Figure 
painter; studied 
in San Francisco 
under a Spanish 
painter (1861), 
then in Munich 
(1865) at the Royal 
Academy, then 
under Raupp, and 
again at the Royal Academy seven years 
(from 1868) under Piloty. Studio in 
Munich. Exhibits rarely in America. Re- 
visited San Francisco in 1871-72, and 
painted several portraits. Medal in Phila- 
delphia, 1876; Munich, 2d class, 1883. 
Works : Love's Last Offering (1868); Spring's 
Joy and Sorrow (1868); Morning Prayers in 
Bach Family (1870), Leipsic Museum ; Em- 
barrassed, Head of Mrs. Greatorex Study 
(1871) ; Elaine (1874) ; Young Monk in Re- 
fectory (1875) ; Forbidden Longing ; Who 
laughs last laughs best (2) ; Girls' Boarding- 
School Alarmed (1877); Empty Place (1882); 
Trial of Constance de Beverley (1883), Irving 
M. Scott, San Francisco ; Departure of the 
Family (1885) ; Dancing Lesson during the 
Empire (1886). Illustr. Zeitg. (1886), i. 
359 ; Leixner, Mod. K, i. 112 ; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xxi. 765 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 
210 ; Miiller, 449 ; D. Rundschau, xiii. 336 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., xix. 263. 

ROSIER, AMEDEE, born at Meaux 
(Seine-et-Marne), Aug. 27, 1831. Laud- 
scape and marine painter, pupil of Cogniet 
and of Durand Brager. Medal, 3d class, 
1876. Works : Naval Fight before Sebas- 
topol (1857) ; Turkish Fleet at Bombard- 
ment of Sebastopol (1859) ; Notre Dame de 
Paris, Constantinople at Sunset (1863); Old 
Port of Marseilles (1866) ; Beach between 
Honfleur and Villerville (1867), Saint-E'ti- 
enne Museum ; Views in and around Ven- 
ice (1869-86). Bellier, ii. 416. 

ROSS, KARL, born at Altekoppel, Hoi- 
stein, Nov. 18, 1816, died in Munich, Feb. 
5, 1858. Landscape painter, pupil of Co- 
penhagen Academy ; went in 1837 to 
Greece, then to Munich, visited Rome in 
1842-43 and in 1850, Paris in 1846, and 
took part in the Schleswig-Holstein cam- 
paign in 1848 ; settled in Munich. Works : 
Battlefield of Marathon (1841); Naxos(1854), 
Italian Landscape, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Temple of Phigalia ; Wood Landscape in 
Holstein ; Grove of Egeria near Rome, 
Schack Gallery, Munich. D. Kunstbl. 
(1853), 161 ; (1856), 186 ; (1857), 61 ; 
(1858), 64, 154 ; Weilbach, 593. 

in London, June 3, 1794, died there, Jan. 
20, 1860. Miniature painter, son and pupil 
of Mrs. Maria Ross (1760-1836), portrait 
painter, and student of Royal Academy in 
1808. In 1809 he exhibited several classi- 
cal works at the Academy, and up to 1826 
his canvases were mostly large. In 1814 
became assistant to Andrew Robertson, min- 
iature painter, but soon found a fashionable 
following of his own. Among his distin- 
guished sitters were the Queen and Prince 
Consort of England, the King and Queen 
of Belgium, Louis Philippe, Louis Napo- 
leon, and King and Queen of Portugal. 
Elected an A.R.A. in 1838, R.A. in 1843, 
and knighted the same year. His portraits 
are rich in colour, and strongly individual- 
ized ; the influence of Reynolds is apparent 
in his style. He painted more than 2,200 
miniatures on ivory. Art Journal (1849), 
48 ; Sandby, ii. 171 ; Redgrave ; Wilmot- 
Buxton, 99. 

ROSSELLI, COSIMO, born in Florence 
in 1439, died there, Jan. 7, 1507. Floren- 
tine school ; pupil of and assistant in 1453- 
56 to Neri di Bicci, but probably formed a 
connection with Benozzo Gozzoli on that 
painter's arrival in Florence in the latter 
year. Cosimo's style in the Last Judg- 
ment, Berlin, assigned to him and to An- 
gelico, is that of a weak follower of the lat- 
ter. He executed frescos in S. Ambrogio, 


Florence, in S. Martino, Lucca, and in the 
Sistine Chapel, Home. His best work in 
the Chapel is the Sermon on the Mount, to 
which the three others Moses delivering 
the Tables of the Law, Passage of the Red 
Sea, and The Last Supper are inferior. 
Among his other works are a Coronation of 
the Virgin, in S. M. de' Pazzi, Florence ; 
do., and Madonna with Saints, Uffizi, ib.; 
The Miracle of the Chalice, a wall painting, 
S. Ambrogio, ib.; Apotheosis of St. Bar- 
bara, Academy, ib. ; Marriage of the Virgin, 
Naples Museum ; Virgin in Glory, Christ 
in the Tomb, Berlin Museum ; Nativity, 
Konigsberg Museum ; Madonna, Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg ; do., Louvre ; St Je- 
rome in the Desert, National Gallery, Lon- 
don. C. & C., Italy, ii. 520 ; Vasari, ed. Le 
Mon., v. 27 ; Burckhardt, 546, 551, 636 ; 
Ch. Blanc, cole florentine ; Lermolieff, 
380 ; Lubke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 330 ; Ru- 
mohr, Ital. Forschungen, ii. 265. 

at Vincennes (Seine); contemporary. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Cabanel, Du- 
bufe, and Mazerolles. Medal, 3d class, 
1884. Works : Eros (1881); Artist's Moth- 
er (1882) ; Charmer, Souvenir de Caprile 
(1883); Orpheus (1884); Study (1885); The 
Hierodules (1886). 

DANTE, born in 
London, May 12, 
1828, died at Bireh- 
ington, near Mai-- 
gate, April 9, 1882. 
Figure painter, son 
of Gabriele Ros- 
setti (Italian pa- 
triot, commentator 
on Dante, and pro- 
fessor of Italian in 
King's College, London). Dante Gabriel, 
as he wrote his name, was a student at 
Cary's drawing school, at the Royal Acad- 
emy, which he left about 1848, and of Ma- 
dox Brown, who had a perceptible influence 
on his work. Finished his first oil picture, 

Portrait of his Father, in 1847, and two 
years later exhibited his Girlhood of Mary 
Virgin, from which, with Millais's Isabella 
and Holmau Hunt's Rienzi, is dated the rise 
of the Pre-Raphaelite school of painting 
in England. Rossetti contributed both by 
pen and pencil to " The Germ," the orgau 
of the Brotherhood, in which first appeared 
his " Blessed Damozel " and other poeuis ; 
indeed, he is better known as a poet than a 
painter, for he lived a retired life and ex- 
hibited but few of his works, most of which 
are now in private collections in England. 
His early pictures show a gradual transition 
from austere medievalism to a more florid 
and fanciful romanticism. Many of his sub- 
jects were drawn from the " Divina Conime- 
dia " and " Vita Nuova " of Dante. His col- 
1 lected works were exhibited at the Royal 
Academy and Burlington Club, London, in 
the winter of 1882-83. Works : Girlhood of 
Mary Virgin (1849), Lady Louisa Fielding ; 
Ecce Ancilla Domini (1850) ; Dante's Meet- 
ing with Beatrice at aMarriage Feast (1851), 
Mr. Leathart, near Newcastle ; Dante's 
Dream of Death of Beatrice (1855), Miss 
\ Heaton of Leeds ; Wedding of St. George 
| (1857) ; Mary in House of John (1858) ; Altar- 
i piece for Llandaff Cathedral (1800); Venus 
Verticordia (1863) ; Joan of Arc, Rose Gar- 
den, Lady Lilith (1864), Alexander Steven- 
son, Tynemouth ; Sibylla Palmifera (1866), 
Mr. George Rae, Birkenhead ; Sir Tristram 
and Yseult (1867); Vision of Dante (1870), 
Liverpool Gallery ; replica (1878), Mr. Wil- 
liam Graham ; Veronica Veronese (1872) ; 
La Ghirlandata (1873), Mr. Ruston, M.P. ; 
Prowrjrina (1874 ; replica, 1877, Mr. Turn- 
er), La Pia, Salutation of Beatrice (1881), 
Mr. F. R. Leyland ; La Bella Mano (1875); 
Sea-Spell (1877) ; Bruna Brunelleschi, Vis- 
ion of Fiammetta (1878) ; Mnemosyne, Day 
Dream (1880). Art Journal (1884), 148, 
1 165, 204 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 537 ; Caine, 
Recollections of D. G. R. (London, 1882) ; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1881), xxiiL 555 ; (1883), 
xxviii. 49. 

ROSSI, FRANCESCO DE'. See Salviati. 



ROSSITER, THOMAS P., born in New 
Haven, Conn., Sept. 29, 1818, died at Cold 
Spring, N. Y., May 17, 1871. History 
painter, pupil of Nathaniel Jocelyn ; went 
to Europe in 1840 and studied in Lon- 
don and Paris. In 1841-46 he painted in 
Rome, and sketched in Switzerland, Italy, 
and Germany ; visited Europe again in 
1853, and painted three years in Paris. 
Professional life in the United States 
spent in New York and at Cold Spring. 
Elected an A.N.A. in 1840, and N.A. in 
1849. Gold medal, Paris, 1855. Works: 
Last Hours of Tasso ; Italy in the Olden 
Time ; Miriam ; Return of the Dove to the 
Ark ; Jews in Captivity ; Joan of Arc in 
Prison, Puritan's Daughter, R. L. Stuart, 
New York ; Wise and Foolish Virgins ; 
Venice ; Noah ; Representative Merchants ; 
Coming from the Fields ; Palmy Days at 
Mt. Vernon ; Washington's First Cabinet ; 
Life of Christ (series of pictures) ; Rebekah 
at the Well, Corcoran Gallery, Washington. 
Tuckerman, 435. 

born in Florence, 
March 8, 1494, 
died at Fontaiue- 
bleau, France, 
1541. Florentine 
school ; real name 
Giovanni Battista 
di Jacopo di Gu- 
asparre, but com- 
monly called by 
the Italians II 
Rosso, and by the French, Maitre Roux de 
Roux, which would seem to show that Roux 
was his family name, and not a surname 
given to him because his hair was red. 
Imitator of Andrea del Sarto and of Michel- 
angelo. After painting frescos in Florence 
he went to Rome and worked there several 
years, until obliged to leave on the capture 
of the city by the Constable de Bourbon 
(1527). About 1531 he went to Paris, at 
the invitation of Francis I., who made him 
court painter, and employed him to direct 

the decoration of the great gallery in the 
Palace of Fontainebleau. His large salary 
enabled him to live in luxury, and his good 
address and polished manners made him a 
favourite at court Having unjustly accused 
his friend and assistant, Francesco di Pel- 
legriuo, of stealing money from him, and 
caused him to be put to the torture, II 
Rosso poisoned himself to escape dishon- 
our. All his works at Fontainebleau have 
disappeared. Among his pictures are : En- 
tombment, Contest between Muses and Pier- 
ides, Louvre ; Madonna with Saints, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; Assumption, SS. Annunzi- 
ata, Florence ; Marriage of the Virgin, S. 
Lorenzo, ib.; Venus, Ceres, Pluto, Diana, 
Zeus, Oldenburg Gallery ; Madonna with 
Angels, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Va- 
sari, ed. Le Mon., ix. 67 ; ed. Mil., v. 155 ; 
Burckhardt, 636, 640; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
florentine ; Miindler, Essai, 187. 

ROTARI, PIETRO, Conte, born in Ve- 
rona in 1707, died in St. Petersburg in 
1770 (?). Pupil in Verona of Balestra, in 
Rome of Trevisani (1728-31), and in Naples 
of Solimena, whose manner he followed. 
Venetian school ; painted with much suc- 
cess at courts of Dresden and Vienna, and 
in 1750 became court painter to the Em- 
press Elizabeth of Russia. At Peterhoff is 
a collection of 663 female portraits made 
by him for Catharine II. during a journey 
through the Russian provinces. Other works : 
Annunciation, Guastella ; Repose in Egypt, 
St. James, St. Francis, Magdalen, and two 
portraits, Dresden Gallery ; Young Girl 
Weeping, do. Asleep, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Two Portraits, Schleissheim Gallery. 
Lanzi, ii. 310 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole vuniti- 

ROTHERMEL, PETER F., born in Lu- 
zerne County, Pa., July 8, 1817. History 
painter ; began painting portraits without 
tuition in 1840, in 1856 visited Europe, and 
has since lived and painted in Philadelphia ; 
is an associate of the Pennsylvania Academy. 
Works: St. Agnes (1858); Foscari ; Colum- 
bus before Isabella ; Cromwell breaking up 



the Service in an Anglican Church ; De Soto 
discovering the Mississippi ; St. Paul on 
Mars Hill ; Battle of Gettysburg ; Macbeth 
meditating the Murder of Duncan, King 
Lear with Gloucester and Edward, Cupid 
lieposing, Bacchus, Mrs. Joseph Harrison, 
Philadelphia ; Lady Macbeth, T. Dolan, ib.; 
Sicilian Vespers, A. J. Drexel, ib. ; Embark- 
ation of Columbus, Pennsylvania Academy, 
ib. ; Trial of Sir Henry Vane, Christian Mar- 
tyrs, Hypatia, Amy Robsart interceding for 
Leicester, The Landsknecht (1876) ; Touch- 
stone and Audrey, in "As You Like It" 
(1880); Bacchantes (1884). Tuckerman 

ROTING, JULIUS, born in Dresden, 
Sept. 7, 1821 (Sept. 13, 1822?). History 
and portrait painter, pupil of Dresden Acad- 
emy under Bendemann, then studied in Dils- 
seldorf, where he became professor at the 
Academy. Member of Berlin and Vienna 
Academies. Medal, Paris, 3d class, 1855. 
Gold medal, Berlin. Works : Columbus 
before the Council at Salamanca (1851), 
Dresden Gallery ; Entombment (186(5); Por- 
traits of the painters Leutze (1847); Lessing 
(1851), Schadow (1852), Diisscldorf Gallery ; 
of the poet Arndt (several times, one in 
Stettin Museum). Wolfg. Mailer, Diisseldf. 
K, 161. 

ROTTA, ANTONIO, born at Goritz, Feb. 
28, 1828. Genre painter, pupil of Academy 
in Venice, where he settled. Medal, Paris, 
3d class, 1878. Works : Cobbler ; Match- 
Seller ; Bacchanal on the Lido in 1700 ; 
The Sick Friend (1855) ; Bad Company ; 
The Only Friend (1869) ; Venetian Women 
at Work ; Agreeable Surprise (1878); Young 
Brood (1881). Illustr. Zeitg. (1879), ii. 369 ; 
(1882), ii. 289 ; Mailer, 451. 

Munich in 15C4, died in Augsburg in 1623. 
German school ; history painter, son and 
pupil of Thomas Rottenhammer, and in 
1582 pupil of Johann Donnauer ; studied 
in Venice after Tintoretto and visited Rome. 
Jan Brueghel and Paul Bril employed 
him to paint mythological or allegori- 

cal figures in their landscapes. Works : 
Pan and Syrinx, National Gallery, London ; 
Death of Adonis, 
Diana and Cal- 
listo, Louvre, 
Paris ; Madonna 
(1604), Mars and 
Venus (1604), 
Amsterdam Mu- 
seum ; Fall of 
Phaeton (1604), 
Christ delivering 
Souls from Pur- 
gatory, three others, Hague Museum ; Ma- 
donna and St. John, Rotterdam Museum ; 
The Four Elements Personified, Muw'e 
Rath, Geneva ; Apotheosis of St. Catharine, 
Inn of the Three Moors, Augsburg ; Poetry, 
Music, Painting and Architecture, Berlin 
Museum ; Landscape with Nymphs, The 
Golden Age (with Peeter Brueghel, the 
younger), Kunsthallc, Hamburg ; Judg- 
ment of Paris (1605), Marriage at Cana, 
four others, Old Pinakothck, Munich ; Di- 
ana surprised by Acticon (1602), Venus and 
Mars (1605), Adoration of the Shepherds 
(1605), three others, Schleissheirn Gallery ; 
Repose in Egypt (1597), Magdalen Peni- 
tent, Schwerin Gallery ; Last Judgment 
with the Seven Works of Mercy, Stuttgart 
Museum ; Nativity (1608), Battle between 
Centaurs and Lapithfp, four others, Muse- 
um, Vienna ; Erection of Brazen Serpent, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; Adam and Eve 
in Paradise (with Brueghel), Schr>nlx>rn 
| Gallery, ib. ; others in Galleries of Aschaf- 
fenburg, Bamberg (3), Carlsruhe, Casscl (C), 
Copenhagen, Dresden, Gotha, Weimar, and 
Wiesbaden (2) ; Hermitage, St. Peterburg 
(3) ; Historical Society, New York ; The 
Seasons, Holy Family (2), Mars and Venus 

ensnared by Vulcan, Banquet of the Goda 
(2), Blenheim sale, London, 1886. Ch. 



Blanc, ficole allernande ; Kugler (Crowe), 
i. 272 ; Nagler, xiii. 468. 

ROTTMANN, KARL, born at Hand- 
near Heidelberg, 
Jan. 11, 1797, 
died in Munich, 
July 6, 1850. 
Landscape paint- 
er, son of Fried- 
ricli Eottmann 
(died 1817), a 
quite skilful 

and painter in water-colours ; first instruct- 
ed in Heidelberg by his father and the por- 
trait painter Xeller, much influenced by 
Karl Fohr, with whom he was intimately 
associated, but formed himself chiefly by 
studying from nature and after the works 
of Poussin and Josef Koch ; settled in Mu- 
nich in 1822, visited Italy in 1826-28 and 
Greece in 1834-35 ; became court painter 
in 1841. His artistic work may be divided 
into three periods : during the first he at- 
tached less importance to colouring than to 
drawing ; the second is illustrated by the 
28 Italian landscapes in fresco in the ar- 
cades of the royal garden at Munich ; the 
third by the 23 Greek landscapes placed in 
a special room in the Munich Gallery. He 
was one of the most individual masters in 
Germany, and his influence on landscape 
painting was paramount. Works : Castle 
Heidelberg in Evening Light, Burg Eltz 
(before 1822) ; Ramsau Valley (1823) ; View 
in Roman Campagna, Coliseum in Rome 
(1826-28) ; View of Palermo, do. of Taor 
mina (1829) ; Bay of Baise ; Burning For- 
est ; Ammer Lake, Marathon, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; German Cemetery near Naup- 
lia, Temple of JEgina, Raczynski Gallery, 
ib.; Views in Greece (3), Carlsruhe Gallery 
View of Cefalii (1839), Cologne Museum 
View on the Obersee, Darmstadt Museum 
View near Corinth, Bay and Harbour o: 
Corfu, Kuusthalle, Hamburg ; View o: 
Corfu, Lake Copais in Breotia (2), Leipsic 

Vluseum ; 23 Views in Greece (Rottmann 
Saal, 1845-50), Acropolis of Sicyon, Isle of 
tschia, View of Corfu, Monreale near Pa- 
ermo, The High Goll near Berchtesgaden, 
View of .ZEtna from Taormina, Brannenburg 
in Bavarian Alps, Grave City near Syracuse, 
Eib Lake in Bavarian Alps, New Pinako- 
;hek, Munich ; View of Kochel Lake, The 
3igh Goll in the Afterglow, Three Views in 
Greece, do. near Rome, Schack Gallery, ib. ; 
Sunset near Epidauros, The Hintersee near 
Berchtesgaden, Stuttgart Museum ; Land- 
scape, Czernin Gallery, Vienna. In fresco : 
28 Landscapes in Italy (1830-33), Arcades, 
Vlunich ; cartoons for them, Darmstadt Mu- 

-_ f\ seum. Bayersdorfer, C. 
(fl (fa 30 Rottmann; Ch. Blanc, 
' v S t. ficole allemande ; Dios- 
kuren (1873), 227 ; Forster, v. 205 ; Graph. 
K, v. 1 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 198 ; Kugler, 
Kl. Schriften, iii. 130 ; Kunst-Chronik, viii. 
176, 217 ; x. 392 ; Nagler, xiii. 473 ; Pecht, 
ii. 3 ; Reber, ii. 268 ; Regnet, ii. 100 ; 
Schack, Meine Gemaldesammlung (1884), 
206 ; Springer, Gesch., 83 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K., iv. 7, 72, 207. 

ROTTMANN, LEOPOLD, born at Hei- 
delberg, Oct. 2, 1812, died at Munich, 
March 26, 1881. Landscape painter, broth- 
er of preceding, pupil of Roux at Heidel- 
berg, then of his brother and the Academy 
in Munich, where he also became court 
painter. Works : Altenau Lake in Styria 
(1837), Fiirstenberg Gallery, Donauesching- 
en ; Mountain Landscape, Provinzial Muse- 
um, Hanover ; Barm Lake near Parten- 
kirchen, Bavaria, New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Hunting Album for King Maximilian H. 
(50 water-colours, 1854-57) ; Album of Ba- 
varian Alps (70 water-colours, 1860-65) ; 
Swiss Album ; Album of Wagner's Music 
Dramas. Kunst-Chronik, xvi. 489 ; Nag- 
ler, xiii. 478. 

ROTTMAYR (Rothmeyer) VON RO- 
at Laufen, near Salzburg, about 1660, died 
in Vienna, Oct. 25, 1730. German school ; 
history painter, studied in Salzburg and 



Vienna (1685), then under Carlotto in Ven- 
ice ; settled in Vienna, where he was court 
painter to Leopold I, Joseph L, and Charles 
VI. Works : Iphigenia in Aulis, Museum, 
Vienna ; St. Charles Borromeo (1728), Holy 
Family, St. Michael, St. Francis, St. Ste- 
phen's, ib.; Ceiling in fresco (1708), Liech- 
tenstein Palace, ib.; do., Magistracy, ib.; 
several pictures, Joanneum, Gratz. Fres- 
cos : Cupola and Chapel ceilings, St. Pe- 
ter's, Vienna ; do., St. Charles Borromeo's, 
ib.; do. (169G), Jesuit Church, Breslau ; 
other works in Cathedral at Passau, Car- 
melites at Katisbon, and other places in Ba- 
varia. -Lipowski, ii. 50 ; Wurzbach, xxvii. 
171 ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 754. 

KOUFFIO, PAUL, born at Marseilles ; 
contemporary. History and genre painter, 
pupil of Cabanel and of Chozzal. Medal, 
3d class, 1879. Works : Courtesan (1873) ; 
Samson and Delilah (1874), Marseilles Mu- 
seum ; Herodias (1875) ; Circe, Fanchon 
(1876); Truth, Mademoiselle la neige (1877); 
Trio of Masks in Don Juan (1878); Comedy, 
Olympus (1879) ; Carmen, Violin of Sera- 
phine (1880); Avarice, Coffee coming to the 
Rescue of the Muse (1881) ; Hour of the 
Bath, Soap Bubbles (1882) ; Letter to the 
Betrothed, Bottom of the Cup (1883) ; Dis- 
agreement about the Route, Pandora (1884); 
On Pilgrimage, No Vocation (1885); Return 
from the Ball, Miso Castagne (1886). 

ROUGET, GEORGES, born in Paris, 
May 2, 1784, died there, April 9, 1869. 
History and portrait painter, pupil and imi- 
tator of David. Won 2d prize for painting 
in 1802. He often assisted David in the 
execution of his works, and painted a copy 
of the Coronation of Napoleon, signed by 
David, which was exhibited in America. 
Medals : 2d class, 1814 ; 1st class, 1855 ; 
L. of Honour, 1822. Works: French 
Princes paying Homage at the Cradle of 
the King of Rome (1812), Death of St. 
Louis (1817), Versailles Museum ; Ecce 
Homo (1819), Church of St. Gervais, Paris ; 
(Edipus and Antigone on Mount Cytherou 
(1819), Rouen Museum ; Francis I. pardon- 

ing Rebels of La Rochelle (1822) ; Christ 
on the Mount (1824), St Nicolas des Champa, 
Paris ; St. Louis receiving at Ptolemais the 
Envoys of the Old Man of the Mountain 
(1819), St. Louis as Mediator between Henry 
III of England and his Barons (1820), As- 
sembly of the Notables at Rouen in 1596 
(1822), Henri IV. at Siege of Paris (1824), 
St Louis rendering Justice under the Oak 
at Viucennes (1826), Versailles Museum ; 
Henri IV. abjuring Protestantism (1833) ; 
Marriage of Napoleon and Mario Louise, 
1810 (1837), Napoleon receiving the De- 
cree of the Senate proclaiming him Empe- 
ror (1838), St. Louis landing at Damietta 
(1839), Versailles Museum ; Death of Na- 
poleon (1846) ; Titus in Judea, Vitellius 
giving Christians to Wild Beasts (1847) ; 
Last Moments of Napoleon, Henri IV. and 
his Children (1850) ; Marshal Soult and 
Souvenirs of the Empire (1853) ; Soult in 
his Office, Incident of War in Italy, Com- 
mittee of Artists at the Death-Bed of an 
Artist (1861); Christ and the Virgin (1866); 
Assumption, St. Germain 1'Auxerrois, Paris ; 
St. Louis pardoning Pierre de Bretagne, St 
Louis prisoner in Egypt, Fontainebleau Pul- 
ace ; Death of Marshal Lannes, Douai Mu- 
seum ; Portrait of General Meunier, Besan- 
<;on Museum ; do. of Louis XVIH. (1817), 
Rheims Museum ; Portraits of Clovis HI., 
Charles IIL, of nine Marshals of France, 
and of sixteen Generals and others, Ver- 
sailles Museum. Bellier, ii. 424 ; Larousse ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 169. 

ROUGET DE L'ISLE, Isidore PH.", Lux- 
embourg Museum ; canvas, H. 2 ft 3 in. x 
3 ft. Rouget de 1'Islo singing the Marseil- 
laise for the first time, in the house of Die- 
trich, Mayor of Strasbourg. Salon, 1849. 

in Paris in 1789, died there in 1852. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of David. 
Medals : 2d class, 1822 ; 1st class, 1827 ; 
L. of Honour. Works : Alexander support- 
ing Lysirnachus (1819); Portrait of General 
Bonaparte (1836), Portraits of Marshals 
Schomberg, Bellefonds, Macdouald (1837), 


Grouchy (1833), of Generals Dumouriez (2), 
Marbot, and Vandamme, of Camille Des- 
moulins, Versailles Museum ; Charles X., 
Aix Museum ; Marshal Grouchy, Amiens 
Museum ; Marshal Due de Eeggio, Nancy 
Museum. Bellier, ii. 425. 

ROUSSEAU, PHILIPPE, born in Paris, 
Feb. 22, 1816. Ani- 
mal and landscape 
painter, pupil of Gros 
and of Bertin. Espe- 
cially distinguished 
for his pictures of 
still-life in humorous 
relation to animals. 
Medals: 3d class, 
1845 ; 1st class, 1848 ; 
2d class, 1855 ; 1st class, 1878 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1852; Officer, 1870. Works: Views 
in Normandy, etc. (1833-39) ; Post-Chaise 
(1841); City Eat and Field Eat (1845) ; Cat 
and Old Eat (184G) ; Mole and Eabbit, 
Flowers and Butterflies (1847) ; Farm- Yard 
(1848), Chartres Museum ; Interior of Farm- 
House, Cat and Mouse (1849) ; Divided in 
Two (1850) ; Importunate (1850), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Mother of a Family (1853); 
Kid browsing Flowers, Storks taking a Si- 
esta, Two Punch and Judy Artists (1855) ; 
Eabbit hunted by Fox-Terriers, Eesigna- 
tion, Eecreation, Farm-House in Savoy 
(1857); Gala Day (1859); Luncheon (1859), 
Valenciennes Museum ; Household Music, 
Kitchen (1861) ; Eabbit and Frogs, Search 
for the Absolute (1863), Nantes Museum ; 
Market in Olden Time (1864), Caen Mu- 
seum ; Every Man for Himself (1865) ; He 
makes his own Music, Autumn Flowers 
(1866) ; Chardin and his Models (1867) ; 
Eat retired from the World, Eesidence of 
Sir Walter Scott (1868) ; Summer, Autumn 
(1869) ; Fountain adorned with Flowers, 
First Plums and Last Cherries (1870) ; 
Springtime (1872) ; Mass (1873) ; Corpus 
Christi Day, Salad (1874) ; Cheeses, Wolf 
and Lamb (1875); Oysters, Poppies (1876) ; 
The Breakfast, Oh my Bagpipe ! (1877) ; 
Tulips (1879) ; The Courtyard (1880) ; Fu- 

ture Stewed Eabbit (1881) ; Two Friends, 
Cheeses (1882); Victuals, Asparagus (1883); 
Chrysanthemums (1884); Eat retired from 
the World (1885), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Esmeralda's Window, C. H. Wolff, Phila- 
delphia ; Peaches, Mrs. Wilstach, ib. Bel- 
lier, ii. 430 ; Larousse ; Claretie, Peintres 
(1874), 196 ; Meyer, Gesch., 714. 
THEODORE, bom in 
Paris, April 15, 1812, 
died at Barbizon, near 
Fontainebleau, Dec. 
22, 1867. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Ee- 
mond (1826) and of 
Lethiere. Showed 
himself a true "natu- 
ralist" in his first 
picture (1826) and up 
to 1848 when his works, after being for 
thirteen years excluded from the Salon by 
the academical jury then abolished, were re- 
admitted fought the battle of naturalism 
with varying success. W T ith Corot, Daubi- 
gny, Dupro, and Diaz, he founded the mod- 
ern French school of landscape painting, of 
which he is one of the chief glories. Few 
if any have surpassed him in the rendering 
of atmospheric effects, in the ability to dif- 
fuse light and air throughout a landscape, 
and in the power of communicating to oth- 
ers the deep feelings excited by nature in 
a highly sensitive organization like his own. 
The Forest of Fontainebleau, where he spent 
many years of his life, supplied him with an 
inexhaustible mine of subjects, which he 
rendered with rare felicity. Always in more 
or less needy circumstances, he was at the 
last annoyed by an intrigue about the Offi- 
cer's Cross of the Legion of Honour, and 
finally died of a broken heart. Medals : 3d 
class, 1834 ; 1st class, 1849, 1855 ; medal 
of honour, 1867 ; L. of Honour, 1852. 
Works : Signal Station on Montmartre 
(1826) ; Mountain View in Auvergue, Edge 
of the Woods in Compiegne, Herd of Cat- 
tle in the Jura Mountains (1835) ; An 



Avenue, Edge of the Woods at Sunset, Au- 
tumn Weather (1849) ; Edge of the Woods 
at Sunset, Morning, Plateau of Belle-Croix, ' 
Woods of Bas-Brc'au, Village of Barbizon, i 
Entrance to Bas-Breau (1850); Sunny Land- 
scape, Landscape after Bain (1852) ; Marsh 
in the Landes of Guienne (1853) ; Coast at j 
Grauville, Edge of the Woods in Berry, ; 
Moors, An Avenue, Way out of the Woods 
at Sunset, Way out of the Woods in Twi- 
light, Marsh in the Laiules, Edge of the 
Gerard Mountains, Oaks in Gorges of Apre- 
mont, Plain of Biirbizon, Woods of Fon- 
tainebleau (1855), Louvre ; Loire Valley in 
Springtime, Stormy Morning during Har- 
vest, Village in Cantal, Birches in the Gorge 
of Aprernont, Meadow with Trees, Cross- 
Eoad at Bas Brcau (1857) ; Farm on the 
Moors, River Sevre, Boundaries of Barbi- 
zon, Gorges of Apremont, Edge of Woods 
near Barbizon (1859); Oak of Roche (1861); 
Clearing in the Woods, Pond in Oak Grove 
(1861); Cottage among Trees, Village (1864); 
Sunset at Foutaiuebleau, Boundaries of For- 
est of Fontainebleau (18CC) ; Ray of Sun- 
light in Stormy Weather, Small Farm on 
the Oise (1867) ; River Bank, Storm Laud- 
scape, Luxembourg Museum. Works in 
United States : River Scene, do. in Autumn, 
Village of Barbizon, Gorges of Apremont, 
Forest, Morning, Farm on the Oise, W. H. 
Vanderbilt, New York ; Landscape, Miss 
C. L. Wolfe, ib.; do., August Belmont, ib. ; 
do., H. G. Marquand, ib.; do., J. C. Runkle, 
ib.; do., D. O. Mills, ib.; Paris Oven, Land- j 
scape and Forest, do. and Pond, W. Rocke- 
feller, ib.; Forest Scene, C. P. Huntington, 
ib.; Plain of Barbizon, Mrs. J. G. Fell, Phila- 
delphia ; do., R C. Taft, Providence ; Sun- 
set, J. A. Brown, ib. ; Autumn, B. Wall, ib. ; 
Le Givre Winter Solitude, two others (one 
dated 1845), W. T. Walters, Baltimore; 
Landscape, H. P. Kidder, Boston ; do., T. 
Wigglesworth, ib.; Oak Tree of Barbizon, 
Landscape, Birch Trees at Foutainebleau, 
H. Probasco, Cincinnati. Sales : Farm in 
Berry (Dagnan sale, 1882, 29,500 francs, to 
M. Viterbo) ; Public Oven on the Moors 

(Hartmann sale, 47,000 francs, bought by 
Mr. Brame) ; Sunset (20,100 francs, same 
sale) ; A Village (38,000 francs, same sale) ; 
Farm in the Landes (73,000 francs, same 
sale) ; Village in Normandy (Wilson sale, 
1881, 20,000 francs); Plain among the Pyr- 
enees (17,000 francs, Hartmann sale); Wooda 
in Winter (48,600 francs, same sale) ; Old 
Dormitory in Bas-Brcau (49,000 francs, 
bought for Louvre, same sale) ; Autumn at 
St. Jean de Paris (46,000 francs, same sale); 
A Pond (20,000 francs, Narischkino sale, 
1883) ; Road in Woods near Fontainebleau 
(20,500 francs). Sensier, Souvenirs surTh. 
Rousseau (1872) ; Bellier, ii. 431 ; Meyer, 
Gesch., 744 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1873), vii. 
191 ; (1881), xxiii. 462 ; L'Art (1882), xxviii. 
161, 186 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iii. 281 ; xii. 
(Mittheilungen, v. 40). 

ROUX, KARL, born in Heidelberg, Aug. 
15, 1826. Animal and genre painter, son 
of J. W. Christian Roux (1771-1831, por- 
trait and landscape painter), pupil of D(ls- 
seldorf Academy and (1847) of Karl Htlb- 
ner, continued his studies in Munich, Ant- 
werp, and Paris ; was for several years 
professor at the Art School in Carlsruhe, 
and settled in Munich in 1868. Director 
of Carlsruhe Art School and Mannheim Gal- 
lery since 1881. Works : Rest of Lansque- 
nets (1853), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Hans 
and Verena (1861) ; Plundering of Village 
in Thirty Years' War, Hermann and Doro- 
thea (1863), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Ploughing 
Early in the Morning ; Uneducated Son of 
the Alps (a bull) ; Cows returning l>eforo 
Storm ; Yoke of Oxen ; Hay Harvest (1877); 
Cattle Fair of Munich ; October Festival ; 
Cattle Herd on Achen Lake. Mtlller, 452. 

ROUX, MAiTRE. See Rosso. 

Paris, Feb. 13, 1817. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Delaroche. Medals : 3d 
class, 1846 ; 2d class, 1857, 1859. Works : 
St. Roch praying for the Plague-Stricken 
(1846), Luxembourg ; Italian Peasant play- 
ing with Child (1847) ; Jean Boltius an 
Anatomist of Liege ; Linuieus returning 



from an Excursion, Scholar in his Study 
(1847), Ravene Gallery, Berlin ; Mozart's 
First Opera, Marietta Tintoretto (1850) ; 
Bernard Palissy, Poussin, Absence, Tinto- 
retto (1855); Rembrandt's Studio (1857), 
St. Petersburg Academy ; Palissy studying 
Geology, Claude Lorrain in the Forum 
(1857) ; Incident of Civil War of the 
Fronde, Montaigne, Delaroche's Studio in 
1856 (1859) ; Hosanna (1859), Ravene Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Portrait of a Girl (1861) ; 
Christ washing Apostles' Feet (1863) ; St. 
John Baptist (1864); Van der Neer painting 
Moonlight (1866) ; St. Francis of Assisi and 
the Birds (1867); Music, Epic Poetry, Light 
Literature, History (1870) ; St. Vincent de 
Paul receiving Extreme Unction (1874), 
Chapel in Dourdan ; Christ in the Tomb, 
Descent from the Cross, Studio of a Flower 
Painter (1875); St. Thomas Aquinas (1877); 
Hill of Vachon at Argenteuil, Hill of Orge- 
mont (1879) ; Promontory of Porspoder, 
The Minou near Brest (1880); Saint Michel- 
Sousgland (1881); The Stairs at Brest (1882); 
Gravel-Pits of Sannois (1883) ; St. Veronica 
(1884); twenty-four frescos in St. Magdalen, 
Kouen. Bellier, ii. 435 ; Larousse. 


DELLA, Duchess of Urbino, portrait, Ti- 
tian, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, figure half- 
length, life-size. Same history as the fol- 
lowing. C. & C., Titian, i. 413 ; Dennis- 
toun, Dukes of Urbino, iii. 48, 372, 437, 442. 

of Urbino, portrait, Titian, Uffizi, Florence ; 
canvas, figure half-length, life-size ; signed. 
In armour, with a plumed helmet and em- 
blems of his rank in a niche behind. Paint- 
ed in 1537, when the Duke had gone to 
Venice to assume command as generalissimo 
against the Turks. Passed from Urbino to 
Florence on extinction of house of Urbino 
in 1631. C. & C., Titian, i. 411 ; Dennis- 
toun, Dukes of Urbino, iii. 58, 371, 437, 
442 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 443 ; Gall, di Fi- 
renze, i. No. 25. 

Stanfield, London ; canvas. Fought in Sep- 
tember, 1796, by Massena and Augereau, 
against Davidovich, who was guarding the 
Tyrol with 40,000 men. In foreground, the 
French infantry are fording the Adige, and 
in distance are again seen passing the bridge, 
under fire from batteries ; on the right, the 
fortress ; on left, inhabitants flying from 
their houses ; background, the snow-clad 
Alps. Royal Academy, 1851. At E. J. Cole- 
man sale (1881), 3,465. Art Journal 
(1851), 156. 

ROVIALE. See Rubiates. 

at Bath, Me., Jan. 29, 1822. Figure and 
portrait painter, self taught ; best known 
by his portraits in crayons and his ideal 
heads, many of which have been reproduced 
by photography and other processes. Works 
in oil by him, chiefly ideal heads and fig- 
ures, are owned by Frederic E. Church, 
Daniel Huntington, William H. Osborn, and 
M. K. Jesup, New York ; Dr. Estes Howe, 
and Peter C. Brooks, Boston ; and Knight 
Cheney, Manchester, Conn. 

Brussels, March 29, 1759, died there, Jan. 
7, 1839. Landscape and animal painter ; 
studied after the old Dutch masters. Works : 
Cattle Herd in Stormy Landscape, Brussels 
Museum ; Cows crossing Pool at Sunrise 
(1804), Ghent Museum ; Landscape with 
Figures and Animals (1790), Gotha Muse- 
um ; Dead Game and Fruits, do., and Boy 
with Dog, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 
Michiels, x. 564. 

ROY, MARIUS, born at Lyons ; contein- 
porary. Genre and portrait painter, pupil 
of Boulanger and of Jules Lefebvre. Medal, 
3d class, 1883. Works : In Ambush (1881); 
Do not Stir! (1882) ; In Quarters (1883) ; 
Corvee de Rutamage (1884) ; Before the 
Duel (1885); Poverty's Share (1886). 

LfiON), born at Uzes (Gard), April 20, 
1840. Figure painter, pupil in Lyons of 
Ecole des Beaux Arts ; settled in Paris, 



where his Jester of Henri III. took a medal 
in Salon, 18CG ; now professor of engraving 
at Lyons. Works : Death of Roxana, J. C. 
Runkle, New York ; Page with Dogs, Mu- 
sical Party (1867), W. H. Vanderbilt, ib.;l 
Meet, Cologne Museum ; Playing Backgam- j 
mon (1868) ; A Musketeer ; Negress with 
a Drake ; Gypsy Woman ; Beer Drinker ; 
Standard Bearer, Time to Go, J. J. Astor, 
New York; Halberdier, T. R Butler, ib.; 
Cock Fight, D. O. Mills, ib. ; Velasquez 
painting the Infanta, D. W. Powers, Roch- 
ester ; Missal Painter, J. H. Warren, Hoo- 
sic Falls ; Ludovic Lesly, Judge H. Hoadly, 
Cincinnati ; The Message (Wilson sale, 1883, 
12,000 francs). 

ROYER LIONEL, born at Chfiteau-du- 
Loir (Sarthe) ; contemporary. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Cabanel. Medal, 
3d class, 1884. Works : Christ on the Cross 
(1879); Daphne changed into a Laurel (1880); 
Venus protecting the Body of Hector (1881); 
Madame Roland (1883); The Family (1884); 
Love and Folly (1885) ; For Native Laud ! 
Charette a Patay (188(5). 

ROYMERSWALE. See Marintis. 

ROZIER, DOMINIQUE, born in Paris ; 
contemporary. Still-life painter, pupil of An- 
toine Vollonf Medals : 3d class, 1876 ; 2d 
class, 1880. Works : End of Supper (1880, 
bought by the State); Armour (1881); Vin- 
tage, End of Carnival (1882) ; Cabbage Soup, 
Isabel's Basket, Flower Girl (1883) ; Poul- 
try, Un Jambonneau (1884) ; Fish Market 
in the Halles Centrales (1885); Game (1886); 
Sunset, R. G. Dun, New York. 

RUBEN, CHRISTIAN, born at Treves, 
Nov. 30, 1805, died at Inzersdorf, near Vi- 
enna, July 8, 1875. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Dilsseldorf Academy (1823 
-25) under Cornelius, whom he followed to 
Munich, and there rapidly established his 
reputation ; in 1841 he became director of 
Prague Academy, wlu'ch he reorganized, and 
in 1852-72 was director of the Vienna Acad- 
emy. Gold medal, 1864 ; Orders of Iron 
Crown and of Francis Joseph ; Belgian Or- 
der of Leopold, 1865 ; Commander of Pa- 

pal Order of Gregory. Works : Carthusian 
Monk, Ave Maria (1835) ; Power of Faith, 
Leuchtenberg Gallery, St Petersburg ; Duke 
Erich of Calenborg at Hardegsen in 1533 
(1838) ; Shepherdess in the Alps, New Pi- 
nakothek, Munich ; Battle of Lipau in 1434, 
Vienna Museum ; Columbus discovering 
Land (1843), Nostitz Gallery, Prague ; Cy- 
cle of 14 cartoons on History of Bohemia, 
Belvedere, Prague. Brockhaus, xiii. 875 ; 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1852), six. 359; Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1841), No. 64 ; Laud und Mccr 
(1872), No. 50 ; Reber, ii. 194 ; Stahr, 
Chr. Ruben's Columbus (Oldenburg, 1844); 
Wurzbach, xxvii. 200 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
xi. 372. 

RUBEN, FRANZ, 1>orn in Prague in 
1843. History and portrait painter, son of 
Christian Ruben, and his pupil at Vienna 
Academy ; won prize in 1869, then studied 
in Italy after the Venetian masters, and set- 
tled in Venice. Medal, Munich, 2d class, 
1883. Works : Miracle of Roses, The Two 
Leonoras and Torquato Tasso (1867); Court 
Life of Pope Leo X. (1869) ; The Widow's 
Mite ; Capri, A Page (1870); Tilly's Retreat 
(1871) ; Tournament at Court of Burgundy 
(1872); Washerwoman in Venice (1873); 
Indulgentia plenario. Wurzbach, xxvii. 
205 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, v. 122. 

RUBENS, PETER PAUL, born at Sie- 
ge n, Westphalia, 
June 29, 1577, died 
at Antwerp, May 
30, 1640. Flemish 
school ; studied at 
Antwerp with To- 
bias Verhaegt and 
Adam van Noort, 
and then with Otto 
van Veen from 
1596 until 1600, 

when he went to Venice, where his copies 
after Titian and Giorgione attracted the 
notice of the Duke of Mantua, Viucenzo 
Gonzaga L.^Wio made him his court paint- 
er. In July, 1601, the Duke sent Rubens 
to Rome to copy pictures for his gallery, 



with a letter of recommendation to the 
Cardinal Montalto. Having executed the 
Duke's commission, and painted a triptych 
for the Chapel of St. Helena in the Church 
of Sta. Croce in Gerusalemme, by order of 
the Archduke Albert, Eubens returned to 
Mantua early in 1603. In March he was 
sent to Spain as the Duke's messenger, 
with presents for the King and certain high 
dignitaries. The pictures which formed 
part of them, chiefly by an inferior artist, 
Pietro Fachotti, having been much dam- 
aged en route, were restored at Valladolid 
by Kubens, and as two were irreparably in- 
jured he painted his Democritus, and Hera- 
clitus, now in the Madrid Museum, to re- 
place them. He also painted an equestrian 
portrait of the Duque de Lerma and several 
portraits of beautiful Spanish women for 
the Duke of Mantua ; after which he re- 
turned to Mantua at the end of April, 1604, 
and painted an altarpiece for the Church of 
the Trinity. The wings were destroyed in 
1797 during the French occupation, but the 
central piece, representing the Trinity, is 
preserved in the public library at Mantua. 
At the end of 1605 Kubens went to Rome 
to continue his studies. In July, 1607, he 
met the Duke at Genoa, and in the course 
of six or seven weeks made 139 sketches of 
palaces, afterwards published at Antwerp 
(1613). At this time, perhaps, he modelled 
the bust of Spiuola, still preserved in the 
family palace, and received a commission 
from the Marchese Pallavicini for his pict- 
ure of Ignatius Loyola, which he sent from 
Antwerp in 1620. Returning to Rome in 
1607, Rubens finished his picture of Pope 
Gregory the Great with Saints (sent to Gre- 
noble by Napoleon in 1811), and in the 
autumn of 1608, having received news of 
the dangerous illness of his mother, he re- 
turned to Antwerp, where he arrived in 
November, after her death. Depressed, 
and homesick for Italy, he would soon have 
gone back to Rome had not the Archduke 
Albert, moved by the commendations of 
Otto van Veen, Rubens's old master, treat- 

ed him with much consideration at Brus- 
sels, and commissioned him to paint his 
own portrait, that of the Infanta Isabella, a 
Holy Family for the oratory of his palace, 
and a large altarpiece for the church at 
Candenburg, the triptych of S. Ildefonso, 
now in the Museum at Vienna. In 1609 
the Archduke made Rubens his court paint- 
er, gave him a gold chain and medal, and 
granted him numerous privileges. Re- 
nouncing his intention to return to Italy, 
Rubens obtained permission to fix his resi- 
dence at Antwerp, where, on October 13, 
1609, he married Isabella Brandt. Com- 
missions now crowded upon him to such 
an extent that at the beginning of 1611 
he had refused more than one hundred. 
Among the works of this time are the De- 
livery of the Keys, Church of St. Gudule, 
Brussels ; The Erection of the Cross, Notre 
Dame, Antwerp ; and an Adoration of the 
Magi, Antwerp Museum ; the St. Therese, 
the St. Anne, and the Dead Christ in the 
same collection. Enriched by inheritance, 
by his wife's dowry, and by his own labours, 
Rubens in 1611 built himself a beautiful 
house at Antwerp with a round gallery 
lighted from above, which he decorated 
with his copies, original works, and ac- 
quired objects of art. In September of the 
same year he agreed to paint for the guild 
of the Harquebusiers the great altarpiece 
with wings, which was finished in 1612, 
and since 1614 has decorated their altar 
in the Antwerp Cathedral. The different 
paintings upon it are the famous Descent 
from the Cross, the Visitation, the Presen- 
tation, and the St. Christopher and a Her- 
mit. Having numerous pupils, and con- 
stant demands for original works, Rubens 
spent eleven years at Antwerp, and then 
went to Paris in February, 1622, at the call 
of Maria de' Medici, to decorate the Lux- 
embourg Palace with twenty-one great pict- 
] ures, now in the Louvre, representing the 
history of her life up to the period of her 
reconciliation with her son, Louis XTTT. In 
1622-23 he returned to Paris to consult 


with the Queen, and again in 1625. Bring- 
ing with him nineteen finished pictures, he 
remained there to finish the rest. Every 
effort was made to induce him to remain in 
France, but in vain. At Paris he had made 
the acquaintance of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, who visited him at Antwerp and event- 
ually purchased his collection for about 
100,000 florins. In 1626 (July) Isabella 
Brandt died, to the great grief of her hus- 
band, who honoured her with splendid fu- 
neral ceremonies. In 1624 Philip IV. of 
Spain ennobled Rubens, and the Archduch- 
ess Isabella made him her gentleman in 
waiting. In 1627 she sent him to England 
with the title of ambassador to act as me- 
diator in negotiating peace between that 
country and Spain. This obliged him to 
visit Spain in August, 1628, where he was 
treated with great honour by the King and 
became intimate with Velasquez, upon whom 
he had great influence. In nine months 
Rubens painted forty pictures and made 
copies of all the pictures by Titian in the 
Royal Gallery. In 1629, after a short visit 
to Antwerp, he was sent as ambassador to 
King Charles I., whose portrait he painted, 
and who on his departure created him 
Knight of the Golden Spur, Feb. 21, 1630. 
Once more he was sent to Spain to con- 
clude the peace negotiations with Philip 
IV. He then returned home and on Dec. 
6, 1630, married Helena Fourment, his 
niece by marriage. For Charles I. Rubens 
then painted nine pictures, and designed 
for the Banquet Hall at Whitehall a ceiling 
representing the allegorical history of James 
I. He also began a series of pictures for 
the gallery of Henri IV. in the Luxem- 
bourg, six of which were far advanced when 
the exile of Maria de' Medici, in 1631, in- 
terrupted the work. In 1631 he resumed 
his diplomatic career, in order to bring 
about a peace between the North and South 
of the Low Countries. This entailed much 
trouble and annoyance upon him, and the 
death of his protectress, the Archduchess 
Isabella, in 1633, greatly afflicted him. He 

also suffered much with the gout, but never- 
theless continued to paint with the same 
wonderful facility and power. In 1635 he 
designed eleven allegorical compositions to 
decorate the triumphal arches raised in 
honour of the entrance of Ferdinand, Gov- 
ernor of the Low Countries, into Antwerp. 
His last picture, the Crucifixion of St Peter, 
(1638), painted for the banker Jabach, was 
delivered to its owner after the painter's 
death, and placed in the Church of St. 
Peter at Cologne, where it still exists. The 
works of this great artist, many of which 
were wholly for partially painted by his 
scholars after his designs, are between two 
and three thousand. Of these 286 repre- 
sent antique subjects, historical or mytho- 
logical. The following is a list of some of 
the most remarkable : Fall of the Damned, 
Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Ma- 
donna with Saints, Flight into Egypt, Di- 
ana and Nymphs surprised by Satyrs, Mara 
crowned by Victory, Portrait of an Orien- 
tal, Cassel Gallery ; Last Judgment, Lion 
Hunt, Fall of the Damned, Woman of the 
Apocalypse, Nativity, Battle of the Ama- 
zons (1619), Trinity, Entombment, Martyr- 
dom of St. Laivrence, Meleager and Atalautn, 
Massacre of Innocents, Samson and Delilah, 
Cantor and Pollux, Silenus and Satyrs, Su- 
sanna, Portrait of litibens and Isabella Brandt, 
Helena Founnent under a Colonnade, do. 
with her Boy, A Scholar (1635), Dr. van 
Thulden, Lord and Lady Arundel, Philip 
IV. of Spain, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Ru- 
bens' Sons, eleven Portraits, Diana and her 
Nymphs, Wild Boar Hunt, Garden of Love, 
Judgment of Paris, Dresden Museum ; St. 
Ignatius Loyola exorcising Demons, Assump- 
tion, Magdalen, St. Manas Xavier Preach- 
ing, Portrait of Rubens, Four Quarters of 
the Globe, Portrait of the Archduchess Anna 
Mnria, Altarpiece of St. Ildefonxo, Festival 
of Fen us, Cimon and Iphigenia, Meleager 
and Atalanta, Portraits of Emperor Maxi- 
milian and of Philip le Bon, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Rubens' Sons, History of Death of 
Decius Mus, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; 


Rainbow, Flight of Lot, Elijah in the Desert, 
Tomyris, Kirmess, History of Maria de' Med- 
ici, Portrait of the same, do. of Helena Four- 
ment and two of her Children, Louvre, Paris ; 
Kape of the Sabines, Chapeau de Paille, Tri- 
umph of Silenus, Judgment of Paris, Land- 
scape, Conversion of St. Bavon, Peace and 
War, National Gallery, London ; Field, Coro- 
nation of the Virgin, Adoration of the Magi, 
Procession to Calvary, Brussels Museum ; 
five sketches (en grisaille) for the Maria de' 
Medici Series, two for the Jaines I. White- 
hall Series, Portraits of Rubens's two Wives, 
Venus and Adonis, ten Portraits, Portrait 
of the Comte de Bucquoy, Silenun and Sa- 
tyrs, Perseus and Andromeda, Madonna, 
Madonna with Saints, Adoration of Magi, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Ulysses and 
Nausicaii, Landscape, The Philosophers, Two 
Holy Families, Horrors of War, Nymphs 
and Satyrs, Portrait of Duke of Bucking- 
ham, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Henri IV. at 
Ivry, Entry of Henri IV. into Paris, Por- 
traits of Rubens's two Wives, Bacchanal, 
Venus and Adonis, Hercules between Vice 
and Virtue, Uffizi, Florence ; Adoration of 
the Magi, Three Holy Families, Eleven Apos- 
tles, Lapiths and Centaurs, Supper at Em- 
maus, Fifteen Mythological Subjects, Eques- 
trian Portrait of Philip II., of Don Fernando 
of Austria, of Sir Thomas More, Garden of 
Love, Doctors of the Church, Mercury and 
Argus, Milky Way, Nymphs and Satyrs (2), 
Orpheus and Eurydice, Perseus and Androm- 
eda, liudolph of Hapsburg, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Rape of Sabines, Reconciliation of 
Sabines and Romans, Escorial ; Crucifixion, ' 
St. Theresa, Dead Christ, Education of the 
Virgin, Adoration of the Magi, Incredulity 
of St. Thomas, Portraits of Nicholas Rockox 
and Adrienne Perez, Antwerp Museum ; Ad- 
oration of Magi, St. Jean, Mechlin ; Perseus 
and Andromeda, Helena Fourment, Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, Daughter of Rubens, 
Landscape, St. Sebastian, Madonna with 
Saints, Raising of Lazarus, Neptune and 
Amphitrite, Berlin Museum ; Pan and Syr- 
inx, Prairie de Laeckeu, Pythagoras, two 

Portraits, Buckingham Palace, London ; 
Marriage of St. Catharine, Madonna with 
Saints, Stafford House ; Wolf Hunt, Diana 
and Nymphs, Lord Ashburton ; Holy Fam- 
ily, Rainbow, Peter receiving the Keys, 
Hertford House ; Perseus and Andromeda, 
Rape of Proserpine, Rubens and Helena 
Fourment, Helena Formann (Fourment), 
Blenheim Palace ; Madonna (1,360), Holy 
Family (460), Adoration of Magi (1,500), 
Meleager and Atalanta (Cavendish Ben- 
tinck, 520), Return from Egypt (1,500), 
Holy Family (1,000), Suffer Little Chil- 
dren (800), Flight of Lot (1,850), Holy 
Family (1,400), Infant Saviour and St. 
John (50), Distribution of the Rosary, 
Paracelsus, Artist's Portrait, Portrait of 
Anne of Austria (3,700), Roman Charity 
(1,200), Triumph of Silenus (60), Venus 
and Adonis (7,200), Blenheim Palace sale, 
London, 1886 ; Pausias and Glycera, Ixion, 
Landscape, Grosvenor House ; Tomyris, 
Cobham Hall ; Woman taken in Adultery, 
Conversion of St. Paul, Holy Family, Leigh 
Court ; Helena Fourment, Venus, Mars, 
and Cupid, Two Landscapes, Dulwich Gal- 
lery ; Madonna with Saints, Duke of Rut- 
land ; St. Martin, Portrait of Philip IV, 
Portrait of Rubens, Landscape, Sir B. Ger- 
bier and his Family, Holy Family, Wind- 
sor Castle ; Prelates Kneeling, Petworth ; 
Daughter of Herodias, Castle Howard ; Re- 
turn from Egypt, Lions chasing Deer, Met- 
ropolitan M u s e - 

um> New York - 

-Bakhuizen van 
Jen Brink Les 

/ <T-J \_, Rubens a Siegen 

(\ / (Hague, 1861); 

/ ^-UJO4i4 Cat. du Mus. 
/etvC" d'Anvers, 291; 

" Dohme, li.; Du 

PE PA RVB NJ Mortier, Recher- 
f 1 f^ ( ^L/' ches and Nou- 

* velles Recherches 

(Brussels, 1861, 1862) ; Ennen, Ueber den 
Geburtsort des P. P. R. (Cologne, 1861) ; 
Gachard, Histoire politique, etc. (Brussels, 



1877) ; Gachet, Lettres inedites (Brussels, 
1846) ; Gaedertz, R und die Kubensfeier in 
Antwerpeu (Leipsic, 1878); Gcnard, ^aute- 
keningen over P. P. R (Antwerp, 1877) ; 
Gerrits, P. P. R, zijn tijd, etc. (Amsterdam, 
1842); V. van Grimbergen, Hist. Levensbe- 
scbryving (Antwerp), 1840) ; A. van Hasselt, 
Hist. (Brussels, 1840) ; Kett, Rubens (Lon- 
don, 1882); Krarnm, v. 1395 ; Merlo, Nach- 
ricbten, 352 ; Michel, Hist, (Brussels, 1771); 
Micbiels, Rubens et 1'ucole d'Auvers (Paris, 
1877) ; do., Hist, de la peinture flaruancle, 
vi. 374-444 ; vii. 1-253 ; L'CEuvre de P. P. 
R (Antwerp and Brussels, 1877, 1878) ; R 
de Piles, Eecueil, etc. (Paris, 1755) ; Reif- 
fenberg, Nouvelles Recbercbes (Brussels, 
1835); Riegel, Beitrage, i. 165, 344 ; ii. 58- 
66, 92-94 ; Rooses (Reber), 162-254 ; Ro- 
senberg, Rubensbriefe (Leipsic, 1881); Sains- 
bury, Original Papers (London, 1859) ; 
Scbneevogt, Cat. des Estampes (Haarlem, 
1873) ; Smith, Cat. raisouno (London, 1829 
-42); Van den Branden, 357, 409, 482, 1271, 
1372, 1386 ; Verachter, Gcm-alogie de P. P. 
R.; do., Le Tombeau de R. (Antwerp, 1840, 
1843) ; Villaamil, Rubens, Diplomatico Es- 
pafiol (Madrid, 1874); Waagen (Noel), P. P. 
R (London, 1840); do., Kl. Schriften (Stutt- 
gart, 1875); Woltmann, Aus vicr Jahrh., 49 ; 
Annalen des hist. Vereius f. d. Niederrhein 
(1861, 1869) ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1859-68), 
L-xxxv.; (1869), i. 223, 334; (1881), xxiii. 
5, 305; (1882), xxv. 5; xxvi. 273; (1883), 
xxvii. 5, 203, 309 ; xxviii. 361 ; (1884), xxix. 
29, 193 ; (1884), xxx. 34 ; (1885), xxxi. 121 ; 
xxxii. 97, 449 ; Graph. K, ii. 25 ; Journal 
des B. Arts (1875-79) ; Kuust-Chronik, xii. 
425, 457, 571, 697, 724, 777, 809, 825 ; xiii. 
81 ; xvi. 484, 504 ; xvii. 094 ; xviii. 217, 532 ; 
xxi. 141, 221, 337 ; Vlaamsche school (1866, 
1875, 1877, 1878) ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, i. 225 ; 
ii. 132 ; iii. 128 ; iv. 47 ; v. 202, 304 ; viii. 
190 ; ix. (Mittheilungen, ii. 1) ; x. 96 (Hit., 
iii. 40) ; xi. 352, 383 ; xii. 261, 306 (Hit, v. 
57) ; xv. 225, 261 ; xvi. 235 ; xvii. 165. 

RUBENS, portrait, Eubem, Windsor Cas- 
tle ; wood, H. 2 ft 9* in. x 2 ft. 1 in. Half- 
length, face three-quarters, looking to left, 

wearing a black Spanish mantle with a gold 
chain around his neck, and a large hat dec- 
orated with a tassel. Presented to Charles 
I. by Lord Danby. Engraved by P. Pon- 
tius ; Worlidge ; Chambers ; Facius ; Pel- 
ham ; J. H. Robinson. Duplicate, engraved 
by Moulmeester and Gregori, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence. Other portraits of Rubens in Vienna, 
Louvre, Uffizi, and Genoa Galleries. Smith, 
ii. 145, 159 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 435 ; 
Lasinio, iii. PI. 96. 

I lluhem, Munich Gallery ; canvas, H. 5 ft 6 

Rubens ind lubellt Brandt, Ruben, Munich 

in. x 4 ft. 2 in. Rubens and his first wife, 
daughter of Jan Brandt, of Antwerp ; fig- 
ures full-length, in full dress, seated, under 
an arbour, he on the edge of a table, she 
on a stool beside it Probably painted 
about 1610. Engraved by Hesa Kctt, 
64 ; Smith, ii. 63. 

Rubens, Blenheim Palace ; canvas, H. 7 ft 
8 in. x 6 ft 8 in. Rubens and his second 
wife, full-length, life-size, in Spanish cos- 



tume, walking in a flower garden ; she has 
a little child in leading strings. Waagen 
says, " Few other pictures by Kubens equal, 

Rubens and Helena Fourment, Rubens, Blenheim Palace. 

and none probably surpass it." Presented 
to Duke of Marlborough by City of Brus- 
sels. Engraved by McArdell. Studies in 
Louvre. Similar subject, with changes, 
Munich Gallery. Waagen, Art Treasures, 
iii. 129 ; Smith, ii. 243 ; Klas. der Malerei, 
PI. 7. 

EUBENS'S SONS, Rubens, Liechtenstein 
Gallery, Vienna ; wood, H. 5 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 
Rubens's sons by Isabella Brandt. Full- 
length, in Spanish costume. The younger, 
Nicolas, holds a flying bird attached to a 
string ; the elder, Albert, has one arm over 
his brother's shoulder and holds a book un- 
der the other. Engraved by Pichler. One 
of Rubens's best pictures. Replica, Dres- 
den Gallery ; engraved by Daullu ; Danzel ; 
Tanje. Smith, ii. 83, 100 ; Klas. der Ma- 
lerei, PI. 8. 

RUBIALES, PEDRO, born in Estrema- 
dura, died in Rome (?), latter half of 16th 

century. Spanish school ; pupil of Fran- 
cisco Salviati, whom he assisted in many 
works. Painted in S. Spirito, Rome, the 
Conversion of St. Paul. Also, with Becerra, 
aided Vasari, who calls him Roviale, in the 
frescos of the Cancellaria in the palace of 
Cardinal Farnese. Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 229 ; 
vii. 43, 681 ; Stirling, i. 153. 

Paris, Oct. 17, 1807. History painter, pu- 
pil of Gros and Charlet. Medals : 3d class, 
1840 ; 2d class, 1848 ; L. of Honour, 1863. 
"Works : Children taking Game from sleep- 
ing Game-Keeper (1834) ; Death of John of 
Armagnac (1835) ; Claude Larcher (1836) ; 
Claude Frollo, Charles IE. and Alice Lee, 

Rubens's Sons, Rubens, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 

Boy and Schoolmaster, Gringoire before 
Louis XI. (1837) ; Marmion Wounded 
(1838) ; Hamlet killing Polonius, Lanz- 


knecbts (1839) ; St. Augustine, Children 
(1840) ; Christ, Mutual Lesson (1841) ; SL 
George giving Thanks for his Victory 
(1842) ; Divine Mission (1844) ; Head of 
Christ, Shepherd and Child (1845); Outlaws 
of the Cevennes, Naiiid, Blaise de Montluc 
(1849) ; Women Bathing (1850) ; Christ 
Crowned with Thorns (1855) ; Echo of the 
Ravine, Pifferaro (1859) ; Mater Dolorosa, 
Nicolas Flamel, Luxembourg Museum ; 
Christ in the Garden, St. John (1863) ; 
Shepherd of the Abruzzi, Christ falling 
under the Cross, Christ stripped of his 
Clothing (1864); Ecce Homo (1865), Saint- 
IStienne Museum ; Mater Dolorosa, The 
Muse (1867) ; Autumn Evening, Mercena- 
ries, Mater Dolorosa (1868) ; Poetry and 
Materialism, Woods of Couvron, Lamartine 
on his Death-Bed (1869) ; Head of Christ, 
Judas (1870) ; Mandolinata, A Student 
(1875); Ecce Homo, The Douet at Beuzeval 
(1878) ; Portrait of the historian Pasquier, 
Versailles Museum. Executed twenty ceil- 
ings of large dimensions, and decorative 
panels in oil, for the United States. Bel- 
lier, ii. 440 ; Larousse. 

RUDE, Mine. SOPHIE FRfiMIET, born 
in Dijon, June 20, 1797, died in Paris, 
Dec. 4, 1867. History, genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Devosge and of David, 
and wife of the sculptor Rude. Medal, 2d 
class, 1833. Works : Virgin Sleeping (1831), 
Dijon Museum ; Charles L bidding Fare- 
well to his Children (1833); Arrest of Duch- 
ess of Burgundy in Bruges (1841), Dijon 
Museum ; Faith, Hope, and Charity (1857). 

Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 6 in. x 9 
ft. 3 in. The founder of the Austrian em- 
pire, hunting in the woods, followed by a 
single esquire, gives his horse to a priest 
carrying the Host to a dying person, and 
bids his esquire give his to the priest's aco- 
lyte. The landscape is by Wildens. Col- 
lection of Philip IV. Madrazo. 

RUELAND, F., flourished in Vienna, end 
of 15th ajid beginning of 16th centuries. 

German school. Works : Four Scenes from 
Christ's Passion, Vienna Museum ; series 
with Scenes from life of Si John, Christ's 
Passion, Legend of St. Leopold, Stift Klos- 
terneuburg, near Vienna. W. & W., ii. 127. 

RUFTNA, ST., MurUlo, Stafford House, 
London ; canvas, H. 3 ft. x 2 fi 2 in. The 
Saint, half-length, in a green robe and pur- 
ple mantle, standing three-quarters left, 
looking front, holding a jar in her left hand 
by one of its handles ; another jar, resting 
on left wrist, is held against her body ; in 
her right hand, a palm. Companion to St. 
Junta (Stafford House), which see. Curtis, 
268 ; Gower, Hist. Gal. of England. 

RUFUS, painter, known only for his 
wager with an attorney named Phrcdrus as 
to which could work the faster. The latter 
won, by writing a contract while Rufus was 
preparing his colours. Anuall, ii. 339, No. 

in Augsburg, 
Nov. 27, 1666, 
died there, May 
19, 1742. Ger- 
man school ; bat- 
tle and military 
genre painter, pu- 
pil of Isaac (or Ja- 
cob) Fischer, took 
Lembkc, and Tempesta, for his models, 
and studied the various events of a soldier's 
profession, as at the siege of Augsburg, 
where he often exposed himself to the great- 
est danger ; ranks among the most famous 
battle painters ; was an able draughtsman, 
but a defective colourist. In 1692 he visit- 
ed Venice and Rome, and after his return 
to Augsburg became director of the Draw- 
ing Academy. Works : Nine Battle-Pieces, 
Brunswick Gallery; Siege of Augsburg, 
Battle, Charge of Cavalry, Bamberg Gallery ; 
Cattle-Pieces (2), Cassel Gallery; Cavalry 
Skirmish (2), Moltke Collection, Copen- 
hagen ; do. (1), Christiania Gallery ; do., 
Furstenberg Gallery, Donaueschingeu ; do., 



Konigsberg Museum ; Preparations for Mar- 
ket, Horse Fair, Schleissheim Gallery ; Bat- 
tle Field, Schwerin Gallery ; Battle Scenes 
(3), Soldiers in Camp, Stuttgart Museum ; 
Invasion of a City, Liechtenstein Gallery, 
Vienna ; Cavalry Battle, Schonborn Gallery, 
ib. ; others in Vienna (2), Basle (2), Berne 

(2), Dresden, Stockholm, and Augsburg 
Galleries. Ch. Blanc, cole allemande ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 561 ; Nagler, Mon., iii. 

RUGENDAS, MORITZ, born in Augs- 
burg, March 29, 1802, died at Weilheim, 
Wilrtemberg, May 29, 1858. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Munich Acad- 
emy under Quaglio and Albrecht Adam ; 
visited Brazil in 1821-25, Italy in 1826-27, 
went in 1831 to Mexico, where, implicated 
in political troubles, he was imprisoned ; 
then wandered through Peru, Bolivia, Mon- 
tevideo, and Patagonia, and returned to Eu- 
rope in 184:7. Works : Picturesque Jour- 
ney in Brazil (1827-35) ; Columbus taking 
Possession of the New World (1855), New 
Pinakothek, Munich. Regnet, ii. 138. 

RUIPEREZ, LOUIS, born at Murcia, 
Spain ; contemporary. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Meissonier. Honorable mention, 
1882. Works : Cabaret in Time of Louis 
XHL, W. H. Vanderbilt, New York ; Refer- 
ence to the Law Book, M. Graham, ib. ; 
Sword Practice, John Hoey, ib. 

RUISDAEL (Ruysdael), I. (Izack ?) VAN, 
born at Naardeu, died in Haarlem, buried 
Oct. 4, 1677. Dutch school ; landscape 
painter, brother of Salomon, to whose pict- 
ures, as well as those of Van Goyen, his own 
bear some resemblance. Mentioned as one 
of the directors of the Haarlem guild in 
1642. Works : Wooded Landscape with 
Cattle and Fishermen (1665), Rotterdam 
Museum ; do. with Two Peasants, Suer- 
mondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Land- 
scape, Bordeaux Museum ; do. (attributed 

to Roelof Vries), Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Wooded do., Brunswick Gallery ; Spyk Ma- 
nor (1652), Copenhagen Gallery ; Dutch 
Farm Houses (2 ?), Georgium, Dessau ; 
Dutch Canal (1644), Leipsic Museum ; Hut 
between Trees by the Downs, Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Landscape with the Planks, 
Vienna Academy. Gaz. des B. Arts (1869), 
i. 179 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 468 ; Van der 
Willigen, 253 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iv. 242 ; 
vii. 170 ; x. 32 ; xii. 381 ; xiv. 318. 

RUISDAEL, JACOB VAN, born in Haar- 
lem about 1625 (?), died there, buried, March 
14, 1682. Dutch school ; landscape paint- 
er, son and pupil of Izack van Ruisdael, 
probably also pupil of his uncle Salomon van 
Ruisdael ; became the greatest landscape 
painter of the Dutch school. In 1648 he 
joined the guild of St. Luke at Haarlem, and 
in 1659 obtained the rights of citizenship at 
Amsterdam. Little appreciated by his con- 
temporaries, he gained a scant maintenance 
by his art, and in 1681 became so impover- 
ished that some of his fellow members of the 
Mennonite sect petitioned the Burgomaster 
of Haarlem to admit him to the public hos- 
pital. Many of his landscapes represent 
views in the environs of Haarlem and about 
Bentheim. His early works are remarkable 
for minute finish of accessories. The fig- 
ures introduced in Ruisdael's landscapes are 
by Berchem, Adriaan van de Velde, Wou- 
werman, Lingelbach, Vermeer, and Eglon 
van der Neer. Ruisdael was an admirable 
etcher. Works : Landscape with Ruins 
(1673), do. with Waterfall (4), Forest Scene, 
Six others, National Gallery, London ; Riv- 
er Landscapes (2), National Gallery, Edin- 
burgh ; Forest, Storm on the Dikes of Hol- 
land, four others, Louvre, Paris ; Landscape 
(1649), Waterfall in Norway, Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; Lake of Haarlem, two others, Brus- 
sels Museum ; Waterfall, Castle of Bentheim, 
View of Haarlem, six others, Amsterdam 
Museum ; Old Fishmarket at Amsterdam, 
two others, Rotterdam Museum ; View of 
Haarlem, two others, Hague Museum ; Hil- 
ly landscape with Castle, Park of Country 


House with Dancers, Suermondt Museum, 
Aix-la-Chapelle ; Agitated Sea (2), View of 
Haarlem, View of Dam Square at Amster- 
dam, On the Downs near Overveen, Land- 
scape with Peasant Cottage (1653), five 
others, Berlin Museum ; Waterfall, Oak- 
wood with Falconer, Cassel Gallery ; The 
Chase, Jewish Cemetery, The Convent, Cas- 
tle Bentheim, ten others, Dresden Museum ; 
Steep Road over Sandy Hill, etc. (1G67), 
seven others, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Cas- 
tle Bentheim, Schonborn Gallery, Vienna ; 
View of Haarlem, Marine View, Historical 
Society, New York ; others in Galleries of 
Bergamo, Brunswick (5), Copenhagen (Roy- 
al, 4, Moltke Collection, 4), Darmstadt (2), 
Frankfort (4), Gotha, Hamburg (7), Madrid 
(2), Nureinburg, Oldenburg (3), Schleiss- 
heim (?), Schwerin (2), Stuttgart, Turin (2), 
Vienna (Museum, 3, 
Liechtenstein, 2, l7) /- 
Harrach (1679), Czer- 
ninl), Weimar; Her- 
mitage, St. Peters- 
burg (14, two dated 
1646, 1647); Uffizi, 
and Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence. Dr. Waa- 
gen in his Treasures 
mentions 130 in Eng- 
lish collections. Ch. 
Blanc, ficole holland- 
aise; Burger, Musees, 
i. 149, 270 ; ii. 132, 
299 ; Dohme, lii. ; Immerzeel, iii. 41 ; Jal, 
1095; Kramm, v. 1410; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 
470 ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 506 ; Riegel, Bei- 
trage, ii. 387 ; Van der Willigen, 256 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, iv. 241 ; v. 228, 305 ; vii. 276 ; 
x. 74, 192 ; xii. 21, 260 ; xiv. 318. 

Haarlem about 1600, buried Nov. 1, 1670. 
Dutch school ; landscape painter, formed 
himself after Esaias van de Velde, and Jan 
van Goyen, whom he resembles much in 
merits and defects. Entered the Haarlem 
guild in 1623, and was its president in 1648. 
While his earlier works are scarcely distin- 

j guishable from those of his model, his later 
pictures are more mannered in the treat- 
ment of foliage and more powerful in colour. 
Works: Coast View with Vessels, Antwerp 
1 Museum ; Ferry Boat (1647), River Bank 
i with Fishermen, Brussels Museum ; Village 
Inn (1655), Halt (1660), Amsterdam Muse- 
um ; The Meuse at Dordrecht, Rotterdam 
Museum ; Herdsmen driving Cows (1614), 
River Landscape, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; 
Dutch Canal (1642), four others (two dated 
1631, 1656), Berlin Museum ; Ferry (1652). 
Oaks on River Bank, Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Village in Flat Country (1633), Fisherman 8 
Cottage near Canal (1643), Water with Fish- 
ermen, Dresden Museum ; Canal with Boats 
(1642), two others, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Woodland on River with Ferry 
(1634), Oldenburg Gallery; Landscape 
(1654), Worlitz Gallery; "Banks of the 
Meuse, View of Alkmanr, Metropolitan Mu- 
seum, New York ; Crossing the River, Land- 
scape, Historical Society, ib. ; others in Gal- 
leries of Bamberg, ^ 

Basle, Cassel, v/L 3 Rs 
Frankfort (2), p^f ' '^ 

Stockholm, Wei-o/ VClO^-t/ Y\ 
mar ; Czernin Gal- f VQ , (, i I 
lery, Vienna (2); ^ 'fi V ' ' ** 
Brera, Milan. \J\*( 
Dohme, lii.; Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1869), f f 



i. 179; Kramm, v. / * 

1412; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 468; Van der 

Willigen, 254 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., v. 229 ; 

vii. 169 ; xiv. 319 ; xi. (Mittheilungen, iv. 


j IGNACIO, born in Madrid in 1648, died 
there in 1704. Spanish school ; pupil of 
Camilo and of Carrefio ; painted a fresco in 
the queen's antechamber in the Alcuzar so 
acceptably that he was made in 1689 painter 
to the king, an honour confirmed by Philip 
V. He painted portraits of Philip V. and of 
his first queen, Maria Louisa of Savoy, and 
sacred subjects for churches. Stirling, iii. 


at Hillerod, Dec. 8, 1816, died at Freder- 
iksborg, May 25, 1880. 
Landscape painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy under Lund ; 
painted at first history 
and portraits, visited 
Norway in 1855-56, 
and Germany in 1856- 
1857 ; became mem- 
ber of Copenhagen 
Academy in 1866, and 
professor in 1874. Works : Presentation 
in the Temple (1842) ; Heath in Jutland 
(1849) ; View in Sabygaards Forest (1854) ; 
Noro Valley (1856) ; Four Seasons (1864) ; 
Turf Pit near Frederiksborg (1848), Morn- 
ing in a Forest, ib. (1851), Forest Stream in 
Jutland (1854), View of Skaergftrd Reefs, 
Sweden (1855), Woodland near Frederiks- 
borg (1860), Landscape, ib. (1879), Winter 
Scene (1880), Copenhagen Gallery. Sig. 
Muller, 301 ; Weilbach, 595. 

RUMPF, PHILIPP, born in Frankfort, 
Dec. 19, 1831. Genre painter, pupil of Stii- 
del Institute in Frankfort under Rustige ; 
visited Munich, Dresden, Paris, and North 
Italy, and settled at Kronberg, near Frank- 
fort. Works : Poor Flower Girl ; Ladies in 
a Park ; Young Lady Artist ; Mother and 
Child. Kaulen, 306 ; Muller, 453. 

RUMPLER, FRANZ, born at Tachau, 
Bohemia, in 1848. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
Engerth ; is compared, by prominent Vien- 
na art critics, to Knaus. His portraits are 
in the manner of the old Dutch masters. 
Professor in Vienna. Works : Goose Herd ; 
Morning Prayers, Evening Prayers (1871); 
Little Patient ; At Grandmother's (1873) ; 
Secret Treasure ; Good Friendship, T. A. 
Havemeyer, New York ; In the Park ; Flow- 
ers and Pearls (1876); Leisure Hours (1879); 
Neapolitan Woman's Head, Woman from 
Dachau, Only Scholar in the Family (1883). 
Kunst Chronik, xviii. 509 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, xiii. 353 ; xv. 332. 

inburgh, in 1736, died there, Oct. 21, 1785. 
History painter, pupil of Foulis's Academv, 
Glasgow ; went about 1766 to Rome and 
studied five years, painting there his large 
picture Nausicaii at Play with her Maid- 
ens. Returning in 1772, he settled the next 
year in Edinburgh, where he was appointed 
manager to the Trustees' Academy. He 
decorated the great hall of Pennicuik with 
scenes from Ossian, and painted The Prodi- 
gal Son, Cymon and Iphigenia, Sigismunda 
weeping over the Heart of Guiscardo, and 
other works. His brother, John (1744-66), 
an artist of much promise, accompanied 
him to Italy and died at Naples ; in the 
National Gallery, Edinburgh, are by him : 
Flight into Egypt, King Lear in the 
Storm, and Portrait of a Youth. Red- 
grave ; F. de Conches, 305 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 

RUNK, FERDINAND, born at Freiburg, 
in the Breisgau, in 1746, died in Vienna in 
1834. Landscape painter ; made himself 
known through a fine cycle of eight paint- 
ings, in which, by light effects, colour, and 
reproduction of forms on the surface of 
earth and water, and of the vegetation, he 
represented the progress of nature from 
the highest ice-peak down to the sea-coast. 
Other works : View of the Glumser Valley 
in Tyrol, Museum, Vienna ; do. in a Park, 
Harrach Gallery, ib. 

RUSS, KARL, born in Vienna, May 10, 
1779, died there, Sept. 19, 1843. History 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
Maurer ; was afterwards much influenced by 
Eberhard Wiichter, and in 1818 became 
custodian of the Belvedere. Works : Tire- 
sias predicting Future of Hercules ; Philip 
of Macedonia rescued by his Son (1805) ; 
Caritu romana (1806) ; Hecuba bewailing 
her Children, Vienna Museum ; Christoph 
von Liechtenstein recognized by his Shield, 
I/ 77 /Ato*? Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; 
/ thirty-seven pictures from 
Austrian History. N. Necrol. d. D. (1843), 
832 ; Wurzbach, xxvii. 277. 


BUSS, LEANDER, born in Vienna, Sept. 
23, 1809, died at llustendorf, near Vienna, 
March 8, 1864. History and genre painter, 
son of and first instructed by Karl RUBS, 
then pupil of Vienna Academy ; visited It- 
aly, and in 1833 the East Works : Defence 
of a Bastion by Vienna Citizens in 1G83 
(1837), Vienna Museum ; The End of the 
Flood (1828); Ivanhoe liberating Rebecca 
(1830); Two Scenes in Don Quixote (1832); 
Maria von Sickingen interceding for Gotz 
von Berlichiugen (1835) ; Leopold VH of 
Babenberg opening his Treasury to City of 
Vienna (1837) ; Episode in Austrian War 
of Succession, 1741 (1848). Wurzbach, 
xxvii. 288. 

RUSS, ROBERT, born in Vienna, June 
7, 1847. Landscape painter, pupil of Vien- 
na Academy under Albert Zimmernianu, 
whom he accompanied on several study 
trips, and in whose place he became profes- 
sor at Vienna Academy in 1871. Gold 
medal, 1869. Works : Pine Forest (1869) ; 
Views near Eisenerz (4, 1870); Fiirstenburg 
near Burgeis (1871), Castle Heidelberg, Vi- 
enna Museum ; Wind Mill in Rotterdam, 
Canal in Venice (1873) ; Wood Landscape 
(1874); Pilgrims' Procession ; Scene in the 
Wurstel Prater, Vienna ; St. Paul's Cem- 
etery at Botzen (1882); View near Meran, 
Italian Landscape (Jubilee Exhibition, Ber- 
lin, 1886). Milller, 453 ; Wurzbach, xxvii. 
291 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 372 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, vii. 163. 

RUSTIC CHILDREN, Thomas Gainsbor- 
ough, National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. ! 
1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 2 in. Evening ; a girl 
standing, with a child in her arms, and a 
boy with a bundle of faggots, seated ; in 
background, right, a cottage. Engraved by 
G. B. Shaw in Art Journal. Brock-Arnold, 
64 ; Cat. Nat. Gal. ; Art Journal (1850), 102. 

RUSTIC CIVILITY, William Collins, 
Chatsworth ; wood, H. 1 ft 6 in. x 2 ft. A 
ragged boy holding open a gate for the 
squire ; a smaller child hides shyly behind 
his brother, and a third, with a dog, peeps 
through the bars. The approach of the 


rider is indicated only by the shadow of his 
horse and himself in the foreground. Royal 
Academy, 1832 ; to Duke of Devonshire, 250 
guineas; repetition (1834), 8. Kensington 
Museum. Engraved by Outrun ; C. Cousen. 
-Wilkie Collins, Memoirs, ii. 10, 347 ; 
Painters of Georgian Era, 72 ; Art Journal 
(1865), 234. 

RUSTIC TOILET, Thomas Faed, Mrs. M. 
O. Roberts, New York ; canvas. A young 
girl seated before a table, on which in 
propped up a broken looking-glass, with 
both hands raised arranging her hair ; at 
left, a child, standing. 

Werl, Westphalia, April 12, 1810. History, 
genre, and landscape painter, pupil of Dlls- 
seldorf Academy under Schadow ; went in 
1836 to Frankfort, whence he made pro- 
longed study trips to Vienna, Hungary, 
Dresden, Berlin, Belgium, France, and Eng- 
land, and in 1845 became professor at the 
art school in Stuttgart, and inspector of 
the royal galleries. Medal, London, 1874 ; 
Wurternberg Crown Order ; Bavarian Order 
of Michael. Works : French Invalid (1832); 
Prayer in Storm (1836), Inundation Scene, 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Interrupted Meal, 
Rustic genre Scene, Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
Rhenish Kirmess (1838) ; Quartering in 
Hungary ; Village Physician ; Rubens in 
his Pupils' Studio ; Duke of Alva at Rudol- 
stadt (1861), Emperor Otto L after Con- 
quest of the Danes, Capuchin Monk trying 
to convert Gypsies, Stuttgart Museum ; Till 
Eulenspiegel ; Transportation of Remains 
of Otto HI. over the Alps, Stettin Museum ; 
Emperor Frederic H. at Palermo ; Crusa- 
ders in the Desert ; Rubens taking his Wife 
to Studio of his Pupils; The Recovered 
Child ; Queen Elizabeth attending Perform- 
ance of Merry Wives (1882) ; Roman Ban- 
quet (1883). niustr. Zeitg. (1863), ii. 31 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xx. 546 ; Mttller, 454 ; 
Wolfg. Miiller, Ddsseldf. K, 288 ; Riegel, 
D. Kuuststud., 421. 

RUTH AND BOAZ, Alexandra Cabanel, 
Samuel Hawk Collection, New York ; can- 


vas. Boaz sleeping upon his threshing- 
floor, under a tent formed of a blanket 
stretched over young trees ; at his feet re- 
clines Kuth, her head supported by her left 
arm, which rests upon a sheaf of barley ; in 
the background, the glimmer of day is just 
spreading upward from the horizon. Art 
Treasures of America, ii. 26, 30. 

By Jean Fram^ois Millet, Martin Brim- 
mer, Boston. A harvest scene, with real 
peasants for characters. The master finds 
a young gleaner and leads her blushing to 
the feast of the country people. Salon, 1853. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Louvre, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 5 ft. 3 in. In a vast 
plain covered with grain, with hills and 
buildings on the horizon, women are en- 
gaged in harvesting ; in foreground, Ruth 
kneels before Boaz, who orders a follower 
leaning upon a lance not to hinder her from 
gleaning. Sometimes called L'ete (Sum- 
mer). One of a series of four, painted in 
1660-64, for Due de Richelieu, whence 
passed to Louis XIV. Engraved by J. 
Pesne. Filhol, iv. PI. 256 ; Landon. 

RUTH AND NAOMI, Murillo, Earl of 
Radnor, Longford Castle, Wiltshire, Eng- 
land ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 8 in. x G ft. 8 in. 
The two leaving Moab ; in background, 
Orpah returning to city. Waagen, Treas- 
ures, iv. 358 ; Stirling, iii. 1416 ; Curtis, 

RUTHART, KARL, flourished about 
1660-80. German school ; painter of ani- 
mals and hunts, was a resident of Ratisbon 
in 1664 ; seems to have travelled in Italy 
about 1672 and lived for some time in Ven- 
ice. Works : Bear Hunt, Louvre ; Stag at- 
tacked by two Lions, Bamberg Gallery ; 
Fierce Combat between Stags and Dogs, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Stags upon Preci- 
pice ; Stag Hunt, Bear Hunt, Ulysses com- 
pelling Circe to disenchant his Companions 
(1666), Dresden Gallery ; Stag Hunt, Mu- 
seum, Vienna ; Shepherd leaning upon Don- 
key, Lion fighting Panthers, Stag attacked 
by Lynxes, Leopardess nursing a Child, 
Lion by dead Stag attacked by Panthers, 

Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; Elks, Deer, and 
Waterfowl on a Rocky Shore (2), Harrach 
Gallery, ib.; Deer in a Landscape, do. in 
Mountains, Bear Hunt, Stag Hunt, Czernin 
Gallery, ib.; Bear Hunt, Schonborn Gal- 
lery, ib. ; Stag Hunt, Leopards by dead 
Stags, and Eagles, Ferdinandeum, Inns- 
bruck ; Deer Grazing and Fowl, Stag at- 
tacked by Leopards, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 

ence. Kugler (Crowe), ii. 532; Nagler, 
Mon., ii. 236. 

RUTHS, VALENTIN, born in Hamburg, 
March 6, 1825. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Diisseldorf Academy under Schirmer ; 
went to Italy in 1855, spent two years in 
Rome and settled in Hamburg, whence he 
repeatedly visited Germany, Switzerland, 
and North Italy. Member of Berlin Acad- 
emy in 1869 ; gold medal, Berlin, 1872. 
Works : View in Roman Campagna, Even- 
ing in Sabine Mountains (1856), Forest 
Brook, Landscape with Harvest Wagon, 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Northern Heath 
(1864), Prague Gallery; Giant's Grave; 
Well in the Woods (1866), Konigsberg 
Gallery ; Village in Rhon Mountains ; Even- 
ing Walk near Small Town (1875), Dresden 
Gallery ; Morteratsch Glacier ; Woodland 
near Lugano ; View on Baltic Coast, Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin ; Hermit in the Woods, 
Summer Night in Holstein (Jubilee Exhibi- 
tion, Berlin, 1886). Kunst fiir Alle, i. 258 ; 
Leixner, Mod. K., ii. 116 ; Miiller, 454. 

RUYSCH, RACHEL, born in Amsterdam 
in 1664, died there in 1750. Dutch school ; 
flower and fruit painter, pupil of Willem 
van Aelst ; married (1695) the portrait paint- 
er Juriaan Pool, joined The Hague guild, 
1701, and became court painter to the Elec- 
tor Palatine in 1708. Works : Flower and 
Fruit-Pieces with Insects, etc., in Museums 
of Brussels (1704), Amsterdam (4, one dated 
1659), The Hague (2, 1700, 1715), Rotter- 
dam (1685), Aix-la-Chapelle, Berlin (1705), 


Brunswick (2), Darmstadt, Dresden (3, one 
dated 1718), Gotha, Innsbruck (2), Vienna 
(1706), New York (2) ; Galleries of Car 1s- 
ruhe (3, two dated 1715, 1717), Cassel, 
Frankfort (1698), Wiesbaden ; Six Collec- 
tion, Amsterdam (2, 1730); Old Pinakothek, 
Munich (5, three dated 1708, 1709, 1715) ; 
Liechtenstein (2) and Czerniii (2) Galleries, 
Vienna ; Uffizi, Florence (2, 1711) ; Palazzo 
Pitti, ib. (2). Ch. 

landaise ; 
218 ; Immerzeel, 
7 J ^ fl iii. 40 ; Kramm, 

ie//?*Y JC * v ' 17; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 546 ; 
Burger, Husoes, 
i. 165; ii. 154, 319; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 


in Antwerp, April 9, 1813. Landscape and 
marine painter, pupil in Antwerp of Rege- 
morter, and at The Hague of Nuyen. 
Works : Exodus (1838); River Bank (1840); 
A Sail (1842) ; View of Antwerp ; Enter- 
tainment before Inn ; Fisherman's Boat 
Stranded ; Harbour View ; Winter Harbour 
of Dordrecht ; Entertainment on the Ice ; 
City on a River, Canal in Antwerp, Stettin 
Museum ; Cartmen loading Freight Wagon, 
Stuttgart Museum ; Winter Landscape with 
Figures, Harrach Gallery, Vienna ; Scene in 
Antwerp, John D. Lankenau, Philadelphia. 
Immerzeel, iii. 44 ; Kramm, v. 1418 ; Kug- 
ler, Kl. Schr., iii. 

RY, PIETER DE. See Danckerls. 

RYCKAERT, DAVID, the younger (HI.), 
born in Antwerp, baptized Dec. 2, 1612, 
died there, Nov. 11, 1661. Flemish school ; 
genre painter, son and pupil of David Ryck- 
aert, the elder (H, 1586-1642), developed 
under the influence of Brouwer and David 
Teniers the younger ; friend of Gonzales 
Coques, who married his sister. Received 
into guild of St. Luke, 1636. Studied 
Teniers the younger, Brouwer, and Van 
Ostade. Excelled in effects of light; sub- 

jects generally interiors with peasant* and 
village fairs. Works : Interior of Flemish 
Tavern, Stowage, Farm House, New York 
Museum ; Dutch Interior, Historical Soci- 
ety, New York ; Artist in his Studio, Lou- 
vre ; Village Fair, Jolly Company at Table, 
Antwerp Museum ; Alchemist (1648), Brus- 
sels Museum ; Shell Dealer, Lille Museum ; 
Shoemaker's Shop, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Toper, Rotterdam Museum ; Flemish Inn, 
Must'e Rath, Geneva ; do., and Holiday 
Meal in Peasant Cottage (1657), Family 
Concert (1650), Gallery, Copenhagen ; Vil- 
lage Cobbler, Moltke Collection, ib.; Vil- 
lage Fool, Berlin Museum ; Lute Player and 
Old Woman (1644), Cassel Gallery ; Interior 
with Peasants Drinking (1638), Peasant Fam- 
ily (1639), Similar Subject (1644), Still-Life 
(2), Dresden Museum ; Butcher offering to 
Woman a Glass of Beer (1639), Stiidel Gal- 
lery, Frankfort ; Alchemist and Wife in the 
Laboratory (1648), Shoemaker's Shop, Leip- 
sic Museum ; Street Urchins at Play (1640), 
Twelfth Night Festival (1648), Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Old Woman with Cat, Peas- 
ant with Dog, Hermitage, Si Petersburg ; 
Merry Topers, Schleissheim Gallery ; Inte- 
rior of Peasant Cottage (1617), Domestic 
Music, Schwerin Gallery ; Soldiers plunder- 
ing Village (1649), Kirmess Festival (1648), 
The Witch, A Scholar, Kitchen Interior, 
Museum, Vienna ; Nativity, Musical Enter- 
tainment (1650), Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; 
Sacknge of a House, Musical Trio, Harrach 
Gallery, ib.; Peasants in a Tavern, Musical 
Assembly, Czernin Gallery, ib.; Temptation 
of St. Anthony (2), Uffizi, Florence ; Alche- 


mist, Madrid Museum. Cat du Mua 
dAnvers, 320 ; Immerzeel, iii. 46 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 329 ; Kramm, v. 1421 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole flamande ; Michiels, ix. 60 ; 
Rooses (Reber), 402; Van den Branden, 



EYCKAEET, MAETEN, born in Ant- 
werp, Dec. 8, 1587, died there, Oct. 28, 
1631. Flemish school; landscape painter, 
son and pupil of David Eyckaert, the eldest 
(L, 1560-1G07); seems to have continued his 
studies under Tobias Verhaegt, and then 
went to Italy, whence he returned in 1G11, 
and was received into the guild. He had 
only one arm. A masterly portrait of him, 
by Van Dyck, ia in the Dresden Museum. 
Works: Eocky Landscape (1616), Madrid 
Museum ; Falls of Tivoli, Uffizi, Florence. 
Eooses (Eeber), 401 ; Van den Branden, 

Courtray about 1535, died in Antwerp, Jan. 
1, 1590. Flemish school ; history and por- 
trait painter, received into guild of Ant- 
werp in 1561. Works : Descent of the Holy 
Ghost, Creation of Adam, Apparition of the 
Holy Ghost at Baptism of Christ, St. Salva- 
tor and St. Martin (1587), St. Martin's, 
Courtray. His son and pupil, Abraham 
(baptized July 5, 1566, died in 1599), was 
an artist of great promise, whose portraits 
of Donors (1591) in St. James's, Antwerp, 
and in the Museum, ib., may be ranked 
with the best productions of the 16th cen- 

tury. Kramm, v. 1422 ; Eooses (Eeber), 
107 ; Van den Branden, 331. 

Malmo, Sweden, Sept. 13, 1835. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen (1852-57) and 
Stockholm (1857-59) Academies, then in 
Diisseldorf of Gude ; returned to Stock- 
holm, visited Norway in 1868 in the suite 
of King Charles XV., and Diisseldorf in 
1873. Works : Spring Landscape, View 
near Morrum, and others, Stockholm Mu- 

EYDEE, ALBEET, born in New Bedford, 
Mass., March 19, 1847. Landscape and fig- 
ure painter, pupil of William E. Marshall, 

engraver and artist, and of the National 
Academy. Visited London, Paris, and Hol- 
land in 1877, and Spain, Italy, and Germany 
in 1882. Member of Society of American 
Artists. Studio in New York. Works : 
Wandering Cow ; Landscape Spring ; Cur- 
few Hour ; Pegasus ; Two Lovers ; Farm- 
Yard ; Lovers' Boat ; Chase ; Lowing Cow ; 
Nourmahal ; Landscape with Figures (1881); 
Landscape (1882), Erwin Davis; do. (1883); 
The Waste of Waters is their Field (1884), 
D. Cottier, New York ; Little Maid of Ar- 
cady (1886). 

Brooklyn, N. Y., June 11, 1821, Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Leon Bonnat in Paris, in 1869-70 ; 
studied in Belgium and Holland. Elected 
an A.N.A. in 1869. Studio in New York. 
Works : Life's Evening, T. B. Clarke, New 
York ; Spinning, An Interior (1879) ; Fare- 
well (1880); Spinning- Wheel (1881); Bead- 
ing the Cup (1882); Welcome Step (1883); 
Warming Up, Washing Day, Clean Shave, 
Bill of Fare (1884) ; The Fireside (1885) ; 
Watching and Waiting (1886). 

EYSBEACK, PEETEE,born in Antwerp, 
April 25, 1655, died at Brussels in 1729. 
Flemish school ; landscape painter, pupil of 
Philips Augustyn Immenraet (1627-79), be- 
came master of the guild in 1673, went to 
London in 1675, then to Paris, where he 
studied under Francisque Millet, and whence 
he had returned to Antwerp in 1687 ; shortly 
after 1719 he settled at Brussels. Many of 
his pictures have been sold as by Poussin. 
Landscapes of a grandiose and melancholy 
character ; execution firm and bold. Speci- 
mens in Museums and Galleries of Ant- 
werp, Bamberg, Aschaffenburg, Hamburg, 
Schleissheim, and Stuttgart. In the Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, 
Vienna, is a 
. .. Wood Land- 

74 Q ^ 
* scape with Di- 

ana and Hunting Train (1716), by Lu- 
dovicus Eysbraeck. Kugler (Crowe), ii. 
345 ; Siret (1883), 237 ; Van den Branden, 


SAAL, GEORG, born at Coblentz in 
1818, died at Baden-Baden, Oct. 3, 
1870. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Diisseldorf Academy under Schirmer ; visit- 
ed Norway and Lapland, went in 1848 to 
Heidelberg, thence to Baden-Baden, but 
lived mostly in Paris until 1870. Profes- 
sor ; several medals and orders ; Baden 
court painter. Works : Dolomite Rocks in 
the Eifel (1845) ; Lienbach Valley with 
Gypsies (1846) ; Midnight in Hardanger 
Fjord Norway (1849), Stadel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; Midnight Sun in Norway (2, 
1853, 185G), Polar Sea, Leipsic Museum ; 
Peasant Room in Tyrol (I860), Fiirstenberg 
Gallery, Donaueschingen ; Midnight Sun in 
Lapland ; View in Black Forest (1867), Lou- 
vre ; Scandinavian Funeral by Moonlight, 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; In Fontainebleau For- 
est Blanckarts, 46 ; Wolfg. Miiller, Dttssel- 
df. K, 346 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iii. 279. 

SAAR, ALOIS VON, born at Traiskir- 
chen, Nether Austria, in 1799, died after 
1840. Landscape painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy. Works : Ruins of Fortress Led- 
nitz (1816) ; Four Panoramic Views of Vi- 
enna (1828) ; View of Prague and Moldau 
Bridge (1831), Vienna Museum ; Belgrade 
by Moonlight (1832) ; Views of Dominican 
and Caroline Bastions in Vienna (1834) ; 
Mill near Grinzing, Dobliug near Vienna 
(1840). Wurzbach, xxviii. 2. 

Florence, Feb. 22, 1803, died in Milan, 
Aug. 18, 1829. History painter, son and 
pupil of Luigi Sabatelli, then studied in 
Rome and Venice, was called to Florence 
by Leopold II. in 1823, and made professor 
in the Academy. Member of Venice Acad- 
emy. Works : In the Midst of the Storm 
(1828), Gallery of Modern Painters, Flor- 
ence. In fresco : Hector attacking Greek 
Vessels (in the Olympus by his father), Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, ib. 

an, June 24, 1813, died in Florence, Feb. 
27, 1843. History painter, son and pupil 
of Luigi Sabatelli, called to Florence by 

Leopold H in 1834, and made professor at 
the Academy. Works: Two Miracles of 
St. Anthony (1834-35), S. Croce, Florence ; 
Philomene Consolatrix (1837), S. Francesco, 
Pisa ; Mother of the Gracchi, Tasso reading 
his Poem, Samuel in Cave of Endor (1837- 
39), Meredith Calhoun, New York ; Tempta- 
tion of St. Anthony, S. Tomrnaso, Milan ; 
Farinato degli Uberti in Battle on the Ser- 
chio (1841), Florence Gallery. 

SABATELLI, LUIGI, the elder, born in 
Florence, Feb. 19, 1772, died in Milan, 
Jan. 29, 1850. History painter, pupil of 
Florence Academy under Pedroni ; studied 
in Rome in 1788-93, worked in Venice in 
1795-97, and became professor at Milan 
Academy in 1808. Member of all the Ital- 
ian and of Vienna and Munich Academies. 
Austrian Gold Medal. Works : Abigail be- 
fore David (1806), St. Mary's Chapel, Arezzo ; 
Blessing the Children (1819), Palazzo Pa- 
roni, Genoa ; Capponi tearing French Con- 
ditions of Peace (1829), Marquis Capponi, 
Florence ; Heliodorus driven from the Tem- 
ple (1838). In fresco : Four Great Proph- 
ets (1810), S. Gaudenzio, Novara ; Life of 
Americus Vespuccius, Eight Scenes from 
the Iliad, Olympus (1820-25), Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence ; Marriage of Cupid and Psyche 
(1831), Palazzo Busca-Serbelloni, Milan ; 
Three Scenes in Life of Galileo (1841); Tri- 
umph of Cupid (1843), Villa Giontini, Flor- 
ence ; Coronation of the Virgin, S. Firenze, 
ib. Najrlor, xiv. 122. 

SABATELLI, LUIGI, the younger, bom 
in Milan, Feb. 12, 1818. History painter, 
son and pupil of Luigi, the elder, whom he 
assisted in his fresco paintings, which branch 
of art he cultivates principally. Works : The 
Holy Virgin (1869), Nazareth Church, Mil- 
an ; Presentation in the Temple (187C>), 
Hospital Church, ib.; Evangelists, Theo- 
logical Virtues, The Virgin (1871), Cunardo 


logna about 1530, died in Rome in 1577. 


Bolognese school ; called also Lorenzino da 
Bologna ; pupil probably of Prospero Fon- 
tana, but imitated Michelangelo, Eaphael, 
and Parmigiano. Went to Kome, after 
winning reputation in Bologna, and suc- 
ceeded so well that he was appointed (1572) 
by Gregory XUL superintendent of the 
paintings then in progress at the Vatican. 
Works : Assumption, Dead Christ, Pilgrims 
of Emmaus, Bologna Gallery ; Madonna 
(dated 1572), Louvre ; Madonna with Saints, 
Berlin Museum ; Marriage of St. Catherine, 
Dresden Gallery. Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 415 ; 

Rape of the Sabines, Luca Giordano, Dresden Gallery, 

Malvasia, i. 181 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; 
Burckhardt, 761. 

his people having been refused the right of 
connubiuin or legal marriage by the Sa- 
bines and the Latins, instituted games in 
honour of the god Census and invited his 
neighbours with their wives and children 
to the festival. When they were assembled, 
the Roman youths seized and carried off the 
virgins and made them their wives. This 
led to war, and both parties were nearly 
exhausted with the struggle when the Sa- 

bine women rushed in among the combat- 
ants and brought about a reconciliation 
between their husbands and their fathers 
(Plut., Rom. 14 ; Livy, i. 13). 

By Luca Giordano, Dresden Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 7 ft. 2 in. x 8 ft. The Sabine 
women seized and borne away by the Ro- 
mans. In the background, near a Corinth- 
ian temple, Romulus, mounted upon a horse, 
is directing the movement. Painted for 
Marie Louise d'Orleans, Queen of Spain ; 
taken from Naples to Dresden. Engraved 
by R. Gaillard ; R. Sourique ; J. F. Beau- 
varlet ; Re veil Gal. roy. 
de Dresde, ii. PI. 40 ; Do- 
menici, iii. 415. 

By Pietro da Cortona, 
Blenheim Palace. One of 
the master's best works. 
Waagen, Treasures, iii. 126. 
By Pielro da Cortona, 
Capitol Museum, Rome. At 
right, a woman in a sol- 
dier's embrace, raises her 
hands in supplication ; at 
left, another, borne away 
by a Roman, looks pitying- 
ly at her infant, which cries 
and seeks to follow her ; iii 
middle, a third energetical- 
ly resists her aggressor. 
Copy by J. C. Naigeon, Di- 
jon Museum. Engraved 
by P. Aquila. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Lou- 
vre, Paris ; canvas, H. 5 f t. x 6 ft. 6 in. At 
left, on the peristyle of a palace, before 
which stand the lictors, Romulus, with two 
senators behind him, gives the signal for the 
seizure of the Sabine women by raising his 
mantle ; in foreground, at right, the Romans 
are capturing their prey ; in background, a 
temple and other buildings. Valued in 
1816 at 150,000 francs. Engraved by Abr. 
Girardet ; Etienne Baudet ; P. L. H. Lau- 
rent ; Pool ; Bovinet. Same subject, differ- 
ently treated, formerly in collection of Sir 
Richard Colt Hoare, engraved by Jean Au- 


dran. Landon, Mus6e, x. PL 25 ; Filhol, x. 
PI. 697. 

By Rubens, National Gallery, London ; 
wood, H. 5 ft. 7 in. x 7 ft. 9 in. Scene in 
Forum, with a triumphal arch and the Pan- 
theon in background, where the military 
games are going on ; at left, seated on a 
dais, Eomulus gives the signal to his sol- 
diers, who are seizing and bearing away 
the struggling women. Formerly iu Mine. 
Boschaert's Collection, Antwerp ; purchased 

Palazzo Brignolo Salo, Genoa, and Uffizi ; 

| Francesco Bossano, Turin Gallery ; Antonio 
Bellucci, Cassel Gallery ; II Fattore, National 
Gallery, London ; Adriaen Backer, Bruns- 
wick Gallery ; Sebastiauo Ricci, Liechten- 
stein Gallery, Vienna. 

IATION OF, It ubcnx, Escorial, near Madrid ; 
canvas. Companion to Rape of S.ihincs in 
Escorial. The two armies, in presence of 

! each other, are restrained from hostilities 

Rape of th Sabines, Nicolas Poussin, Louvre, Pnt. 

by J. J. Angerstein, whence passed to Na- 
tional Gallery. Engraved by Martinasi 
(1770) ; J. Young. Similar subject, paint- 
ed about 1628, Escorial ; study in Ashbur- 
ton Collection, London, formerly in Danoot 
Collection, Brussels. Similar subject, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg. Waagen, Treas- 
ures, i. 350 ; ii. 102 ; Angerstein Gal., PL 
6 ; Beechey, Reynolds, ii. 149, 188. 

Subject treated also by Giulio Romano, 
National Gallery, London ; Luca Cambiaso, 
Palazzo Imperiale, Genoa ; Valerio Castello, 

by the Sabine women, who, with their in- 
fants iu their arms, rush between them. 
Painted about 1628. Study in Ashburton 
Collection, London, formerly in Danoot Col- 
i lection, Brussels. Same subject, Munich 
Gallery. Waagen, ii. 102 ; Smith, il 175 ; 
Beechey, Reynolds, 149. 

SABINE WOMEN, Louis Davul, Louvre, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 12 ft. 8 in. x 17 ft.; signed, 
dated 1799. The battle between the Romans 
under Romulus and the Sabines under Ta- 
tius interrupted by the Sabiue women, who 



rush in between the combatants and pray 
their husbands and fathers to be reconciled 
(Livy, i. 13). At the right, Romulus, about 
to hurl his spear at Tatius, is stopped by 
his wife, Hersilia ; in background, the ram- 
parts of the Capitol occupied by the Sa- 
bines, who had obtained possession through 
the treachery of Tarpeia. Exhibited pri- 
vately, by which David made 65,627 francs. 
Salon of 1808 ; acquired in 1819, with Le- 
onidas at Thermopylae, for 100,000 francs. 

Male Portrait, Nantes Museum. Bellier, ii. 

SABLET, FRANCOIS, born at Merges, 
Switzerland, in 1745, died at Nantes in 
1819. Landscape, genre, and portrait paint- 
er, pupil in Paris of Vien ; visited Italy, and 
after his return assisted Mme. Lebrun in 
her works for Louis XVL, then settled at 
Nantes ; in 1812 he was commissioned by 
the city to paint six pictures in imitation of 
bas-reliefs, representing scenes of Napole- 

Sabine Women, Louis David, Louvre, Paris. 

Engraved by R. U. Massard. Laudon ; Vil- 
lot, Cat. Louvre ; Reveil, ii. 136. 

Merges, Switzerland, in 1749 (1751 ?), died 
in Paris in 1803. Genre, landscape, and 
portrait painter, pupil at Lyons of Dubois 
and Cocher, decorative painters, and in 
Paris of Vien ; spent twenty years in Italy, 
and travelled in Spain. Works : Old Man 
Reading, Italian Washerwomen, Vintage in 
Italy, Meeting of the Five Hundred at Saint 
Cloud on the 18th Brumaire, Year VIII., 

on's sojourn at Nantes ; these were sold in 
1815 and carried to the United States. 
Works : View of Tivoli, Entrance into Sa- 
voy, View in Italy, View in Nantes, Male 
Portraits (2), Nantes Museum. Bellier, ii. 
446 ; Nagler, xiv. 127. 

SACCHI, ANDREA, born near Rome, 
November, 1600, died there, June 21, 1661. 
Roman school ; natural son of Benedetto 
Sacchi, a mediocre painter, who taught him 
the rudiments of art ; apprenticed to Albani 
in Rome, and became one of his most noted 



scholars. Obtained the favour of Urban 
VHL, who commissioned him to paint the 
miracle of St. Gregory 
for St. Peter's, now in 
the Vatican. His work 
entitled Divine Wis- 
dom, Palazzo Barberi- 
ni, gained him great 
reputation, which was 
enhanced by his Vision 
of St Romuald, Vatican. 
Sacchi was considered 
the most able painter 
in Rome of his day. He was one of the best 
colourists of the Roman school, and a cor- 
rect designer ; and if his works sometimes 
lack in power, it is because he did not pos- 
A /'"V sess enough 

of the artistic 
to express his 
noble concep- 
tions. Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombrienne ; Burck- 
hardt, 793. 

CO, painted in Genoa in 1512-26. Geno- 
ese school Lomazzo, who calls him Pier- 
Francesco Pavese, says that he painted in 
Mantua about 1460 ; but Lanzi thinks there 
must have been two of the name. His style 
is of the Lombard school, and especially 
like that of Carlo Mautegna. Works : Christ 
on the Cross (1514), Berlin Museum ; Doc- 
tors of the Church with Symbols of the 
Evangelists (1516), Louvre ; St. John Bap- 
tist taking Leave of his Parents (dated 
1512), Oratory of S. Maria, Genoa ; Three 
Saints in a Landscape, S. M. di Castello, 
Genoa. Lanzi, iii. 237 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole 
genoise ; Burckhardt, 610 ; Liibke, Gesch. 
ital. Mai., i. 500. 

SACCHIENSIS. See Pordenone. 
damar, Hesse-Nassau, in 1836. Landscape 
painter, pupil in Carlsruhe of Schiriner 
(1855-58), and in DUsseldorf of Oswald 
Achenbach (1858-60) ; lived at Wiesbaden 
in 1860-65, then settled at Parteukircheu, 

' Bavaria, where he is director of a central 
school for wood carving. Paints with fine 
conception and great truth. Works : Views 
on the Rhine and Lahn ; In the Eifel ; The 
Taunus and the Bavarian Alps. - Holler, 

SACHTLEVEN. See Saft-Leuen. 

Nicolas /totert-Fleury, Luxembourg Muse- 
um ; canvas, H. 8 ft. x 6 ft 8 in. Pillage of 
a house in the Judecca, Venice, in the mid- 
dle ages. "Under the slightest pretext, 
the people ran to the Jews' quarter, broke 
open their houses, and pillaged their treas- 
ures." Salon, 1855. 

SACRA FAMILIA. See Holy Family. 

SACRAMENTS, SEVEN, Nicolas row- 
sin, Bridgewater House, London ; series of 
seven pictures, canvas, each H. 3 ft 10 
in. x 5 ft. 9 in. 1. Baptism ; 2. Confirma- 
tion ; 3. Marriage ; 4. Penitence ; 5. Ordina- 
tion ; 6. Last Supper ; 7. Extreme Unction. 
Painted at Rome in 1644-48 for M. Chante- 
lou, from whom bought by the Regent Phil- 
ippe, Due d'OrU'aus, for 120,000 livres ; pur- 
chased from Orleans Gallery by Duke of 
Bridgowater for 4,900. Engraved by B. 
Audran ; Pesne ; Dughet ; Gantrel ; and in 
Orleans Gallery. Waagen, Treasures, ii 
39 ; Smith, viii. 63. 

SACRED WOOD (Le Bois sacn', cher 
aux Arts et aux Muses), Pierre Puri* cle 
Chavannes, Paris ; canvas. A large allegor- 
ical picture containing a lake with wooded 
banks and a temple in a flowery meadow 
with figures in semi-classic draperies, some 
standing, some reclining, and two, at left, 
flying, representing the Arts and the Muses. 
Salon, 1884. Gaz. dcs B. Arts (1884) ,xxix. 
470, 488. 

SADtiE, PHILIP, born at The Hague, 
Feb. 7, 1837. Genre painter, pupil of the 
Hague Academy under J. E. J. van den 
j Berg ; visited France and Germany, painted 
at first historical subjects, then excellent 
scenes from peasant and fishermen's life. 
Medals in Amsterdam, The Hague, and 
Vienna. Works : Potato Harvest in the 



Downs, Distribution of Bread among the j of Old City Hall, City Hall, ib. ; View in St. 
Poor (1872) ; Harvest (1874), Keturn from Ann's, Haarlem (1652), Haarlem Museum ; 

Fish Market, Amsterdam Museum ; Depart- 
ure of Fishermen (1875) ; Expectation 

View of St. Mary's, Utrecht, Rotterdam 
Museum ; several Views of Churches and 
Public Buildings, Utrecht Museum ; Inte- 

Seven Sacraments (Extreme Unction), Nicolas Poussin, Bridgewater House, London. 

born at Assendelf t, 
N. Holland, June 
9, 1597, died in 
Haarlem, buried 
May 31, 1665. 
Dutch school; 
landscape and 
painter, son of the 
engraver, Joannes 
Saenredam, pupil 
in Haarlem of F. P. de Grebber in 1608-22 ; 
entered Haarlem guild in 1623, and was its 
secretary in 1635. Filled his pictures with 
well-drawn figures. Works : Two Views in 
Haarlem Cathedral (1636), do. in St. Mary's 
at Utrecht (1637), Interior of Assendelft 
Church (1649), Museum, Amsterdam ; View 

rior of St. Mary's in Utrecht (1630), Bruns- 
wick Gallery ; do., Cassel Gallery ; Church 
Interior (1635), Berlin Museum ; Interior 
of Protestant Church, Turin Gallery. Im- 
merzeel, iii. 50 ; Kramm, v. 1434 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 511 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 430 ; 
Van der Willigen, 261. 

terdam, 1612 (?), died after 1682 (?). Dutch 
school ; genre, landscape, and animal paint- 
er, brother of Herman, and although infe- 
rior to him, has much merit for truth of 
conception and careful execution ; colouring 
heavy and generally cold ; rendered poultry 
with marvellous fidelity, and occasionally 
painted still-life ; lived in Utrecht in 1634. 
Works : Portrait of a Painter (1629), Lou- 
vre ; Peasant Company (1642), Herdsmen 
and Herd in Landscape (1652), Herdsmen 



in Prayer in approaching Storm. Amster- 
dam Museum ; Landscape with Herd, Su- 
ermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Sur- 
gical Operation (163(i), Job tormented by 
the Evil Spirits, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Concert 
of Cats (1682), Cologne Museum ; Flight 
into Egypt (1652), Brunswick Gallery ; Ex- 
terior of Peasant's House (1G78), Interior 
with Woman feeding Chickens (1678), two 
other Interiors, Dresden Gallery; Dutch 
Peasant Room, Germanic Museum, Nurem- 
berg ; Kitchen Interior, Rustic Unconcern, 
Schwerin Gallery ; Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, Annunciation to the Shepherds, To- 
bias and the Angel, Schleissheim Gallery ; 
Cattle Market, Pasture, Hermitage, Si 
Petersburg ; Cattle Market, Liechenstein 
Gallery, Vienna ; Huntsman feeding Dogs, 
Historical Society, New York. Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 424 ; Kramm, v. 1435 ; Riegel, 
Beitriige, ii. 370. 

SAFT-LEVEN, HERMAN, born in Rot- 
terdam, 1609, 
died in Utrecht, 
Jan. 5, 1685. 
Dutch school ; 
landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Jan 
van Goyen, but 
formed himself 
chiefly by study- 
ing nature. His 
views of the 

Rhine, Meuse, and Moselle, are well drawn, 
carefully executed, and enlivened with fig- 
ures and animals. The pictures of his best 
period are distinguished by their clear per- 
spectives and a soft bluish colouring. Re- 
moved to Utrecht probably about 1633. 
Works : Rhine View (1655), Louvre ; Farm 
(1654), Brussels Museum ; River Landscapes 
(3), Rhine View (1678), Amsterdam Museum ; 
Oldenbarnevelt and his Judges (in the shape 
of animals), Haarlem Museum ; Rhine View, 
Rotterdam Museum ; River Landscape and 
Scene from Guariui's " Pastor Fido" (1635), 
Berlin Museum ; River in Mountainous 
Country (1680), Suermondt Museum, Aix- 

la-Chapelle ; Landscape with Rebekah and 
Eliezer (1641), Two Rhine Views, Aschaff- 
enburg Gallery ; River Landscapes (3), 
Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Mountain View 
with Castles, et., on River (1675), Gotha 
Museum ; three Rhine Views, (1661, 1652, 
1653), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Landscape 
with Nymphs and Satyrs (figures by Poel- 
enburg, 1643), Rhine View (1660), Bruns- 
wick Gallery; do. (1668), Rocky Valley 
with City, Oldenburg Gallery ; do. (9,1660, 
1662, 1663, 1667, 1675, 1678), Schwerin 
Gallery ; do. (4), 1642, 1647, 1667, Hermi- 
tage, St. Petersburg ; Shipping Place on the 
Rhine (1650), Rhine View (1659), Tavern 
among Rocks (1661), two others (1665, 
1669), Copenhagen Gallery ; Lighthouse on 
Sea Coast, Vintage (1649), Rocky Landscape 
with Buildings (1650), Valley with Lake 
(1654), City at Foot of Mountain (1656), 
Ehrenbreitstein (1656), twelve others, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Sunset (1641), three Rhine 

f A . CctrCC/it . Anno 6Cf 

Views (1665, 1666), Museum, Vienna ; others 
in Liechtenstein, Czernin (2), and Schon- 
born Galleries, ib. Ch. Blanc, tfcole hol- 
landaise ; Immerzeel, iii. 52 ; Kramm, v. 
1435 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 482 ; Riegel, 
Beitriige, ii. 358. 

nich in 1808, died there, Dec. 25, 1883. 
! Genre and history painter, pupil of Munich 
Academy. Works : Tavern Scene ; Klaus 
and Steffen at the Inn ; Altarpieces at 
Schwabing, Berg am Lain, Haching, Ket- 
tershausen, Monheim, etc., Bavaria ; Fres- 
cos ; Town Hall, Landsberg on the Lech.- 
Nagler, Mon., iii. 588 ; Recensionen, 1865. 

at Cluny (Saone-et-Loire), May 13, 1830. 
Genre painter, pupil of Valenciennes Acad- 
emy, of Picot, and of the cole des Beaux 
Arts. Medals : 1866 ; 3d class, 1875 ; L, 



of Honour, 1877. Works : Venus and Cu- 
pid (1853); Tavern of Ramponneau in Time 
of Louis XV. (1857) ; Chimney Sweeps go- 
ing to Work, Going to School, Woman 
tending Cattle, Road to School, Old Age 
and Decay (1859) ; Basque Women at Foun- 
tain, Breakfast (1861); Going to Mass (1863), 
Macon Museum ; The Levue (1863) ; Going 
to the Festival, Catechism Lesson (1864) ; 
Souvenir of the Piazza Montanara in Rome 
(1865), Autun Museum ; Excavations at 
Pompeii (1866), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Kiarella (1866), Mrs. Shaw, Boston; Or- 
ange Harvest in Capri (1869) ; Convales- 
cent Woman on a Pilgrimage (1873) ; The 
Marina in Capri, Daughter of Eve (1874) ; 
Wedding Feast of Peasant of Capri (1875), 
Valenciennes Museum ; Christ and the Sa- 
maritan Woman (1876); Andromeda (1877); 
Father's Blessing before Marriage (1882) ; 
Rosina Capri (1886). Bellier, ii. 447 ; La- 

born in Paris, April 14, 1724, died there, 
Feb. 14, 1780. French school ; genre paint- 
er, pupil of Jeaurat, Colin de Vermont, and 
Boucher. Competed for the grand prix de 
Rome in 1751, and having obtained the sec- 
ond prize only, broke with the Academy, 
and became a member of and professor in 
the Academy of St. Luke, where he exhib- 
ited the following works : Cupid's Triumph 
over the Gods, The School of Zeuxis, Effect 
of Earthquake at Lisbon, Subject from La- 
fontaine's Fables, Village Fete, Maternal 
and Filial Love, Boy reciting Lesson to 
Mother (1774) ; Artist's Portrait, Mother 
nursing Child, Triumph of Pompey, Dry- 
Nurse and Children, Return from Par- 
liament, The King laying Corner-Stone of 
Schools of Surgery, Interior of Rotonda of 
Coliseum, Carnival of Parnassus (1776). 
Bellier, ii. 449 ; Dohme, 3 ; Goncourt, i. 
366, 405, 417. 

SAINT-EVRE, GILLOT, born at Bault- 
sur-Suippe (Marne), died in Paris in 1858. 
History, genre, and portrait painter. Med- 
als : 2d class, 1824 ; 1st class, 1827 ; L. of 

Honour, 1833. Works : Two Scenes in 
Shakespeare's "Tempest" (1822) ; Job and 
his Friends, Mary Stuart, Shipwrecked Sail- 
ors (1824) ; Charles IX. and Marie Touchet 
(1827) ; Soldier Asleep surprised by Brig- 
ands (1827), Angers Museum ; Jeanne d'Arc, 
The Florentines of Boccaccio (1833); Char- 
lemagne presiding at Meeting of Scholars 
(1835), Education of Mary Stuart at Court 
of Henri H. (1839), Palais de Trianon ; 
Foundation of Royal Library in Paris in 
1379, Marriage of Charles VOX and Anne 
de Bretagne in 1491, Signing of Treaty of 
Peace at Vervins in 1598 (1837), Alexis Com- 
nenus receiving at Constantinople Peter the 
Hermit, Interview between Philippe Auguste 
and Henri II. at Gisors 1188 (1839), An- 
drew of Hungary entering the Order of St. 
John in 1218, Philip I, Philip HI, Charles 
V., Charles VL, and Charles VHI. of 
France, three other portraits, Versailles Mu- 
seum ; Jeanne d'Arc presented to Charles 
VH., Palais de Compiegne. Bellier, ii. 

SAINT-JEAN, SIMON, born in Lyons. 
Oct. 13, 1808, died at Ecully, July 3, 1860, 
Flower painter, pupil of the school at Lyons 
and of Augustin Thierriat. Justly called 
the modern Van Huysum, whom he ap- 
proaches in detail and colour, though hard- 
ly his equal in selection of material and 
play of light Medals : 3d class, 1834 ; 2d 
class, 1841, 1855; L. of Honour, 1843. 
Works : Young Girl carrying Flowers (1839), 
Vase Medicis (1841), Eucharistic Emblems 
around Head of Christ (1842), Vase with 
Flowers (1852), Lyons Museum ; Fruits and 
Flowers (1845), Dijon Museum ; Flowers in 
a Hat, Rouen Museum ; Still-Life (2, 1852), 
W. T. Walters, Baltimore; Fruit (1853), 
Flowers among Ruins (1854), Louvre ; 
Fruit (1855), Corcoran Gallery, Washing- 
ton ; Flower-Piece (1857), Amsterdam Mu- 
seum. Bellier, ii. 452. 

SATNTIN, HENRI, born in Paris, Oct. 
13, 1846. Landscape painter, pupil of Pils, 
Saint-Marcel, Sege, and Coiutepoiu. Med- 
al, 3d class, 1882. Works: Forest Path 



(1873), Montpellier Museum ; Fisherman 
mending Nets, Rising Tide on Coast of 
Brittany (1875); Lobster Fishers (1876); 
Creek of Erquy (1877) ; Farm of Courtry 
(1880) ; October Frost (1881) ; Autumn 
Dew (1882) ; Valley of Roche-Gouet in 
Brittany, Brook after Rain, ib. (1883). 

SAINTIN, JULES fiMILE, born in Lemc 
(Aisne), Aug. 14, 1829. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Drolling, Picot, and Le- 
boucher. His portraits in oil, crayon, and 
pastel are full of life. He lived several 
years in the United States. Medals : 1866, 
1870 ; 2d class, Munich, 1883 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1877. Works : Pony Express (1863) ; 
Woman carried off by Indians (1864); Petty 
Warfare, Vittoria (1865) ; Carmella, Martha 
(1866); The Levee, Michellina (1867); Heart- 
felt Mourning, Annucia (1868) ; Mourning 
Flowers, Festival Flowers (1869) ; Indeci- 
sion, Deception (1870) ; Two Augurs (1872) ; 
Grave without Flowers (1873) ; Washer- 
woman of Fine Linen, Toilet of the Hose 
(1874) ; Lady Apple, Distraction, Flower 
Girl (1875) ; Indiscreet, Last Ornament 
(1866) ; First Engagement, Self-Satisfied 
(1877); Jeanne, Will he Return? (1878); 
Emilienne (1879) ; Flowers from Nice, 
Abandonment (1880) ; Roussotte (1881) ; 
In the Tuileries, By the Sea (1882) ; Wom- 
an selling Apples (1883) ; Portraits of Prin- 
cesse Matilde and others. Bellier, ii. 455 ; 
Claretie (1874), Peintres, 333, 382. 

Geneva in 1752, died there in 1809. Genre 
painter, pupil of Vien in Paris, whither he 
went in 1768 ; won prizes in 1772, 1774, and 
1778, and the grand prix de Rome in 1780 ; 
after finishing his course at Rome, stud- 
ied also in Venice. Works : The Olympic 
Games, Scene in Earthquake in Calabria, 
Colossal Head Studies, Life-size Academy, 
Allegory on the Republic of Geneva, Por- 
trait of Dr. Tronchin, Portrait of the Ar- 
tist, Musee Rath, Geneva ; Spartan Judg- 
ment over the New-born (1795), Schleissheim 
Gallery. Bellier, ii. 453 ; Cat. du Mus. 
Rath (1882), 53. 

born at Nimes, May 12, 1833. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Jalabert 
and of Cogniet. 
Medals: 1868; 2d 
class, 1879; L. of 
Honour, 1881. 
Works : Release of 
St. Peter (1863); 
Daphuis and Cliloi; 
(1864); Leda (1865), 
Nimes Museum ; 
Sleeping Nymph (1866), Marseilles Muse- 
um ; Jupiter and Pthia (1867) ; Cupid 
Laughing, Chateauroux Museum ; Hide and 
Seek(1868); Youth (1869), City Hall, Nimes ; 
Farewell (1870), Carcassonne Museum ; Jew- 
ish Wedding (1870); Bacchante (1872); In- 
difference and Tenderness, Cherries (1873) ; 
First Steps, Odalisque (1874) ; Young Hunt- 
ress, Happy Baby (1875) ; Arabian Ro- 
mance (1876); Women at an Arab Wedding 
(1877) ; Siesta (1879) ; Unexpected Caress 
(1880); Aziza (1882); Aurora (1883); Source 
Charmeuse (1884) ; Chanson d' Aziza, The 
Sultana (1885) ; Soudja-Sari (1886) ; Deco- 
rations in Cathedral of Orau. Bellier, ii. 
454 ; Larousse. 

SALA, VITALE, born at Cernusco in 
1803, died in Milan in 1835. History 
painter, pupil of Milan Academy, where 
he won five prizes ; made a study trip to 
Venice. Works : Death of Cato ; Death of 
Romeo and Juliet (1826) ; Departure of 
Regulus ; Capture of Bernabo (1827) ; Apo- 
theosis of St. Ambrosius (1828) ; Corona- 
tion of the Virgin (1831-34), Novara Cathe- 
dral ; Frescos in S. Stefano and S. Lazzaro, 

Alcoy, Spain ; contemporary. History and 
genre painter. Medal, Madrid, 2d class, 
1871. Works : Don Carlos of Navarra crav- 
ing Mercy of his Father ; Prince of Viana 
taken Prisoner ; Guillen de Vinatea before 
Alfonso V. of Aragon ; Novus Ortus ; Vale 
of Tears ; Modern Silcnus ; Julia. La Dus- 
tracion (1882), ii. 19. 



SALAI (Salaino), ANDREA, born in Mil- 
an about 1483, died after 1520. Lombard 
school ; often confound- 
ed with Andrea Solari 
or Solario. Pupil of 
Leonardo da Vinci, of 
whom he was at once 
servant, assistant, and 
friend, accompanying 
him wherever he went. 
On Leonardo's death in 
France Salai returned 
to Italy. He left but 
few pictures, in the manner of Da Vinci : 
Madonna with Saints, Brera, Milan ; Christ 
bearing the Cross, Berlin Museum ; St. 
Anna, Leuchtenberg Gallery, St. Petersburg. 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., vii. 28, 43 ; Lanzi, ii. 
489 ; Burckhardt, G29, 708 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
milanaise ; Ltlbke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 444. 
SALAMIS, BATTLE OF, Wilhelm von 
Kanlbach, Maximilianeum, Munich. Great 
naval victory, won by the Greeks under 
Themistocles over the fleet of Xerxes, B.C. 
480, in the narrow channel between the 
island of Salamis and the coast of Attica. 
Xerxes, seated on a throne upon a head- 
land at left, surrounded by his women and 
courtiers, witnesses the overthrow and de- 
struction of his magnificent fleet, seen in 
the background ; in foreground, the shore, 
with a temple at right, and a confused mass 
of wreckage and of struggling figures ; above, 
the avenging gods of Greece in the sky. 

SALENTIN, HUBERT, born at Zuipich, 
Rhenish Prussia, Jan. 
15, 1822. Genre and 
landscape painter, pu- 
pil of Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy under Schadow, 
Karl Sohn, and Tide- 
mand ; paints attractive 
and characteristic 
scenes from peasant 
life in Western Ger- 
many. Works: Her 
mit's Sermon ; Smith's Apprentice, Grand- 
mother's Birthday (1860); Bridal Procession 

of Playing Children ; Blind Boy, Besan9on 
Museum ; Village Church (1862), Diisseldorf 
Gallery ; Pilgrims at Mineral Spring (1866), 
Cologne Museum ; Sunday Afternoon Visit 
at the Shepherd's ; Messengers of Spring 
(1869), Prague Gallery ; Pilgrims at a Chap- 
el (1870), National Gallery, Berlin ; Children 
scouring a Kettle, Stettin Museum ; Come 
over ! (1872) ; Crown Prince in the Country 
(1873); Little Congratulators (1879); Found- 
ling, Shepherd Children (1880). Diosku- 
ren, 1860 ; Midler, 457 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
vi. 150. 


SALIMBENI, VENTURA, Cavaliere, born 
in Siena in 1557, 

died there in 
1613. Sienese 
school ; son and 
pupil of Arcangi- 
olo Salimbeni, 
but studied care- 
fully the works 
of Correggio. 
Lived in Rome in 
1585-90, and 
much employed there. On his return to 
Siena painted many pictures for churches ; 
worked also in Pisa, Lucca, and Perugia. 
Knighted in Perugia through influence of 
Cardinal Bevilacqua, who permitted him to 
bear his name. In 1605 painted with Poc- 
cetti frescos in SS. Annunziata, Florence, 
and afterward worked in Genoa with Agos- 
tino Tassi. Among his pictures are : Holy 
Family, Pitti ; Apparition of the Virgin, 
Uffizi ; Miracle of the Manna, Angels, Du- 
omo, Pisa ; Trinity, SS. Concezzione, Sie- 
na ; Christ bearing the Cross, S. Agostino, 
ib. ; Crucifixion, S. Domenico, ib. Vasari, 
ed. Le Mon., xi. 168 ; Lanzi, i. 313 ; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole florentine ; Burckhardt, 759. 

stable, S. Kensington Museum ; canvas, H. 2 
ft. 10 in. x 3 ft. 6 in. The Cathedral seen 
from the meadows, with a brook and four 
cows in foreground. Royal Academy, 1823. 
Painted for Bishop of Salisbury. A similar 



picture, with a cart and three horses tandem 
fording the brook (Royal Academy, 1831), 
belonged in 1857 to Samuel Ashton, near 
Manchester. Sketch, called The Rainbow, 
in Louvre. Engraved by D. Lucas. Waa- 
gen, Treasures, ii. 301 ; do., iv. 416 ; Brock- 
Arnold, 105. 

SALLAERT, ANTHONIE, born in Brus- 
sels about 1590, died after 1648. Flemish 
school ; history painter, pupil of M. de Bor- 
deau, master of Brussels Guild in 1613 ; 
dean in 1633-35, 1646-48 ; often employed 
by Rubens in Antwerp. Works : Archery 
in 1613 (1620) ; Procession of Brussels 
Guild ; Allegory on Passion of Christ, Pro- 
cession des Pucelles du Sablon, Infanta Isa- 
bella Victrix at the Shooting of the Grand- 
Serment, Brussels Museum ; Holy Family, 
Ghent Museum ; Judgment of Paris, Ma- 
drid Museum. Immerzeel, iii. 52 ; Kramm, 
v. 1439 ; Nagler, Mon., i. 530. 

SALLES, ADELHEID (nee Wagner), 
born in Dresden in 1825. History and por- 
trait painter, sister of lOlise Puyroche, stud- 
ied in Dresden and under Jacquand in Paris, 
married the painter Jules Sallcs at Nimcs. 
Works : The Parcre ; Psyche in Olympus ; 
Daughter of Eve ; Elijah in the Desert ; 
Pensierosa ; Truth ensnared by Falsehood ; 
Exit from Bath ; The Echo ; Queen Bertha. 

Francesco Allmni, Louvre ; copper, H. 6 in. 
x 1 f i Hermaphrodites, about to bathe in 
the fountain Salmacis, is watched by the 
nymph from behind trees (Ovid, Met., iv. 
285). From Collection of Louis XIV. 
Copy, with variations, in Turin Gallery ; en- 
graved by Bridi. Villot, Cat. Louvre, 8 ; 
Filhol, i. PI. 16 ; Landon, Musoe, vi. PI. 23 ; 
Gal. di Torino, i. PI. 21. 

Stockholm in 1843. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of Stockholm Acad- 
emy under Boklund, then in Paris of 
Charles Cornte ; painted at first genre 
scenes from Swedish history, settled in 
Paris in 1869, and has since taken up sub- 
jects from modern life in the elegant manner 

of Comte. Medal, 3d class, 1870; L. of 
Honour, 1879. Member of Stockholm Acad- 
emy in 1871. Works : Catharina Jagelloni- 
ca and Joran Persson ; Oustiiv Vasa finding 
his Wife Asleep ; Sten Sture offering Peace 
to Archbishop Trolle (all before 1869) ; 
Spring ; Visit at the Bailiffs ; Peasant Wom- 
an with Dove ; Fortune Teller ; Orsa Wom- 
an with her Child ; Carrot Planters in Pic- 
ardy ; An Arrest in a Village of Picardy 
(1879), At the Gates of Dalby in Skane 
Sweden (1884), Luxembourg Museum ; Tlio 
Orphans (1884); Little Gleaner, Dear Grand- 
ma (1885) ; Visit to the Farmer Sweden 
(1886). Mailer, 457. 

SALOMAN, GESKEL, born at Tondern, 
Schleswig, April 1, 1821. Genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Copenhagen Academy 
and of Lund and Eckersberg ; went in 1850 
to Gotenburg, where he painted many por- 
traits, and in 1854 to Paris to study under 
Couture; visited Algiers in 1860-61. Member 
of Stockholm Academy in 1871, court paint- 
er in 1876. Order of Vasa, 1869. Works : 
Game of L'Hombre ; First Lesson on Violin ; 
Painter and Model ; News from Crimea, 
Gotenburg Museum ; Swedish Weaver and 
Child (1858) ; Emigrants of Gotenburg 
(1869); Spah i before his Sweetheart's Door ; 
Victim of the Chickens ; Girl with Letter, 
Stockholm Museum. Weilbach, 605. 

SALOME, daughter of Hemdins and of 
Philip, brother of Herod the tetrarch. She 
danced before her uncle on his birthday 
and so pleased him that he promised with 
an oath to give her whatever she should 
ask. She, instructed by her mother, whose 
guilty relations with Herod had been de- 
nounced by John the Baptist, demanded 
the head of John, and it was brought to her 
in a charger (Matt., xiv.). A favourite sub- 
ject with the painters. 

By Carlo Dolci, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 8 in. The daughter of 
Herodias, three-fourths length, with head 
of John the Baptist in a charger. Painted 
for the Marchese Rinuccini. Engraved by 
P. A. Kilian. Gal. roy. de Dresde, L PL 42. 



By Guercino, Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 6 
in. X 5 ft. 6 in. Salome, accompanied by a 
servant, receives in a basin the bead of John 
the Baptist, which an executioner holds by 
the hair. Painted about 1650. Formerly in 
Modena Gallery. Villot, Louvre ; Landon, 
Musoe, xiv. PI. 31. 

By Bernardino Luini, Louvre ; wood, H. 
2 ft. x 1 ft. 9 in. The daughter of Herodias, 
half-length, receives into a charger the head 
of John the Baptist, which is held by a per- 
son whose arm only is seen at right. Col- 
lection of Louis XIV. Attributed to Sola- 

Salome. Guercino, Louvre. 

rio and to Leonardo da Vinci. Excellent in 
colour. Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Landon. 

By Bernardino Luini, Uffizi, Florence ; 
wood. The daughter of Herodias, accom- 
panied by a servant, receives from the hand 
of an executioner the head of John the Bap- 
tist in a charger. Formerly attributed to 
Leonardo da Vinci. Soc. Ed. & Paris, Gal. 
de Firenze, PL 39. 

By Giovanni Antonio Pordenone, Palazzo 
Doria, Kome ; canvas, half-length, life-size. 
The daughter of Herodias, with her maid, 
and head of John on a charger. A lofty 
Venetian beauty ; head of Baptist also of 
Venetian type. Commonly attributed to 
Giorgione. Keplica in Baring Collection, 
London ; and a modern copy in Palazzo 

Berri (Vendramin), Venice. C. & C., N. 
Italy, ii. 287 ; Burckhardt, 732. 

By Henri Regnault, Madame de Cassin, 
Paris. Full-length, seated on a decorated 
coffer, her limbs only half concealed by a 
gauze robe ornamented with gold, her 
naked feet escaping from her slippers, her 
superb head of raven-black hair relieved 
against a lemon-coloured satin curtain. In 
her lap is a golden charger and a sheathed 
knife. An elaborate study of a gypsy of the 
Campagna. Painted in Rome (1869) and 
Tangiers. Salon, 1870 ; sold to a dealer 
for 15,000 francs ; to Mad- 
ame de Cassin for 40,000 
francs. Etched by Eajon. 
Stothert, 225 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, viii. 489 ; La- 
rousse, xiv. 131 ; Appleton's 
Journal, viii. 512. 

By Titian (?), Madrid 
Museum ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 
10 in. x 2 ft. 8 in. Same 
figure as the Lavinia Ve- 
celli of Berlin, but carrying 
on her head in a silver sal- 
ver the head of John the 
Baptist ; dress, red da- 
mask. Painted about 1555 
(?). If this is not the Sa- 
lome of Collection of 
Charles I., that picture is missing. Copy 
by Padovauino in Padua Gallery. C. & C., 
Titian, ii. 141 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 480. 
By Alessandro Turchi, Madrid Museum ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 5 in. x 5 f t. 3 in. King 
Herod, seated at table with Herodias and 
other persons, grants to Salome the head of 
the Baptist, for which she asks. Cat. Ma- 
drid Mus. 

SALTEE, WILLIAM, born at Honiton, 
Devonshire, in 1804, died in London, Dec. 
22, 1875. History and portrait painter, pu- 
pil in London of Northcote in 1822-27, In 
the latter year he went to Florence, where 
the exhibition of his Socrates before the 
Areopagus won him an election to the Acad- 
emy and a professorship in the first class of 



history. In 1832 ho went to Rome and 
thence to Parma, where also he was elected 
a member of the Academy. He returned 
to London in 1833 and was long a promi- 
nent member and for some time vice-presi- 
dent of the Society of British Artists. 
Works : Banquet by the Duke of Welling- 
ton to the Veterans of Waterloo (1833), G. 
Mackenzie ; Jephthah's Vow ; Interview of 
Charles I. with his Children (1863) ; Queen 
Elizabeth reproving Dean Noel (18G5); Des- 
demona and Othello before the Senate 
(1869); Last Sacrament (1874). 

SALTZMANN, KARL; contemporary. 
Marine painter, pupil in Berlin of Eschke, 
made the trip around the world in the suite 
of Prince Henry of Prussia. Works : Dawn 
by the Sea (1874) ; Entrance into Harbour 
of Colberg ; Harbour of Valparaiso (1882) ; 
Saved (1884). 


tian, Vienna Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 8 in. 
X 2 ft. 8 in. ; signed. A man embrowned 
by travel ; to the right, a negro boy looking 
up holding a bunch of flowers. Painted in 
1558 ; belonged to Archduke Leopold Wil- 
helm. Print in Teniers' Gallery omits ne- 
gro boy. Much impaired by retouching. 
C. & C., Titian, ii. 267. 


Florence in 1510, 
died in Rome, Nov. 
11, 1563. Floren- 
tine school ; real 
name Francesco 
de' Rossi, son of 
Michelangelo d e ' 
Rossi, a velvet 
weaver. Pupil of 
Giuliano Bugiar- 
d i n i, afterwards of 
Bandinelli and of 
Andrea del Sarto (1529), with whom Vasari 
was at the same time working. Went to 

Rome under patronage of Cardinal Salviati, 
from whom he took the name by wliich he 
is commonly known. He painted in Venice, 
Florence, Verona, and other cities, and in 
1544 went to France, where he was employed 
by Cardinal de Lorraine in decorating the 
Chateau de Dampierre ; but having made 
enemies through his quarrelsome disposi- 
tion, lie returned to Italy, after an absence 
of twenty months. Salviati was a better 
designer than colourist. Examples of his 
work are : Charity, Christ bearing his Cross, 
Uffizi ; Patience, Palazzo Pitti ; Archangel 
Michael, Vatican ; Incredulity of St. Thomat, 
Louvre ; St. John Baptist in the Desert, 
Love and Psyche, Berlin Museum ; Charity, 
National Gallery, London. Ch. Blanc, 
! Kcole florentine ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., xii. 
47 ; ed. Mil., vii. 5 ; Burckhardt, 188, 756. 


SALZER, FRIEDRICH, born at Heil- 
: bronn, June 1, 1827, died there, May 4, 
1876. Landscape painter, first instructed 
by Karl Baumann, then studied in Munich ; 
much influenced by Richard Zimmermann ; 
painted landscape backgrounds in several of 
Alexander von Kotzebue's great battle- 
pieces. Winter Landscape, Stuttgart Gal- 
lery. Kunst-Chronik, xi. 738. 

SAMACCHINI, ORAZIO, born in Bolo- 
gna, Dec. 20, 1532, died there, June 12, 
1577. Bolognese school ; Vasari calls him 
Fumaccini, Orazio da Bologna, and Som- 
inacchini. Began by imitating Pellegrino, 
Tibaldi, and the Lombards ; went to Rome 
in time of Pius IV., and painted for Zuc- 
chero a compartment in one of the halls of 
the Vatican, which was highly commended. 
On his return to Bologna became a success- 
ful painter. Works : Coronation of the Vir- 
gin, Bologna Gallery ; Presentation in the 
Temple, S. Giacomo Maggiore ; Madonna 
with Saints, S. M. Maggiore ; Holy Trinity, 
S. Stefano ; Flagellation, S. Salvatore ; Cru- 
cifixion, Servi. Malvosio, i. 168 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil., vii. 420 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; 
Lanzi, iii. 44 ; Guolandi, 72, 157. 



SAMARITAN, GOOD (Luke. x. 30), Eu- 
gene Delacroix, M. Auguste Vacquerie ; 
canvas, H. 1 ft. 2 in. x 11 in. The good 
Samaritan striving, with much care and 
solicitude, to put the wounded traveller 
upon his horse. Chesneau, CEuvre Dela- 
croix, 311. 

By Rembrandt, Louvre ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 9 
in. x 4 ft. 6 in. ; signed, dated 1648. Two 
men assisting into an inn a wounded travel- 
ler, whose horse a stable-man holds ; on 
right, the Good Samaritan on the steps, 
purse in hand, commending the sufferer to 
the care of the landlady ; above, three fig- 


Samson and Delilah, Anton van Dyck, Vienna Museum. 

ures looking out of a window. Collection 
of Louis XVI. ; bought at sale of Linden van 
Slingeland, Dordrecht (1785). Engraved by 
Baron Deiion ; J. de Frey (1798) ; Longhi 
in Musee franyais ; Oortman. Cat. Louvre ; 
Eastlake, Louvre, 182 ; Smith, vii. 51 ; Vos- 
rnaer, 213, 476. 

Subject treated also by Jacopo Bassano, 
National Gallery, London, and Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Adam Elsheimer, Louvre ; Domenico 
Feti, Dresden Museum ; Paolo Veronese, 
ib. ; Herri de Bles, Vienna Museum ; Will- 
iam Hogarth, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
London ; Pierre Lacour, Bordeaux Muse- 
um ; Michelangelo da Caravaggio, Brera, 

Dreber (1848), Dresden Gallery ; Theodule 
Itibot (1870), Luxembourg Museum ; Jean 
Jacques Henner (Salon, 1874). 

SAMSON AND DELILAH ( Judges, xvi.), 
Anton van Dyck, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. 7 in. x 8 ft. 2 in. Samson, just 
awakened from his slumber, stooping and 
with one kuee on the ground, is struggling 
with the Philistines ; Delilah, in a white 
vest and red mantle, is lying on the couch, 
at the head of which is an elderly woman. 
From Van Amory Collection, Amsterdam 
(1722), 4,300 florins. Engraved by H. Sny- 
Prenner ; J. Macunl ; L. Bonnet ; Ax- 
mann ; etched by Ch. Walt- 
ner (1873). Same subject, 
Hampton Court. Smith, 
iii. 32; Guiffrey, 243; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1873). 

By Rembrandt, Cassel 
Gallery ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 
8 in. x9 ft. 1 in.; signed, 
dated 1636. Seven figures. 
Samson, betrayed by De- 
lilah, who is escaping from 
the room with his locks in 
her hand, is insulted by 
the Philistines, who hold 
him prostrate. Taken to 
Paris ; returned in 1815. 
Engraved by F. Landerer 
(1760); Jacobi (1785). 
446 ; Smith, vii. 12 ; Eeveil, iv. 


By Rubens, Munich Gallery ; canvas, H. 
3 ft. 8 in. x 4 ft. 1 in. Nine figures. Six 
Philistines are binding Samson, who is 
struggling, with one knee on the couch on 
which Delilah is lying, holding the scissors 
in her hand ; at the head of the couch, an 
old woman, looking on. Engraved by Henry 
Snyers ; lithographed by Piloty. Similar 
composition, Vienna Gallery, by Van Dyck. 
Smith, ii. 65 ; ix. 265 ; Beveil, xiv. 952. 

By Alessandro Turchi, Louvre ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft. 3 in. x 8 ft. 5 in. Delilah, seated 
upon a couch holding the sleeping Sam- 

Milan ; Louis Cabat (Salon, 1840) ; Franz son's head in her lap, gives a signal to two 



Philistine soldiers to seize him ; a barber is 
cutting off his hair, and at left two chil- 
dren have his sword and the ass's jaw- 
bone. Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Landon. 

Subject treated also by Lucas Cranach, 
Dresden and Augsburg Museums ; Adrien 
van der Werff, Sans Souci, Potsdam ; Ge- 
rard Houthorst, City Hall, Dordrecht ; Got- 
fried Schalken, Bordeaux Museum ; Jacopo 
Seinenti, ib. ; Eugene Delacroix, M. Dau- 
bigny, Paris ; Louis Marie Baader (Salon, 
1857) ; Ferdinand Hum- 
bert (Salon, 1873). 

DING, Rembrandt, Dres- 
den Gallery ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. x 5 ft. 10 in. ; signed, 
dated 1638. Samson's 
wife (portrait of Saskia) 
seated at table with other 
guests, before a dais, in a 
hall richly hung with ta- 
pestry ; at left, Samson 
proposing his enigma to 
the Philistines, among 
whom are musicians with 
instruments. Engraved 
by Massaloff. Vosmaer, 
80, 450 ; Bode, Studien, 
443, 568. 

OUS, Guido Eeni, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. 1 in. x 6 ft. 9 in. Samson, nearly 
nude, after battle quenches his thirst with 
water from the jaw-bone of an ass with 
which he has slain a thousand Philistines. 
Duplicate of picture in Turin Gallery. En- 
graved by Bolognini ; Tomba. Pinac. di 
Bologna, PL 6 ; Lavice, 12, 410. . 

SAMUEL, INFANT, Sir Joshua Ev/noldx, 
National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 
10 in. x2 ft. 3 in. Infant Samuel, full- 
length, kneeling at prayer, with a ray of 
light falling upon him. Exhibited at Royal 
Academy in 1776 ; bequeathed by Lord 
Farnborough in 1838. Engraved by J. 
Dean ; J. Lucas ; and others. Duplicates 
in Dulwich Gallery, Cobham Hall, and oth- 

er collections. Copy by J. R. Powell at 
Somerby, seat of Earl of Normanton, mis- 
taken for an original by Waagen, who calls 
it the finest example he knows of the pict- 
ure. Pulling, 59 ; Waagen, Art Treasures, 
iii. 26. 

vator Ilosa, Louvre ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 11 in. 
X 6 ft. 3 in. The shade of Samuel evoked 
by the Witch of Endor, who stirs the fire 
on a tripod ; at left, Saul, prostrate, raises 

Samson and Delilah, Rembrandt, Cassel Gallery. 

his eyes to Samuel ; in background, behind 
Samuel, the two soldiers of Saul, stricken 
with fear ; behind the witch, skeletons, owls, 
and fantastic forms. Collection of Louis 
XIV. Engraved by Guttemberg. Villot, 
Cat. Louvre ; Musee royal ; Landon, Mu- 
see, ix. PI. 18 ; Filhol, xi. PI. 67. 

ished at Seville, middle of 15th century, 
died after 1516. Spanish school ; painted 
in 1454, under influence of the Van Eyck 
school, pictures for the Cathedral of Seville, 
and in 1484 a St. Christopher in fresco, in 
S. Juliano, repainted in 1775. He was the 
first painter of note in the school of Anda- 
kisia. Stirling, i. 81 ; Cean Bermudez. 




Benyfayro, Valencia, about 1513-15, died 
in Madrid in 1590. Spanish school ; doubt- 
fully said to have studied in Italy ; accom- 
panied Antonio Moro in 1552 to Lisbon, 
where he remained some years in the ser- 
vice of John III., and acquired the title of 
the Portuguese Titian. On the death of 

Samuel appearing to Saul, Salvator Rosa, Louvre. 

the King, his widow, Dona Juana, recom- 
mended him to her brother, Philip II. of 
Spain, and Coello became his court painter 
and intimate courtier, and won honours and 
wealth. He painted many religious com- 
positions, but was especially noted for his 
portraits. Works : Portraits of Don Car- 
los, the Infanta Isabel, Anna of Austria, and 
others, Marriage of St. Catherine, Assump- 
tion, Madrid Museum ; Portraits of Joanna of 
Austria, Margaret of Parma, and Mary of 
Austria, Brussels Museum ; Portrait of Phil- 
ip II., and twelve religious compositions, 
Escorial. Coello's daughter, Isabel, was a 
good miniature painter. Viardot, Peintres 
de 1'Espagne, 113 ; Stothert, 14 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole espagnole ; Madrazo, 56G. 

at Alcazar de San Juan in 1561, died in 
Granada, Sept. 8, 1627. Spanish school ; 
pupil of Bias del Prado at Toledo, and be- 
came noted for skill in painting flowers and 
other still-life subjects. In 1604 became a 
monk at the Chartreuse of Paular ; after- 
ward transferred to the Chartreuse of Gra- 
nada, where he executed many religious 
compositions, especially scenes from the 
life of St. Bruno and from the persecution 
of the Carthusians in England. Stirling, i. 
436 ; Viardot, 160 ; Cean Bermudez. 

Charles Kobert Leslie, National Gallery, 
London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. x 5 ft. The Duch- 
ess, seated on a couch near the middle of 
the picture, attended by young women on 
right, and by the Duefia Rodriguez on left, 
listens to Sancho, who is seated on a low 
stool. Exhibited at Royal Academy in 1844 ; 
from Vernon Collection, 1847 ; a repetition, 
with some alterations, of the small original 
painted in 1823 for Lord Egremont. Lord 
Egremont paid for this original 100 ; sold 
to Samuel Rogers for 70 ; Rogers sale 
(1856), 1,120 guineas. Engraved by Hum- 
phreys ; R. Staines. Cat. Nat. Gal. 

Rome in 1830. History and portrait paint- 
er. Works : Galileo inventing the Telescope ; 
Michelangelo and Ferrucio studying the 
Plan for Fortification of Florence (1875), 
Turin Gallery ; Emauuel Philibert showing 
his Son to the Savoyards ; Portraits of Vic- 
tor Emauuel and of Prince Humbert (1876). 

SANDBY, PAUL, born at Nottingham in 
1725, died in London, Nov. 9, 1809. Land- 
scape painter ; went to London in 1746 and 
studied at the drawing school at the Tower ; 
in 1768 he became drawing master to Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich, and under 
George III. he was teacher of drawing to 
the royal princes. He was one of the foun- 
dation members of the Royal Academy. 
Painted in oils with success, but is chiefly 
noted as the founder of the English school 
of water-colours. Saudby, i. 102. 



SANDHAM, HENRY, born in Montreal, 
Canada, May 24, 1842. Landscape and 
genre painter ; visited England and France 
for study in 1880 and in 1884. Member 
(1880) of Royal Canadian Academy. Studio 
in Boston, Mass. Works : Fog in St. John 
Harbor (1879), National Gallery, Ottawa ; 
Cow Bay Nova Scotia (1880), George 
Hague, Montreal ; Return from the Hunt 
(1882), Judge O'Hara, Toronto; Dawn of 
Liberty Battle of Lexington (1885). His- 
torical Society, Lexington, Mass. 

Frankfort, May 
12, 1606, died in 
Nuremberg, Oct. 
14,1688. German 
school, history 
and portrait paint- 
er. He went to 
Prague, in 1621, 
to study engrav- 
ing under Sadeler, 
but advised by the 
latter to devote himself to painting, he re- 
paired to Utrecht and became pupil of Ge- 
rard Honthorst, who took him to England. 
There he saw great works by Titian, and 
after having painted several portraits, went 
to Venice in 1627 to study Titian and Vero- 
nese. In Rome he painted Pope Urban 
VHL, and was one of the twelve masters 
selected to paint a picture for the King of 
Spain. He returned to Germany in 1635, 
went to Amsterdam in 1637, and to Nurem- 
berg in 1649 to paint the envoys to the Con- 
gress of Peace. At Augsburg he worked 
for the Elector Maximilian of Bavaria, and 
the Emperor Ferdinand in 1672, and in 
1674, after a second marriage, settled in 
Nuremberg, where he became the main pil- 
lar of the Academy founded in 1662. His 
reputation rests chiefly upon his well-known 
"German Academy," written in 1675-79. 
Works : Archers' Company (1638), Portrait 
of the Poet Hooft, four others (1639, 1641), 
Amsterdam Museum ; Young Man with 
Dead Horse, Old Woman in Prayer, Barn- 

burg Gallery ; Isaac blessing Jacob, Aschaff- 
enberg Gallery ; Banquet of Peace (1650), 
Town Hall, Nuremberg ; The Twelve Months 
(12), two Portraits, Munich Gallery ; Miner- 
va and Saturn (1644), Archimedes (1651), 
Vienna Museum ; Apollo rejoicing over De- 
feat of Python, Uffizi, Florence. 
Ch. Blanc, ficole allemande ; 
Kramm, v. 1440. 

SANDYS, FREDERICK, born in Norfolk 
in 1832. Figure and portrait painter ; 
paints portraits chiefly, but some ideal 
works of exquisite finish. Exhibited first 
at Royal Academy in 1854. Works : Oriana 
(1861) ; King Pelles' Daughter, La Belle 
Ysondo (1863); Morgan-le-Fay (1864); Gen- 
tle Spring, Cassandra (1865) ; Mary Mag- 
dalen, Flower (1866) ; Medea (1869, Paris 
Exhibition, 1878) ; Perdita (1879). 

about 1478, died in 1550 (?). Umbriau 
school ; pupil in school of Perugino at same 
time with Manni ; made free of his guild 
in Perugia immediately after Pinturicchio, 
whose style he imitates in its least interest- 
ing featui'es, while his colouring is like 
Manni's. He aided Piuturicchio at Siena. 
His Adoration of the Magi (1505), Perugia 
Gallery, has a tinge of the Raphaelesque, 
and has even been attributed to Raphael. 
T\vo frescos, the Annunciation, and St. Fran- 
cis receiving the Stigmata (1507), are in S. 
Damiano, near Assisi ; and there is a Holy 
Family (1512) in S. Francesco, Matellica. 
C. <fc C., Italy, iii. 339 ; Burckhardt, 574 ; 
Siret, 829 ; Ch. Blanc, l^cole ombrieune. 

SANO DI PIETRO. See Ansano. 

Barcelona in 1834, died in Madrid, May 5, 
1881. History painter, pupil of Barcelona 
Art School, and in Paris of Couture ; mem- 
ber of S. Fernando Academy, director of the 
Museum ; painted frescos in many palaces 
and public buildings. Medals : 2d class, 
1860, 1862 ; 1st class, 1871. Works : Pro- 
metheus, Shipwreck, End of Carnival (1857); 
Battle at Wad Ras ; Liberty and Indepen- 
dence (1860) ; Episode in Battle of Trafalgar 



(1862), Madrid Museum ; Market Square in 
Gerona, Fortune, Chance and Folly distrib- 
uting their Gifts, Friend's Visit (1871) ; 
Mercury leading the Histrionic Arts ; Apol- 
lo chasing Night; General Prim and the 
Catalonian Volunteers at Tetuan ; Death 
of Churruca at Trafalgar; Portraits of 
Isabella II, Charles V., Alfonso V., Alfonso 
XII., Barcelona University. In fresco : En- 
try of Charles V. into Home, Conquest of 
Fort of Goletta, Battle of Muhlberg, Visit 
of Francis I. to Charles V., Alcazar, To- 
ledo. La Eustracion (1881), i. 298 ; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xx. 852. 

SANT, JAMES, born in London in 1820. 
Figure and portrait painter, pupil of John 
Varley, and student in 1840 of Royal Acad- 
emy. Very successful as a painter of por- 
traits, especially of children ; elected an A. 
RA. in 1861, and RA. in 1871. In 1872 
he was appointed principal painter in ordi- 
nary to the Queen. Among his sitters have 
been the Queen, Prince Albert, children of 
the Prince of Wales, and other members of 
the royal family, and many of the nobility. 
Other -works : Children in the "Wood (1854); 
Fortune Teller (1855); Infancy (1857); Lit- 
tle Red Riding Hood (1860) ; First Source 
of Sorrow (1862); Taking Notes (1863); Turn 
again Whittington (1864) ; Light in Dark 
Places (1866) ; Mentouese Children (1869) ; 
Alone (1870) ; Schoolmaster's Daughter 
(1871); Peaches (1874); Early Post (1875); 
Gleanings (1877) ; Little Zara (1878) ; Ad- 
versity (1879) ; Maidenhood (1882) ; Love- 
Birds (1883); Sylvia (1884); Forget-me- 
not (1885) ; Portrait of Adeliua Patti 

chio, Naples Museum ; wood, H. 2 ft 10 in. 
x 6 ft. 6 in. The Virgin seated on a knoll, 
with farm in distance ; Jesus gives his bless- 
ing to a couple whose heads and arms are 
seen at edge of picture as they approach the 
knoll and are introduced by St. Jerome ; to 
the left, St. John Baptist on one knee ; St. 
Catherine near the trunk of a tree. One of 
Palina's best ; shows Tjtianesque vigour and 

richness. Formerly in Casa Barberigo, San 
Polo. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 470. 

By PaZmaVeccbio, Vienna Museum ; wood, 
H. 4 ft 2 in. x 6 ft 3 in. The Virgin, rest- 
ing at foot of a tree, presents Jesus to SS. 
Catherine, Celestin, John Baptist, and a 
female Saint. Probably picture formerly be- 
longing to Galia di Fano, Venice. C. & C., 
N. Italy, ii. 471. 

SANTA CROCE. See Francesco and Gi- 
rolamo da Santa Croce. 

SANTA FAZ. See Ecce Homo, Murillo. 

ples about 1560, died there in 1635. Nea- 
politan school ; son and pupil of Francesco 
Santafede ; afterwards pupil of Francesco 
Curia, and then visited Rome, Bologna, 
Venice, and Florence to study the great 
masters. Employed in considerable works 
on return to Naples. It is said that when 
Naples was sacked by the insurgents under 
Masaniello (1647), two halls which Santa- 
fede had painted were spared, out of respect 
for the artist. Works : Madonna with Saints 
(1595), NaplesMuseum ; Holy Family, Hague 
Museum, and pictures in churches. Fabrizio 
was the master of Massimo Stanzioni. Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole napolitaine ; Siret, 829. 

about 1555. Neapolitan school ; pupil of 
Andrea da Salerno. Works in churches in 
Naples, among the best being the Corona- 
tion of the Virgin, in S. M. la Nuova (though 
some ascribe this to Fabrizio, his son) ; and 
Resurrection, Chapel of the Monte di Pieta. 
Ch. Blanc, cole napolitaiue. 

Magny (Seine-et-Oise), Jan. 1, 1658, died 
in Paris, Nov. 21, 1717. French school ; 
genre and portrait painter, pupil of Franjois 
Lemaire and of Boullogne the elder. Paint- 
ed his St. Theresa for Louis XIV. and 
obtained a pension, and for his Susanna 
was made Member of the Academy, 1704. 
Works : Susanna Bathing (1704), Louvre ; 
Marie Adelaide of Savoy, Louise Adelaide 
d' Orleans (2), The Regent and Madame de 
Parabere, Versailles Museum ; St. Theresa 


in Ecstasy, Chapel, ib. ; Female Cook, Bor- 

deaox Museum ; do., and ToongGiri Asleep, 

Nantes Museum: 

Allegory on Paint- 

ing, Curiosity, Gar- 

dener, Orleans Mu- 

seum; Songstress, 

Rouen Museum; 

others in museums 

at Niort, Reims, 

Sanmnr, Tours; 

Female Portrait 

(1699); Hermitage, 

St. Petersburg ; Widow of Ephesns mourn- 

ing for her Husband, Geometry, Darmstadt 
7"~D f > ft * Museum ; Por- 

J3 <JAH~* Rn E trait of Coypel ; 

St Theresa Med- 
itating; Adam 
and Ere in 

I S 

~" '/ 

Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole fran- 
caise; Honasaye, 152 ; Wurzbach, Fr. MaL 
des xriii JahrL, 13 ; Bellier iL; JaL 1101. 
SANTI (Sanzio), GIOVANNI, born in 
Colbordolo about 1435, died in Urbino, 
Aug. 1, 1494. Umbrian school ; son of 
Sante Santi, a huckster, and the father of 
Ifapliml ; was a painter before 1468; mas- 
ter unknown, but probably brought up 
under influence of Piero deDa Francesca 
and of Melozzo da ForiL Was a man of 
culture ; wrote a long poem, still extant 
(Vatican Library), in honour of his patron, 
Federigo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino. 
Painted a large fresco in the Tiranni Chap- 
el, S. Domenico. Cagli, in two parts the 
Resurrection of Christ abore, and the Ma- 
donna enthroned with Saints below a pleas- 
ing and well-arranged composition, showing 
a knowledge of linear perspectire and some 
skfll in foreshortening. Santi was a pains- 
taking, onsdentioos artist, who arafled him- 

o^fi oj XuO8 ^TTTrOT* ^1 n t \ jf*S JOT ? IMtJfO^B^PCOt ' 

which came in his way, and thus acquired 
a technical skfll superior to that of Palme- 
rucei or NeflL Among the beat of hk pict- 

ores are : Ailxilitm of the Virgin, Conyent 
of Monte Fiorentino, near Urbania; Ma- 
donna with Saints, S. Croce, and Visitation, 
S. M. Nnora, Fano ; Madonna with Saints, 
Church of Grodara ; Madonna with Saints, 
Berlin Museum ; Madonna, National Gal- 
lery, London ; Annunciation, Brera, Milan ; 
Boy in Profile, Palazzo Colonna, Rome. C. 
& C, Italy, iL 579 ; Vasari, ed, Le Mon., 
viii. 2, 67 ; Passarant, Rafael ron Urbino 
and man Vater (Leipsic, 1839) ; Pungileoni, 
Oogio Storico di Gior. Santi (Urbino, 1822); 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombrienne ; C. & C., Raph- 
ael, L cap. 1. 


SANTI DI TITO, bom at Borgo San Se- 
polcro, Oct. 6, 1536, died in Florence, July 
23, 1603. Florentine school ; pupil of An- 
gelo Bronzino and of BanJinelli ; went to 
Rome in 1560 and studied the works of the 
great masters. Became an excellent de- 
signer, but was not successful as a colour- 
ist He returned to Florence after four 
Jens' jjbmKT and spent most of his life 
there. Among his works are : Entomb- 
ment, Berlin Museum : Entry of Christ into 
Jerusalem, Dead Christ on the Knees of the 
Virgin, Florence Academy ; Crucifixion, S. 
Croce, Florence. Ch. Blanc, Ecole noren- 
tine ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., xii. 304 ; xiiL 
182 ; ed. Mfl., rii. 619. 

born at Amsterdam in 1610, died there, 
burietL March 9, 1680. Portrait painter of 
distinction, probably pupil of Rembrandt, 
whose -mvnnfr be adopted. Works : Bor- 
gomaster Dirck Bas and Wife. Regents of 
Workhouse at Amsterdam il638i. Four do. 
of another Institution 1 1643 1, Amsterdam 
ifa^mn ; Young Shepherd playing on a 
Reed (1632), Rotterdam Museum : Life-aze 
Portrait of Lhtle Girl .1644, Darmstadt 

Museum- Krmm T. 1413. 

SANZIO. See Sou/I. 

*'*, Lourre : eanTas. H. 4 ft. 6 ft. 6 in. 
At right, St. Peter, who is accompanied by 
two aposUem, stretches his hand toward Sp- 


phira, who has fallen ; a woman hastens to the strife between the classic and the ro- 
her aid, and a man, who sustains her arm, i mantic schools was at its height, this picture 
appears to intercede for her ; in background, i met with such severe criticism that the ar- 
buildings. Painted for M. de Vennes. Col- , tist called it his Waterloo. Offered to the 
lection of Louis XIV. Engraved by J. j government for 2,000 francs, but declined ; 
Pesne ; Bovinet ; R. U. Massard in Musee Wilson sale (Paris, 1873), to M. Durand 
royal. Cat. Louvre ; Filhol, x. PI. 685 ; Ruel, 96,000 francs. The original study be- 
longs to Mme. la baronne Rivet. Replica, 

Engraved by F. Re- 

Landon, Musee, xi. PI. 49 ; Smith, viii. 80. 

SAPPHO, Alma-ladema, W. T. Walters, j in small, M. Bellino. 
Baltimore; canvas, H. 2 ft. 2 in. X 3 ft. 11 gamey; Greux. Lithographed by Achille 
in. Scene : The orchestra of a white marble Sirony. Chesneau, (Euvre de Delacroix, 
theatre on a height overlooking the sea, the 58 ; Larousse, xiv. 224. 
blue expanse of which is seen through a j SARGENT, HENRY, born in Gloucester, 
grove of olive trees. Sappho, seated on one ; Mass., Nov. 25, 1770, died in Boston, Feb. 

21, 1845. Portrait and 
subject painter, pupil in 
London of Copley and 
Benjamin West. The 
Massachusetts Historical 
Society owns three por- 
traits by him ; Fanueil 
Hall, one of Peter Fanu- 
eil ; and the Roman 
Catholic Society in Bos- 
ton, a Crucifixion. His 
landing of the Pilgrims 
was destroyed by being 
rolled on fresh pine, 
which caused the can- 
vas to decay. Other 
works : Starved Apothe- 
cary ; Tailor's News ; 
Dinner Party ; Christ's Entry into Jerusa- 

SARGENT, JOHN S., born in Florence, 
of American parents, 
in 1856. Portrait and 
genre painter, pupil of 
Carolus - Duran. Has 
lived and painted many 
years in Europe. Hon- 
ourable mention, Sa- 
lon, 1879 ; medal, 2d 
class, 1881. Studio in 
Paris. Works : Fish- 
ing for Oysters at Can- 

of the lower seats, with her attendants 
grouped around her, leans forward and 
gazes intently at Alcaeus, who is seated on 
a chair in front of her, striking the chords 
of his lyre. Royal Academy, 1881. Photo- 
gravure by Goupil. Art Journal (1883), 
67 ; Academy, May 7, 1881 ; Athenseum, 
April 30, 1881 ; Saturday Rev., 1881. 

Delacroix ; canvas, H. 13 ft. x 16 ft. 3 in. 
The monarch, surrounded by his weeping 
women, slaves, horses, and treasures, is 
seated high upon the funeral pyre as upon 
a throne, around the base of which the 


flames and smoke are beginning to rise, cale, En route pour la pC-che (1878); Portrait 
Exhibited first at the Salon of 1827, when of Carolus-Durau, Neapolitan Children Bath- 



ing (1879); El Jaleo (1882); Portrait of Two 
Children (1883); Portraits (1884-85-86). 

SARPEDON, Henri Leopold Levy, Lux- 
embourg Museum ; canvas, H. 10 ft x 7 ft. 
9 in. Death and Sleep bearing to Jupiter 
the body of his son Sarpedon, slain at the 
siege of Troy (Iliad, Cap. xvi.). Salon, 1874. 

SARTAIN, EMILY, born in Philadelphia 
in 1841. Portrait and genre painter, pupil 
of the Pennsylvania Academy in Philadel- 
phia, and four years of Luminais in Paris. 
Taught engraving by her father, John Sar- 
tain. Studio in Philadelphia. Works : Re- 
proof (1876) ; Marie (1882); Morning 

SARTAIN, WILLIAM, born in Philadel- 
phia, Nov. 21, 1843. Landscape and genre 
painter, son of John Sartain, engraver ; 
studied under Yvon and Bonnat, and in the 
cole des Beaux Arts, Paris. In 1870 
sketched in Spain, England, Holland, Bel- 
gium, Germany, and Italy, and in 1874 in 
Algiers. First exhibited at Royal Academy, 
London, in 1875 ; at National Academy in 
1876. Professor of life class of Art Stu- 
dents' League ; Member of Society of Amer- 
ican Artists. Elected an A.N.A. in 1880. 
Studio in New York. Works in oil : Italian 
Head (1876, S. Colman, N.A.); Street in Al- 
giers, Narcissus, Courtyard Paris, 1878 ; 
View in Algiers (1879); Arab Sheik, Head 
of Nubian Girl, A Quiet Moment (1880) ; 
A'icha (1881) ; Arab Cemetery, Paquita 
(1883); Sandy Land near the Sea Nonquitt, 
Mass. (1884) ; Lucia near Algiers (1885). 
Water colours : Canal in Venice (1878); Arab 
Cafe (1880) ; View of the Ghetto Venice 
(1881) ; Chapter from the Koran (1882). 

SARTO, ANDREA DEL, born in Flor- 
ence, July 16, 1486, died there, Jan. 22, 1531. 
Florentine school ; real name Andrea d'An- 
gelo di Francesco, but called Del Sarto be- 
cause his father Angelo or Agnolo was a 
tailor (sarto). According to some, his fam- 
ily name was Vannucchi ; but this " never 
had any foundation in fact" (C. & C.). An- 
drea first studied with a goldsmith, then 
with Gian Barile, a poor painter, and lastly 

(1498), with Piero di Cosimo, under whom 
he found time to copy the cartoons of Mi- 
chelangelo and of 
Leonardo da Vinci 
in the great hall of 
the Palazzo Vec- 
chio. He was as- 
sociated for a while 
with Francia Big- 
io. In 1509-10 he 
painted in the -, V7"^ 
court of SS. An- 
nunziata de Servi, 
Florence, five frescos illustrating the life of 
St. Philip, which won him the reputation 
of being one of the best fresco painters 
of his time. lu 1514 lie finished a Pro- 
cession of the Magi, in the Court of the 
Servi, and the Nativity of the Virgin, the 
latter of which is "on the highest level ever 
reached in fresco" (C. & C.). Equally great 
is the Holy Family called the Madonna del 
Sacco (1525), in the cloister of the SS. An- 
nunziata, and scarcely inferior are the Birth 
of St. John (1526), at the Scalzo, and the 
Last Supper (1526-27), in S. Salvi, Florence. 
Among Andrea's monochromes at the Scal- 
zo (1516-1526), the Sermon of St. John is 
especially remarkable. While engaged in 
painting frescos, Andrea produced many 
easel pictures no less worthy of praise. In 
1518 he went at the invitation of Francis I. 
to France, and painted there, among other 
pictures, the Michelangelesque Charily, now 
in the Louvre. The next year Andrea re- 
turned to Florence to buy works of art for 
the King, but having used the money in- 
trusted to him in building a house for him- 
self, he dared not go back to France empty- 
handed, and remained in Florence secure 
from pursuit until the plague which followed 
the siege of that city in 1530. Charles 
Blanc calls Del Sarto the Raphael of Flor- 
ence, and says that if Raphael had never 
lived, Andrea del Sarto would have occupied 
the first place in art after Leonardo da Vin- 
ci and Michelangelo. Even in his own time 
he was called Andrea "senza errori" (An- 


drea the Faultless). His drawing is excel- 
lent, his modelling is always good, and his 
colouring has a freshness and a luminous 
transparency not found in any other painter 
of the Florentine school. His Madonnas 
are exquisite, some of them rivalling in love- 
liness even those of Raphael ; but their 
beauty is only a superficial beauty they 
want depth of soul ; and this is why Andrea 
occupies a lower place in the history of art 
than that to which his great powers would 
seem at first to entitle him. Among his best 
easel pictures are : Four Saints and Two 
charming Angels holding a Scroll, Florence 
Academy ; Annunciation (2), Dispute about 
the Trinity (1517), Madonna with Saints, Holy 
Family (2), History of Joseph, Madonna in 
Glory and Saints (1525), Assumption (2), 
Deposition, John Baptist, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; Madonna delle Arpie (1517), St. 
James and Children, Portrait probably of 
himself, Uffizi, Florence ; Charity, Holy 
Family (2), Louvre ; Holy Family and 
Saints, St. Barbara, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Madonna and Saints, Berlin Muse- 
seum ; Marriage of St. Catherine, Madonna 
with Cherubs, Sacrifice of Abraham, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Tobias and Angel, Field, Vi- 
enna Museum ; Sacrifice of Abraham, Holy 
Family, Madonna (3), Assumption, Female 
Portrait, Madrid Museum ; Holy Family, 
Portrait of del Sarto, National Gallery, Lon- 

aly, 111. 542 ; Va- 

63 ; ed. Le Mon., 
viii. 250 ; Dohme, 
lliii.; Ch. Blanc, 
. ficole florentine ; 
AM2J/1R.FLO-FAC Segnier, 213 \ 

629, 633, 659; 
Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 183 ; Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1876), xiv. 465, et seq. 

SARTO, ANDREA DEL, portrait, An- 
drea del Sarto, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. ; signed. 

Another in Uffizi, Florence. Cat. Nat. 

SARZANA, IL, born in Sarzana in 1589, 
died in Genoa in 1669. Genoese school ; 
real name Domenico Fiasella ; was taught 
design by his father, a goldsmith of Sar- 
zana ; spent ten years in Rome studying 
Raphael and other great masters, and be- 
came so eminent that he won the praises of 
Guido, and was chosen to assist the Cava- 
liere d'Arpino and Passignano in their works. 
On his return to Genoa he painted many 
pictures for churches, and conducted a 
flourishing school Lanzi, iii. 257; Ch. 
Blanc, Jicole gcnoise ; Burckhardt, 768. 

Rembrandt, Berlin Museum ; wood, H. 2 ft. 
4 in. x 1 ft. 11 in.; signed, dated 1643. 

Life-size, seated, with book in his hand. 1 364. 

Saskia van Ulenburgh, Rembrandt, Cassel Gallery. 

Rembrandt's first wife, to whom he was 
married, June 10, 1634. Bust, looking 
forward ; wearing a fur hat with a string 
of pearls around it, and a silk dress. 
Bode, Studien, 456, 563 ; Meyer, Museen, 



By Rembrandt, Cassel Gallery ; wood, H. 
3 ft. 10 in. x 3 ft. 2 in. Profile view, half 
length, wearing a crimson velvet hat with 
feathers, and a silk robe, lace neckerchief, 
necklace, and ear-rings. Painted about 1633 
-34. Formerly in Six Collection ; passed 
from Collection of Madame de Reuver to 
Cassel. Carried to Paris ; returned in 1815. 
Engraved by Oortman (1808) ; H. Dthier. 
Copy in Antwerp Museum. Vosinaer, 48, 
435 ; Smith, vii. 158 ; Musue franyais ; Bode, 
Studien, 417, 456, 566. 

By Rembrandt, Dresden Gallery ; wood, 
H. 1 ft 10 in. x 1 ft. 7 in. ; signed, dated 
1633. Standing, seen to knees ; in red hat 
and blue dresa In Royal Collection in 
1722 ; placed in Dresden Gallery in 1826. 
Engraved by S. L. Raab. Vosmaer, 433 ; 
Bode, Studien, 569. 

By Rembrandt, Dresden Gallery ; wood, 
H. 3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 9 in. ; signed, dated 
1641. Seen to knees ; holds a red pink in 
her right hand. Formerly in Collection 
Araignon, Paris ; to Augustus in. in 1743, 
for 1,500 livres. Engraved by D. J. Pound ; 
lithographed by Hanfstilngl. Vosmaer, 459 ; 
Bode, Studien, 569. 

VICH ; contemporary. History painter, pu- 
pil of St. Petersburg Academy. Works : 
Hermit Theodorich blessing Son of Prin- 
cess Marfa ; Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy 
after Victory of Kulikowo, Hermitage, St. 

SASSETTA See Stefano di Giovanni. 

SASSOFERRATO, IL, born in Sassofer- 
rato, July 11, 1605, 
died in Rome, 
April 8, 1685. 
Roman school ; 
real name Giovan- 
ni Battista Salvi ; 
son and pupil of 
Tarquinio Salvi, - 
a mediocre paint- \\ 
er of Sassof errato ; > v 
went about 1629 to Naples, where he is sup- 
posed to have studied with Domenichino. 

He afterwards studied and copied the works 
of the great masters in Rome, and became 
in some sort the rival of Carlo Dolci, devot- 
ing himself principally to painting Madon- 
nas and devotional pictures, in which sweet- 
ness of expression is carried to the extreme 
of insipidity. Their style is dissimilar, Dol- 
ci excelling him in strength of colour, and 
in fineness of pencil Sassoferrato's master- 
piece, the Madonna del Rosario, is in S. Sa- 
bina, Rome. Other works : Sorrowing Vir- 
gin, Uffizi ; Madonna, Brera ; do., Accade- 
niia di S. Luca, Rome ; do., Palazzo Bor- 
ghese, ib. ; Madonna with Angels, Vatican ; 
Madonna della Rosa, Turin Gallery ; Holy 
Family, Berlin Museum ; Madonna, Brus- 
sels Museum ; do. (2), Cassel Gallery ; Vir- 
gin Praying, Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Madonna, Vienna Museum ; Madonna, As- 
sumption, Louvre ; Madonna (2), National 
Gallery, London ; Madonna (2), Hermitage. 
Lanzi, i. 465 ; Ch. Blanc, I^colo ombri- 
enne ; Burckhardt, 660, 765, 770, 784, 795. 

Thomas Lawrence, Royal Academy, London. 
Subject from Milton's "Paradise Lost" 
(Book I.). Satan, though fallen, exhibits 
all the ferocious energy and violent dignity 
of his character, in strong contrast to his 
attendant, Beelzebub, whose figure is marked 
by dejection and despondence. Royal Acad- 
emy, 1797. Gower, 41 ; Williams, Life of 
Sir T. L. (London, 1831), i. 170. 

York, Jan. 18, 1844. Genre painter, gradu- 
ate of Columbia College, pupil of the Na- 
tional Academy and of Edwin White, and in 
Palis in 1878-79 of Leon Bonnat ; sketched 
in Italy, France, and Brittany, and painted 
several months in Rome. Is well known as 
an illustrator. First exhibited at the Na- 
tional Academy in 1868. Elected an A.N. A 
in 1878 ; Clarke prize, National Academy, 
1886. Studio in New York. Works : Morn- 
ing among the Flowers (1870) ; Coquette of 
the Olden Time (1873); Out for a Ride 
(1874) ; His Eminence the Cardinal (1877) ; 
Contemplation (1878) ; Extremes Meet 



(1881) ; Convent Composer (1882) ; Turkey 
Girl, Votive Offering (1883) ; Far from the 
World Vain Thoughts Begone, Arab Sheik, 
Oh for the Wings of a Dove (1884). Water- 
colours : Solitaire, Old Ballads (1878) ; Two 
Sides of a Convent Wall, One of the Fates, 
Waiting for Fishing Fleet (1884) ; The Old 
Garden (1885) ; Festival of Flora, Winter 
Watering Place, The Cronies (1886). 

SATYR AND PEASANT, Jacob Jordaens, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; canvas, trans- 
ferred from wood, H. 6 f t. x 6 ft. 3 in. Il- 
lustration of an old fable. A traveller, be- 
numbed with cold, having entered the house 

Satyr and Peasant, Jacob Jordaens, Old Pinakothek, Munich. 

of a satyr as the latter was about to sit down 
with his family to his meal, was invited to 
partake ; but when the satyr saw him blow 
his fingers to warm them and his porridge 
to cool it, he turned his guest out of doors, 
saying he would not entertain one who 
could blow both hot and cold. Formerly 
in Dusseldorf Gallery ; replicas in Amster- 
dam and Brussels Museums. Engraved by 
James Neef ; Lucas Vorsterman. R6veil, 
xi. 766. 

SATYRS, picture. See Ariston, Nico- 
machus, Protogenes, Timanthes. 

SAURIAS, Greek painter, of Samos, early 
period. According to Athenagoras (Legat. 
pro. Christ., 14) he invented the first step 
in the art of drawing, by tracing the out- 
line of the shadow of a horse in the sun. 

SAUTAI, PAUL EMELE, born at Amiens, 
Jan. 29, 1842. Genre painter, pupil of Ro- 
bert-Fleury, Jules Lefebre, and of cole des 
Beaux Arts. Medals : 1870 ; 2d class, 1875 ; 
3d class, 1878. Works : The Sacred Stair- 
case in 1868, Prison of Subiaco, Pilgrims 
before a Chapel (1870); Fra Angelico Paint- 
ing (1872) ; Sacred Door of St. John Late- 
rau, Chapel of Acheropita in Rome (1873) ; 
Day before an Execution in Rome (1875), 
Luxembourg Museum ; St. Bonaventura 
(1878), Nantes Museum ; Dante in Exile, 
St. Elizabeth of Hungary (1880) ; Fra An- 
gelico, Interior of Church of Lavardin (1882), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Door of Church 
(1883) ; Prayer (1884). 

SAUZAY, ADRIEN, born in Paris ; con- 
temporary. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Jules Andre and of Pasini. Medal, 3d 
class, 1881. Works : Views in Normandy, 
on Banks of the Seine, and around Paris 
(1863-78) ; Road of Pont-de 1'Arche at Cri- 
quebceuf (1874), Havre Museum ; End of 
Autumn (1879) ; Pond of Villiers, Honfleur 
and Villerville (1880) ; Saint-Jean Lande at 
Douarnenez, Hamlet of Plomarc'h (1881) ; 
Pond of Vaugoing (1882); Coursimont Farm 
Sologne, Breton Woman in Port of Bafleur 
Manche (1883). Bellier, ii. 471. 

SAVERY, ROELANT, bom at Courtrai 
in 1576, died at Utrecht in 1639. Flemish 
school ; landscape and animal painter, broth- 
er and pupil of Jacques Savery, the young- 
er ; went early to Germany under the pat- 
ronage of Emperor Rudolf H, who sent 
him to study for two years in the Tyrolese 
Alps, and for whom he painted many land- 
scapes in the Prague Gallery. After Ru- 
dolf's death in 1612 he settled in Utrecht, 
where he entered the guild in 1627. Works : 
Orpheus charming the Animals, National 
Gallery, London ; do. (1623), Amsterdam 
Museum ; do., Hague Museum ; do., Ber- 
lin Museum ; do., Darmstadt Museum ; do., 
Utrecht Museum ; do., Hermitage, St. Pe- 
tersburg ; do., and Rocky Landscape (1610), 
Paradise (1628), Woodland, do. (1609), Land- 
scape with Birds (1621), Orpheus trying to 



move Pluto by his Music, Vienna Museum ; 
Lake in the Woods, Bamberg Gallery ; 
Hunter and Boar (1610), Landscapes with 
Euins (1614, 1618), Noah's Ark (1620), four 
other Landscapes (1620, 1625), Dresden 

Gallery ; Boar Hunt, Munich Gallery. 
Fdtis, Les artistes beiges, ii. 88 ; Kramm, 
v. 1474 ; Michiels, vi. 165. 

SAVIOUR, THE (II Salvatore), Titian, 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 6^ 
in. x 2 ft. Half-length, with arms folded ; 
background, a landscape. Painted early, 

The Saviour, Titian, Palazzo Pittf, Florence, 

for Francesco Maria della Rovere, Duke of 
Urbino ; passed to the Medici as part of 
dowry of the Grand Duchess Vittoria della 
Rovere. Taken to Paris in 1799 ; returned 
in 1816. Copy in Christ Church Gallery, 
Oxford. Engraved by Martelli. Gal. du 
PaL Pitti, i. PI. 107 ; C. & C., Titian, ii. 
417 ; Landon, Musee, xiv. PI. 22. 

Holman Hunt, Manchester Art Gallery. 

Our Saviour found disputing with the doc- 
tors in the Temple. Jesus, a brown-haired, 
blue-eyed boy, in a pink and purple striped 
frock, stands before the doctors, who are 
grouped in a semicircle at left, the blind 
High Priest holding the rolls of the Law ; 
Mary, with her brow pressed against the 
Child's with an expression of anxiety, has 
her hand on his shoulder as if to draw him 
away ; Joseph, in a crimson turban, stands 
behind. Exhibited in I860, after five years' 
labour, eighteen months of which were spent 
in Jerusalem ; sold to Mr. Gambart for 
5,500. Engraved by Aug. Blanchard from 
drawing by Moselli (Gambart sale, 1871, 120 
guineas). Art Journal (1860), 182 ; (1868), 
100 ; Athenaeum, April, 1860, 549. 

Girolamo Bresciauo, born at Brescia about 
1480, died in Venice (?) after 1548. Veneto- 
Brescian school ; his style had something 
in common with that of Moretto, but usual- 
ly less dignified. A long residence in Ven- 
ice enabled him to enter into the spirit of 
the great Venetian masters, but he preferred 
to treat night or sunset scenes and sacred 
genre. It is difficult to find his works un- 
der their true name, most of them being 
ascribed to Bellini, Titian, Pordenone, Del 
Piombo, Giorgione, and others. Works : 
Nativity, S. Barnaba, Brescia ; Portrait of 
Qaston de Foix (?), Louvre ; Madonna with 
Saints, Brera, Milan ; Transfiguration, Uf- 
fizi, Florence ; Adoration of Shepherds, Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, Florence ; do., Holy Family, 
Turin Gallery ; Venetian Girl, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Entombment, Vienna Museum ; 
Mary Magdalen at Sepulchre, National Gal- 
lery, London. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 418 ; 
Burckhardt, 733 ; Ltlbke, Gesch. ital. Mai., 
ii. 621. 

SAVONANZI, EMILIO, born in Bologna, 
June 19, 1580, died at Camerino in 1660. 
Bolognese school ; of a noble, wealthy fam- 
ily, and a soldier until his twenty-sixth year, 
when he devoted himself to art. Studied 
with Cremonini, Calvart, the Carracci, Guer- 
cino, and Guido ; painted chiefly at Aucona 



and Camerino, where he left many works. 
Charles Blanc says he had three styles, a 
good, a mediocre, and a detestable. Among 
his best works are : Marriage of St. Cath- 
erine, S. Filippo, Camerino, and Madonna 
at foot of Cross, La Santa, Bologna. Mal- 
vasia, i. 228 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; 
Gualandi, 64. 

SAVONAROLA, portrait, Fra Bartolom- 
meo, Florence Academy ; wood, H. 1 ft. 10 
in. x 1 ft. 4 in. Savonarola allegorically rep- 
resented in the guise of Peter Martyr, with 
blood streaming from a wound in his head. 
Painted at Pian' di Mugnone before 1498 ; 
passed from the Ospizio della Maddalena 
to Convent of S. Marco, Florence, and to 
Academy. Engraved by Chiossone. Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., iv. 179 ; Gall, dell' Accad. di 
Firenze, PL 55 ; C. & C., Italy, iii. 433. 

By Fra llartolommeo, heirs of E. Rubieri, 
Florence. Painted in Florence in 1495, and 
sent to Ferrara ; taken back to Florence by 
Filippo Salviati, who gave it to Dominican 
nuns of S. Vincenzo, Prato ; their convent 
suppressed in 1810, and picture finally 
bought by Sig. Rubieri. The earliest ex- 
tant work of Fra Bartolommeo. C. &'C., 
Italy, iii. 432 ; Rubieri, Ritratto di Fra Gi- 
rolamo (Florence, 1855) ; Vasari, ed. Mil., 
iv. 179 ; Rio, de 1'Art Chretien, ii. 501. 

Louis Ernest Meissonier, D. O. Mills, New 
York. The marshal and his officers riding 
along a road in a sunny landscape ; at right, 
a shepherd in coutadino costume pasturing 
his flock. Art Treasures of America, ii. 109. 

SAXONY, ELECTOR OF, portrait. See 
John Frederick. 


MONDO. See Scarsellino. 

SCARSELLINO, LO, born at Ferrara in 
1551, died there, Oct. 23, 1621. Lombard 
school ; real name Ippolito Scarsella ; son 
and pupil of Sigismondo Scarsella (1530- 
1614), called Mondino, who was a scholar 
of Paolo Veronese. Ippolito afterwards 

painted two years in Bologna, and studied 
the works of Paolo Veronese in Venice. 
On his return to Ferrara he won fame and 
riches by his works, which were in demand 
in Mantua, Modena, Bologna, and other 
cities ; but most of his pictures are in Fer- 
rara. Among his best examples are : Judg- 
ment of Paris, Uffizi, Florence ; Assump- 
tion, Marriage at Cana, Beheading of St. 
John, Madonna della Misericordia, Noli me 
Tangere, Ferrara Gallery ; Flight into 
Egypt, Madonna and St. Joseph, Madonna 
and Saints, do., Dresden Gallery ; Child 
Jesus and St. John, Munich Gallery ; Vir- 
gin and Child, Brussels Museum. Ch. 
Blanc, cole ferraraise ; Lanzi, iii. 207. 

SCHADOW, FELIX, born in Berlin, 
June 21, 1819, died there, June 25, 1861. 
Genre painter, step-brother of the follow- 
ing, pupil in 1838-39 of Julius Hiibner, 
then in Dresden of Eduard Bendemann ; 
returned to Berlin, where he assisted in 
painting Schinkel's frescos in the old Mu- 
seum, and after his father's death painted 
in his house a cycle in fresco, illustrating 

Gottfried Schadow's life. Works : Adorn- 
ing the Bride (1858), Schwerin Gallery ; 
Diana (I860). Schlie, 63. 

SCHADOW (Schadow-Godenhaus), 
W I L H E L M 
VON, Dr., born 
in Berlin, Sept. 6, 
seldorf, March 
19, 1862. His- 
tory and portrait 
painter, son and 
pupil of the 
sculptor, Gott- 
fried Schadow, and pupil of Weitsch, then 
copied for one year in the Potsdam Gallery ; 
served in the army in 1806-7, studied in 
Rome in 1810-19, was closely allied with 



Cornelius, Overbook, and Veit, and became 
an enthusiastic follower of religious art 
and (1814) a convert to Roman Catholicism. 
Made professor at the Berlin Academy in 
1819, he won great renown as a teacher, and 
in 1826 became director of the DUsseldorf 
Academy, which he thoroughly reorganized, 
its brilliant success being identified with 
his name. Resigned in 1859. He founded 
the Art Union for Westphalia in 1829, visit- 
ed Rome and Naples in 1840, and was en- 
nobled in 1843, with the permission to add 
to his name that of his estate, Godenhaus. 
Ph.D., University of Bonn,1842 ; Member of 
Berlin Academy and of Institut de France ; 
Order of Red Eagle. Works : Regina Cce- 
lis, (1810-19), Suermondt Museum, Aix-la- 
Chapelle ; Holy Family, Munich Gallery ; 
Roman Woman ; Camaldolensian Monk ; 
Bacchanal (1819), Proscenium, New The- 
atre, Berlin ; Adoration of the Magi (1824), 
Garnisonskirche, ib. ; The Four Evangelists, 
Werder Church, ib.; Female Portrait (1832), 
Walk to Emmaus (1836), Union of Painting 
and Sculpture (Thorwaldsen, Schadow, and 
his brother Rudolf), National Gallery, ib.; 
A Templar (1832) ; Daughter of Herodias 
(1838), Raczynski Gallery, ib.; Free-Born 
Poetry (1825) ; Mignon (1828) ; Caritas 
(1830), Antwerp Museum ; Wise and Fool- 
ish Virgins (1838), Studel Gallery, Frank- 
fort ; Heavenly and Earthly Love (1840) ; 
Pietas et Vanitas (1841) ; Holy Family, 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Heaven, Purga- 
tory, and Hell (after Dante); many masterly 
portraits, among them those of his Children, 
of the poet Immermaun, and of Mendels- 
sohn. Frescos : Jacob with Joseph's Bloody 
Coat, Joseph in Prison (1818), Casa Bar- 
tholdi, Rome. Art Journal (1865), 
69 ; FOrster, iv. 220 ; v. 273, 343 ; 
Hagen, D. Kunst., etc.; Hilbner, 
Schadow und seine Schule (Bonn, 1869) ; 
Jordan (1885), ii. 193 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex. 
(1878), xiv. 196 ; Milller, Ddsseldf. K., 12, 
19 ; Nagler, xv. 90 ; Riegel, Gesch. des 
Wiederauflebens der d. K., 276, 331 ; Spring- 
er, Gesch., 91 ; Wiegmann, 64. 


SCHAEFELS, HENRI, born in Ant- 
werp ; contemporary. Genre and marine 
painter. Order of Leopold. Works : Louis 
XIV. at Versailles (1853), Leipsic Museum ; 
Encouraged and Discouraged (1853) ; Bat- 
tle of the Sluice (1860); Battle of Trafalgar, 
Antwerp Museum ; Capture of Fleet before 
Lisbon in 1572. Muller, 460. 

Maastricht in 1815. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Antwerp and (1835-37) Brussels 
Academies, then studied in Paris after the 
old Dutch masters in the Louvre. Member 
of Amsterdam Academy. Order of Oaken 
Crown, 1857. Works :*St. Arnulf in Pray- 
| er ; best pictures in Collections of Baroness 
van Dopf, Maastricht, Countess von Ge- 
loes, Elsloo, and H. Geefs, Brussels. 
Kramm, v. 1451. 

I Maastricht in 1810. History painter, broth- 
I er of preceding, pupil of Antwerp Academy 
! under M. van Bree ; visited France, Italy, 
| and Germany. Works : St. Servatius, Ca- 
thedral, Maastricht ; St. Lambert in Prayer, 
Notre Dame, ib. ; Industry and City of Maas- 
tricht, City Hall, ib.; St. Philomena, Ant- 
werp Cathedral ; Murder of Spaniards at 
Maastricht in 1579, National Museum, Brus- 
' sels ; Death of Evrard t' Serclaes. Imuier- 
zeel, iii. 56 ; Kramm, v. 1453. 

Karoly, Hungary, in 1815, died in Ddssel- 
dorf, March 1, 1871. Still-life painter; 
studied in Pesth and Vienna. Works : 
Pitcher, Glass, Oysters, etc., on Marble 
Table (1849), Vienna Museum ; Antique 
Vessels with Flowers and Fruits (1852) ; 
do. from Ambras Collection (1856) ; Gar- 
laud with Madonna (1866). Wurzbach, 
xxix. 44. 

SCHAFFER, AUGUST, born in Vienna, 
April 30, 1833. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Vienna Academy under Steinfeld ; stud- 
ied nature in Austrian and Bavarian Alps, 
in Hungary, North Italy, and on the North 
Sea. Member of Vienna Academy. Med- 
als : Strasburg, 1859 ; Nassau. Works : 



Woodland in Carpathian Mountains (1857), 
Art Union, Vienna ; Lonely Lake (1863) ; 
Sea Coast, Autumn in Hungarian Forest 
(1864), Eeturn from World's Fair (1873), 
Museum, ib.; Autumn (1868), Academy, ib. 
Wurzbach, xxix. 46 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
ix. (Mittheilungen, ii. 28) ; Graph. K, i. 6, 

SCHAFFNER, MARTIN, flourished in 
TJlm about 1500-35. German school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, perhaps a pupil 
of Zeitblom, and after him the most emi- 
nent artist of the school of TJlm. He was a 
realist, and especially successful in portrait- 
ure. Works : Portrait of Count Oettingen 
(1508), do. of mathematician Peter Appian, 
Annunciation (1523), Presentation in the 
Temple, Descent of the Holy Ghost, Death 
of the Virgin (all 1524), Pieta, Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Christ's Passion (4, 1515), 
Augsburg Gallery ; Christ's Entry into 
Jerusalem, three other scenes in Life of 
Christ, Schleissheim Gallery ; six do., Ho- 
henzollern Museum, Sigmaringen ; SS. Peter 
and Paul (1518), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Altai- 
Wings (1521), Two Portraits (1516 and 
1530), TJlm Cathedral ; Adoration of the 
Magi, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; Por- 
traits of Six Kneeling Figures (1514), En- 
tombment (1510), Descent to Hell, Resur- 
rection (1516), Descent of the Holy Ghost 
(1519), Archaeological Union, Stuttgart ; Six 
Saints, Berlin Museum ; two do., Stuttgart 
Museum ; Madonna, Liechtenstein Gallery, 

Vienna. Ch. 

AA C AA ^ W Blanc, Ecole 
S ^J / \ J allemande; 

Heideloff, Kunst des Mittelalters in Schwa- 
ben, 119 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 220 ; Nagler, 
Mon., iv. 670 ; Schnaase, viii. 432 ; W. & 
W., ii. 453. 

Dordrecht in 1643, died at The Hague, Nov. 
16, 1706. Dutch school ; genre painter, pu- 
pil of Samuel van Hoogstraten, and Gerard 
Dou ; visited England, and there executed 
small portraits, among them that of William 
HI, with much success. Occasionally paint- 

ed historical pictures, but his best works 
are genre subjects, lighted by artificial light. 
Works: Lesbia weigh- 
ing Jewels against 
her Sparrow, Old 
Woman scouring Ket- 
tle, Duet, Officer pre- 
senting Jewellery to 
Lady, National Gal- 
lery, London ; Le Roi 
detrousse, Painter 
and his Family, 
Young Girl with 

Candle, Buckingham Palace, ib.; Smoker 
by Candle Light, Mr. Hope, ib. ; Male Por- 
trait, Mr. Baring, ib.; Ceres with Torch 
seeking Proserpine, Two Women by Can- 
dle-Light, Old Man Writing, Louvre ; Young 
Man melting Wax, Brussels Museum ; Lady 
at Toilet, Useless Remonstrance, Consulta- 
tion, Venus with Doves, Portrait of William 
IH. (1699), Hague Museum ; Girl putting 
Candle into Lantern, Man Smoking, Boy 
eating an Egg, Evei-y One after his own 
Fancy, Portrait of William HI., two other 
Portraits, Amsterdam Museum ; Old Lady's 
Portrait (1677), Suermondt Museum, Aix- 
la-Chapelle ; Male Portrait, Girl with Coal 
Basin, Young Man with Plaster Mask, Bruns- 
wick Gallery ; Bathers, Warrior undressed 
for Bath, Rommelpot Player, Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; The Magdalen (2), Venus and Cupid 
(2), Artist's Wife, Old Man, Cassel Gallery ; 
Magdalen Penitent, Cologne Museum ; do., 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; Holy Fam- 
ily at Evening Prayer, Sealing a Letter, 
Fishermen, Juno vexed at her Image, Gal- 
lery, Copenhagen ; Salome with Head of 
St. John, Moltke Collection, ib. ; Lighting 
his Pipe, Portrait of W T illiam IH., Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Fortune Teller, Gotha Mu- 
seum ; Girl trying to blow out Taper, Wise 
and Foolish Virgins (1700), Magdalen, Holy 
Family, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Holy 
Family, Portrait of an Electress (1703), 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Boy and Girl (1682), 
three others, Schwerin Gallery : A Hermit, 
Stuttgart Museum ; Girl reading Letter, 



Girl holding Candle, Artist lighting up Bust 
of Venus, Girl holding Egg against Light, 
Old Woman with Book on her Lap, Dresden 
Gallery ; Young Fisherman, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Girl placing Candle in Lantern, Old 
Man Reading, Vienna Museum; Barber 
shaving himself, 
Hermitage, St 
Petersburg ; Art- 
ist's Portrait, His- 
torical Society, 
New York. Ch. 
Blanc, I5cole hol- 
landaise ; Immerzeel, iii. 58 ; Kramm, v. 
1454; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 410; Riegel, 
Beitriige, ii. 336. 

in Brussels in 1824. Landscape painter, 
pupil of E. de Block. Gold medals : Dun- 
kirk, 1864 ; Brussels, 1866 ; Berlin, 1872, 
1876 ; Paris, 1877. Works : The Old Rhine 
near Gouda, Brussels Museum ; Evening 
Landscape (1853), Hamburg Gallery ; Har- 
vest, Stettin Museum ; Summer Evening on 
Banks of Dyle ; Landscape after Storm ; 
Sunday Morning in Village in Brabant ; 
Abcoude Lake near Amsterdam (1883). 
Leixner, Mod. K., i. 85 ; ii. 113. 

SCHAMS, FRANZ, born in Vienna in 
1823. Genre painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy. Works : Duke Henry IV. as Minne- 
singer recognized by the Tyrolese (1851), 
Vienna Museum ; Summons to Crusade 
(1858) ; Scene in Life of Joseph H. (1860) ; 
Important News (1862) ; Baptism (1869) ; 
Schiller reading " The Robbers " ; We want 
to marry each other ! Wurzbach, xxix. 

SCHANCHE, HERMAN, born at Bergen, 
Norway, in 1829. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Dilsseldorf Academy under Gude ; trav- 
elled in Germany, Scandinavia, and Portu- 
gal. Best pictures in Christiania Gallery, 
and Stockholm Museum. 

born in Antwerp in 1542 (?), died after 
1605. Flemish school ; history and land- 
scape painter, pupil and imitator of Jan 

Brueghel ; lived in Nuremberg in 1597. 
Works: St. John Preaching, Brunswick 
Gallery ; Burning of Troy, Cassel Gallery ; 
Village View, Copenhagen Gallery ; Land- 
scape (1604), Schleissheim Gallery ; Burn- 
ing of Troy (1605), Vienna Museum. Rie- 
gel, Beitriige, ii. 87. 

SCHAUFELIN (Schauffelein, Scheufelin, 
Scheyffelin), HANS LEONHARD, born in 
Nuremberg before 1490, died at Niird- 
lingen in 1539 or 1540. German school ; 
history painter, pupil of Diirer, whom he 
assisted in an altarpiece executed in 1502, 
and whose manner he imitated so well that 
many of his numerous pictures have been 
accredited to his master. He lived alter- 
nately in Augsburg (1512), Nuremberg, and 
Niirdlingen, where he was finally induced to 
settle. Works: Pietfi (1510), Passion of 
Christ (1522), Basle Museum ; Four Scenes 
in Life of a Martyr, St. Jerome in a Grotto, 
Bamberg Gallery ; Last Supper (1511), 
Christ parting with his Mother, Berlin Mu- 
seum; Crucifixion (1515), Presentation in the 
Temple, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Christ appear- 
ing to Magdalen, Adoration of the Lamb, 
Cassel Gallery ; Death of the Virgin, Apos- 
tles Thomas and James, Cologne Museum ; 
Scenes from Lives of Christ and Mary, 
Christ on Mount of Olives (1516), Head of 
Christ, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Christ on 
the Cross (1508), Judith and Holoferues 
(1515), St. Bridget, Two Scenes in Life of 
St. Onofrius, St. Jerome, Liberation of 
Peter, Burial of the Virgin, Germanic Mu- 
seum, Nuremberg ; several in the churches, 
ib. ; Scourging of Christ, Leipsic Museum ; 
Christ on the Cross, Ecce Homo, Christ on 
Mount of Olives, Portrait of an Abbot 
(1531), Schleissheim Gallery ; Christ Cruci- 
fied, and the Joys of the World (?) Schwerin 
Gallery ; Judith and Holofernes (1515), 
Siege of Bethulia, St. Barbara, St. Eliza- 
beth, Christ parting from his Mother 
(1515), Pieta (1516), Assumption (1521), 
and others, Town Hall, Nordlingen ; Pieta, 
St. George's, ib.; Altarpiece in 16 panels 
(1513), Convent Church, Anhauseu ; Last 


des Mittelalt. in 
(Crowe), i. 177; 

Supper, Adoration of the Lamb (1538), 
Ulm Cathedral ; Male Portrait, Vienna Mu- 

HA seum. Ch. Blanc, 
jK* fieole allemande; 
*" <^V Keane, Early Masters, 
158; Heideloff, K. 
Schwaben, 120 ; Kugler 
Nagler, Mon., iii. 561 ; 
Thausing (Eaton), DUrer, i. 173 ; W. & W., 
ii. 401 ; Zeitschr. f. B. K., ii. 244. 

SCHAUFELIN, HANS, the younger, bom 
at Nordlingen, whence he removed to Frei- 
burg, in 1543, died (?). German school ; son 
of Hans Leonhardin Schaufelin, to whom 
some of his paintings are wrongly attributed. 
Works: Female portrait (1568), Germanic 
Museum, Nuremberg. Nagler, Mon., iii. 
582 ; W. & W., ii. 403. 

bingen, Wiirtemberg, Feb. 2, 1841. Genre 
painter, pupil of Stuttgart Art School under 
Rustige, Neher, and Funk ; removed in 
1864 to Munich, whence he repeatedly vis- 
ited England, France, the Netherlands, and 
Italy. Many of his works are in England 
and America. Medal for Art and Science. 
Works: Monkey playing with Dog, New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Invitation to Wed- 
ding in Suabia, St. Gall Museum ; Festi- 
val at Cannstadt (1877), Stuttgart Museum ; 
Election Agitation (1882). Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xix. 833 ; Miiller, 462. 

lin in 1832. Genre, figure, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Steffeck, and in Paris of 
Cogniet ; visited England, Holland, Bel- 
gium, Italy, and Spain, studying especially 
the portraits by the old masters. Became 
professor at the Weimar Art School, in 1873, 
but returned to Berlin in 1876. His female 
and children's portraits are distinguished 
for delicate colouring and refined treat- 
ment. Works ; Callisto and Diana (1870, 
bought by Austrian Government), Dryad ; 
Genevieve ; Leander ; Still-life, Ravene Gal- 
lery, Berlin. Miiller, 463 ; Rosenberg. 
Berl. Malersch., 229 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., vi. 
107, 214. 

born at Cronstadt in 1776, diedin 1855. His- 
tory painter, pupil of St. Petersburg Acad- 
emy, and studied in Rome in 1803-7. Pro- 
fessor and rector of the Academy. Works : 
Death of Hippolytus; Assumption (1807) 
St. John in the Desert (1810), Patriot 
Igolkine (1839), Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
SCHEFFER, ARY, born at Dordrecht, 
Feb. 10, 1797, died at 
Argenteuil, June 15, 
1858. History and 
portrait painter, son 
of Johann Baptist 
Scheffer ; pupil of 
Guerin. Sympathiz- 
ing neither with the 
classic school repre- 
sented by his master, 
nor with the roman- 
tic led by Gericault 
and Delacroix, Scheffer took up a class of 
subjects which showed his sympathy with 
the cause of freedom, such as the Suliote 
Women, an episode of the Greek war, and 
the Battle of Morat. Influenced by Ingres, 
he sought and obtained greater purity of 
form, and painted subjects from Goethe and 
Byron. In 1836 he was appointed art in- 
structor to the Orleans family, and directed 
the studies of the Princess Marie in sculpt- 
ure. In 1836 he accompanied the Due 
d' Orleans and General Bandrand, whose 
widow he afterwards married, to the siege 
of Antwerp, and after his return painted 
several military episodes for Versailles. Be- 
tween 1835 and 1848 he produced his great- 
est works, the Christus Consolator and Ju- 
dex, the Francesca and the Mignons. When 
the Revolution broke out Scheffer assisted 
the King and his family in their escape 
from Paris, and then went to Holland and 
England for rest. The coup d'etat of 1852, 
which gave Louis Napoleon the throne, was 
a blow to his hopes which finally disgusted 
him with politics, from which he withdrew 
altogether. Five years later, after a last 
visit to England, he lost his friends Manin 



and the Duchcsse d'Orleans, to whom he 
was much attached. After attending the 
funeral of the latter he returned much 
broken to France, and shortly after died. 
In his earlier pictures Scheffer showed his 
sympathy with human suffering ; in those 
of his second period his love for the elevat- 
ing influences of the great poets; in his 
third his faith in the Christian religion, and 
his aspirations to a higher life. The works 
of his middle period, the Christ in the Gar- 
den (1839), the Macbeth, and the Fraucesca, 
are vigorous and deep in colour, while those 
of a later period, the Beatrice, the Tempta- 
tion, etc., are pale and somewhat monot- 
onous in tone. In both, however, there is 
a depth of feeling and a purity of senti- 
ment which characterized the man no less 
than the painter. Officer of the Legion of 
Honour, 1825. Works: Abel and Thirza 
(1812) ; Death of St. Louis (1817) ; Con- 
valescent Mother (1818), Pereire Collection, 
Paris ; Patriotism of Six Citizens of Calais, 
Socrates defending Alcibiades at Potidea 
(1819); The Tempest (1820); Soldier's 
Widow (1821) ; Young Orphans ; Christen- 
ing ; Burning of a Farm House ; The 
Shades of Francesca da Rimini and her 
Lover appearing to Dante and Virgil (1821) ; 
St. Louis visiting the Plague-Stricken 
(1822) ; Seaman's Family (1823) ; Baptism 
(1823), King of the Belgians ; Little Wood- 
cutter ; Return Home ; Mother with Two 
Children mourning (1824), Kiinigsberg Mu- 
seum ; War Scene in Alsace in 1814, Burial 
of young Fisherman (1824) ; Death of Geri- 
cault (1824), Louvre ; St. Thomas Aquinas 
encouraging People in a Storm at Sea 
(1824), Church of St. Thomas, Paris ; Gas- 
ton de Foix found among the Dead at Ra- 
venna (1824), Versailles Museum ; Greek 
Girls Praying to the Madonna, Last of the 
Missolonghi Garrison (1826) ; Suliote Wom- 
en (1827), Eberhard the Weeper (1831), 
Louvre ; Charlemagne submitting his first 
Capitularies to the Assembly of the Franks 
(1827), Charlemagne and Wittikind, Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Battle of Morat, Sister of 

Charity (1829) ; Leonora (1829) ; Fhuxt in 
his Study, Marguerite at the Spinning Wheel 
(1831), Baroness Rothschild, Paris ; Christ 
and the Children (1830, 1840) ; Martha and 
Marguerite (1830), King of the Belgians ; 
The Due d'Orleans (Louis Philippe) receiv- 
ing the First Hussars (2, 1831), Versailles 
Museum ; Marguerite at Church (1832), 
Samuel Ashton, London ; The Giaour (1832); 
Medora (1833) ; Ahasuerus (1834) ; Fran- 
cesca da Rimini (1834), Sir Richard Wal- 
lace, London ; replica (1855), Mme. Mar- 
joliu Scheffer ; Mignon regretting her 
Country (1836), Duchesso d'Ayeu ; Chrislus 
Consolator (1837), Museum Fodor, Amster- 
dam ; Victory of Clovis at Tolbiac in 49G 
(1837) ; Marguerite leaving Church (1838), 
Samuel Ashton, London ; The King of 
Thule (1838) ; Christ on Mount of Olives, 
Mignon aspiring to Heaven (1839), Du- 
chesse d'Ayen ; Charitable Child (1840), 
Nantes Museum ; Annunciation to the Shep- 
herds (1841); The Three Magi (1844), 
Princess Caroline Wittgenstein, Weimar ; 
Mignon and the Harper (1844), Queen of 
England ; Entombment, Mater Dolorosa 
(1845) ; Christ and the Holy Women, 
Christ bearing the Cross (1846) ; St. Au- 
gustine and St. Monica (1846), National 
Gallery, London ; Faust and Marguerite 
in the Garden, Faust's Vision (1846), Sam- 
uel Ashton, London ; The Holy Women 
returning from the Tomb (1847), Comte de 
Paris ; Cliristux Remunerator (1847) ; Heav- 
enly and Earthly Love, St. John writing the 
Apocalypse (1850) ; Magdalen in Ecstasy 
(1851) ; Ruth and Naomi (1855) ; St. Au- 
gustine and St. Monica (1855), Tempta- 
tion of Christ (1856), Louvre ; Jacob and 
Rachel, Ecce Homo, Christ and St. John, 
Kiss of Judas (1857) ; Ibust with the Cup 
(1858), Count Kucheleff ; Marguerite at the 
Fountain (1858), Sir Richard Wallace, Lon- 
don ; Figure of Calvin (1858) ; The Earthly 
Sorrows rising to Heaven (1858, last work), 
Mme. Marjolin Scheffer ; The Magdalen at 
the Foot of the Cross, Marseilles Museum ; 
A Philosopher, Montpellier Museum ; Death 



of Eurydice, Galerie Chambert, Blois ; 
Greek Exiles on a Rock looking toward 
their lost Country, Museum Fodor, Am- 
sterdam ; Count Eberhard of Wtlrtemberg 
cutting the Table-Cloth, Eberhard the 
Weeper, Rotterdam Museum ; Giving Alms, 
Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; Dante and Be- 
atrice, Mr. Hemming ; Christ weeping over 
Jerusalem, Mr. Robert Barnes ; Return of 
the Prodigal Son ; Christ Teaching Humil- 
ity, Mr. John Aikin. Portraits : Boranger 
(1828) ; Odilon Barrot (1832) ; Duchess of 
Elchingen (1832) ; Artist's Mother (1835- 
39) ; Marshal Ney, Duke of Elchingen 
(183G) ; Artist (1838) ; Franz Lizst (1839) ; 
Madame Heine (1841) ; Rossini (1843) ; 
Lammenais (1845); Madame Guizot(1847) ; 
Henri Martin (1850) ; LordDufferin (1853) ; 
Princess Wittgenstein (1855) ; Manini 
(1857). Art Journal (1858), 223, 252, 370 ; 

Bellier, ii. 474 ; Ch. Blanc, I5cole francaise ; 
Ch. Lenormant, Ary Scheffer (Paris, 1859) ; 
do., Beaux Arts et Voyages, i. 278 ; A. Etex, 
Ary Scheffer (Paris, 1859) ; J. Canonge, 
Pradier et Ary Scheffer (1858) ; Hofstede 
de Groot, Ary Scheffer (Bielefeld, 1870) ; 
Mrs. Grote, Memoir ; Hamerton, French 
Painters, 42 ; Immerzeel, iii. 62 ; Kramm, v. 
1458 ; Larousse, xiv. 341 ; Perrier, Etudes, 
80 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1859), i. 129 ; ii. 126 ; 
iii. 40 ; C. C. Perkins, American Church Re- 
view, April, 1872. 

at Mannheim in 1773, died at Amsterdam 
in 1809. History and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Tischbein ; went early to Holland and 
settled at Dordrecht. In 1809 he won the 
competitive prize for historical painting, 
with his Admiral Jacob Simon sz de Ryk in 
Prison. Works : Interior, Rotterdam Mu- 
seum ; Emperor Joseph II, Three other 
Male Portraits, Darmstadt Museum. 

SCHEFFER, HENRI, born at The Hague, 
Sept. 27, 1798, died in Paris, March 15, 1861. 

1 French school ; history and genre painter, 
brother of Ary Scheffer and pupil of Gue- 
rin. L. of Honour, 1837. Works : Don 
Juan Asleep in Haidee's Lap (1825) ; Char- 
lotte Corday protected from the Mob (1830); 
Unfortunate Family (1830), Ki'migsberg Mu- 
seum ; A Protestant Preacher (1831); Mme. 
Scheffer and her Children (1847) ; Dream 
of Charles IX. (1855); Battle of Cassel, Joan 
of Arc entering Orleans, Versailles Museum ; 
Portraits of Carrel (1830), Arago (1837), and 
Thierry (1840) ; The First Born, Rotterdam 
Museum ; etc. Bellier, ii. 475 ; Revue des 
Deux Mondes (1843), ii. 271. 

JOHANN, Ritter, born in Vienna, Oct. 
30, 1795, died there, June 12, 1822. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Kreithner, an inferior 
painter ; was sent to Italy by Prince Salm- 
Reifferscheid in 1815 and 1817, when he 
painted Pope Pius VH. ; and visited Rome 
again in 1820, where he was befriended by 
Overbeck, whom he had taken for his mod- 
el. Works : St. Cecilia playing the Organ, 
St. Ludovico (1820) ; St. Cecilia bewailed 
by Angels (1821), Vienna Museum. Andre- 
sen, iii. 80 ; Wurzbach, xxix. 49. 

born at Worms in 1737, died at Hamburg 
in 1810. Genre painter, pupil of Johann 
Konrad Seekatz, whom he imitated success- 
fully ; travelled through France, and settled 
in Hamburg, where he died in the poor- 
house. Works : Conflagration at Night in a 
Village (2), Schwerin Gallery. Schlie, 570. 

Aix-la-Chapelle in 1808, died at Diissel- 
dorf, Oct. 23, 1879. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under Jo- 
hann Wilhelm Schirmer ; painted mostly 
woodland and mountain scenes of a mel- 
ancholy character, somewhat monotonous in 
composition, but original and lively in treat- 
ment. Works : Winter Landscape witli Fig- 
ures, Diisseldorf Gallery ; do., Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; Fir Wood in Black Forest (1852) ; 
Winter Scene in Evening Light (1855) ; 
Moonlight (1857). 



SCHEITS (Scheutz), MATHIAS, born at 
Hamburg about 1640, died there in 1700. 
Dutch school ; history and genre painter, 
pupil at Haarlem of Philip Wouwermans, 
later formed himself after Ostade, Teniers, 
and Pieter van Laar. Works : Peasant Fam- 
ily at Dinner, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Re- 
bekah and Eliezer at the Well, Musical En- 
tertainment, Battle Scene, Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; Battle Scene, Gottingen University ; 

Male Portrait, Cassel Gallery. Hamburger 
K. Lex., 217 ; Nagler, xv. 171. 

Hague, Feb. 16, 1787, 
died there, April 19, 
1870. Landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Breckenheimer, and 
one of the most cele- 
brated and prolific 
modern mastera 
Member of Amster- '7S K ' 

dam, Brussels, Ghent, 
and Hague Acad- 
emies. Order of Lion, 1839 ; do. of Leo- 
pold, 1845 ; medals at Antwerp, Brussels, 
Ghent, and The Hague. Works : Winter 
Landscape (1815) ; Frozen River with Skat- 
ers (1823), Ghent Museum ; Landscapes (3), 
Amsterdam Museum ; Landscapes and Ma- 
rines (14), Fodor Museum, Amsterdam ; 
Coast View, Winter Landscape, Scheven- 
ingen at Sunset, Rotterdam Museum ; Win- 
ter Landscape, Ghent Museum ; do., Rac- 
zynski Gallery, Berlin ; do. (3, one dated 
1858), Sheep driven through Village, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Ice Scene with Skaters 
(1829), Konigsberg Museum ; Winter Scene 
(1835), Sea Coast with Huts and People, 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Winter Land- 
scape, Weimar Museum ; others in Stutt- 
gart Gallery and Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Immerzeel, iii. 64 ; Kramm, v. 1470 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, v. 180. 

sterdam in 1632, died there in 1678. Dutch 
school ; history and landscape painter, trav- 
elled for several years in England, France, 
Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. Works : 
Departure of Charles H. from Coast of Hol- 
land ; Burning of English Fleet at Chat- 
ham, Six Collection, Amsterdam ; Sacking 
of Convent, Landing Place on a River, Co- 
penhagen Gallery ; Mountainous Landscape 
with Robbers and Soldiers, Stiidel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; others in Augsburg and St. Pe- 
tersburg (2) Galleries. Dcscamps, ii. 181 ; 
Immerzeel, iii. 66 ; Kramm, v. 1472. 

Osnabrilck in 1805, died in Munich in 1844. 
Genre and battle painter, pupil at Osna- 
brdck of H. Neelmeyer, then studied in 
Munich, 1826-33, and _ - 
returned there in 1834. Af O 7 8 1 $ 2 Q 
Works: Battle of ^ ^ ' 

Hanau (1835), Konigsberg Museum ; Tyro- 
lese Cart on Mountain Road (1843), New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; others in Hanover 
and St. Petersburg Galleries. 

ZAR, born at Gross-Schenau, Saxony, Nov. 
17, 1740, died at Dresden in 1806. Real 
name Zeisig. History and genre painter, 
I pupil of Bessler, and at Dresden Academy 
under Silvestre, who took him to Paris ; pat- 
ronized by the Dauphine, a Princess of Sax- 
ony, he formed himself in the manner of 
Chardin, Boucher, and Greuze ; was called 
to Dresden in 1770, made member of the 
Academy, then professor in 1774, and as- 
sistant director in 1777. His works, while 
full of imagination and skilful in compo- 
sition, are deficient in drawing. Works : 
Crucifixion (1790), Kreuzkirche, Dresden ; 
Pandora ; Icarus and Dscdalus ; Priam 
begging Achilles for the Body of his Son ; 
Allegory on Recovery of the Electress ; 
Old Man reading the Bible, Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; Young Lady dancing before Mirror, 
Weimar Museum. Nagler, xv. 181. 

BRECHT, born at GKlckstadt, Holstein, 



April 23, 1828. Animal painter, pupil in 
Paris of Cogniet ; lives at l5couen, near Paris. 
Medals : Paris, 1865 ; Philadelphia, 1876 ; 
Orders of Christ of Portugal, and of Isabel- 
la the Catholic. AVorks : Eest on Seashore 
(1864), Awakening of Herd (1865), Bor- 
deaux Museum ; On the Mountain (1866) ; 
Last Hour of Shearing (1868) ; Donkeys 
around the Trough, Goatherd in Snowstorm 
(1870) ; My Umbrella (1875) ; Mountain 
Road (1877) ; Auguish, Neighbouring Mill 
(1878) ; Diudons trouvant un supplement 
(1883) ; Perclus Souvenir of Auvergne, 
Miss C. L. Wolfe, New York ; Eappel Sou- 
venir of Auvergne, Study (1884) ; The Or- 
phan (1885) ; The Struggle (1886). Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xvii. 784 ; Midler, 463. 

Heyden, North Bra- 
bant, April 21, 1806, 
died in Brussels, De- 
cember 28, 1870. 
Hi story and genre 
painter, pupil in 
1822-28 of Antwerp 
Academy under Van 
Bree ; settled first in 
Amsterdam, then in 
Rotterdam, where he 
made a reputation with his portraits ; went 
to The Hague, and in 1845 to Brussels ; 
became known especially through his mar- 
ket scenes with light effects. Medals in 
Amsterdam ; Brussels, 1845 ; and. Paris, 
1844, 1847. Works : Market in Friesland 
by Moonlight, Amsterdam Museum ; St. 
Jerome, Hague Museum ; Kitchen Scene 
(1834), Hamburg Gallery ; Evening Market 
in Antwerp ; Fish Seller (1843), Vegetable 
Market (1852), National Gallery, Berlin; 
Return from Hunt (1839), Scene in Fish 
Market, Leipsic Museum ; Market in Ant- 
werp by Moonlight (1843), New Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Vegetable Vender, Stuttgart Mu- 
Almsgiving, Villa Rosenstein, near 


Stuttgart ; Christmas at Bethlehem. Art 
Journal (1867), 70 ; Immerzeel, iii. 67 ; 
Kramm, v. 1474 ; Kunst-Chronik, vi. 157. 

SCHERRES, KARL, born in Konigsberg, 
March 31, 1833. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Konigsberg Academy under Behrendsen, 
with whom he visited in 1853 the Rhine 
country, Switzerland, and North Italy ; set- 
tled in Dantzic in 1858, returned to Konigs- 
berg in 1866, and, induced by Eduard Hilde- 
brandt, went in 1867 to Berlin, whence he 
visited Diisseldorf, Dresden, and Munich. 
Professor at School of Design for Female 
Artists in Berlin since 1868. Works : Ap- 
proaching Storm (1855) ; After Sunset in a 
Swamp, Border of Oak Wood, Snowstorm 
in a Village (1858-66) ; Views in East Prus- 
sia (2, 1867, 1878), Konigsberg Museum ; 
Great Landscape with Figures (by Stryowski 
and Sy), Artushof, Dantzic; Inundation in 
East Prussia (1876), National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Two Marines from Zoppot near Dant- 
zic (1883). Jordan (1885), ii. 195 ; Leixner, 
Mod. K., i. 57 ; ii. 118 ; Midler, 464 ; Rosen- 
berg, Berl. Malersch., 346 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, xviii. 377, 405. 

SCHERTL, JOSEF, born in Augsburg, 
Jan. 10, 1810, died in Munich, March 8, 
1869. Landscape painter, pupil in Munich 
of Fohr and Morgenstern. Works : View 
on Chiem Lake ; View at Partenkirchen ; 
do. near Grainau, Art Union, Munich ; Hin- 
tersee, Art Union, Frankfort. Dioskuren, 
1869 ; Kunst-Chronik, iv. 161 ; Regnet, ii. 

Edinburgh, Aug. 11, 1778, died in London, 
Jan. 28, 1874. Marine painter, pupil of 
Alexander Nasmyth ; in 1801 he walked from 
Paris through Switzerland to Rome ; on his 
return settled at Oxford as an art teacher ; 
was appointed professor of drawing at the 
Royal Military' College at Great Marlow in 
1808, and at the Royal Naval College at 
Portsmouth, with which he was connected 
until its dissolution in 1836 ; appointed to 
the East India College at Addiscombe, he 
retired from it in 1855 ; visited Lisbon in 
1861. Was marine painter to George D7., 
William IV., and Queen Victoria. Works : 
The Royal George sinking at Spithead in 



1782 (about 1840), National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Battle of La Hogue (1847) ; Rescue of 
a Spanish Man-of-War, United Service Club. 

Zurich in 1803, died in Munich, March 29, 
1866. Landscape and architecture painter, 
pupil of Heinrich Maurer ; visited Switzer- 
land, and in 1826-29 the Black Forest ; went 
in 1829 to Munich, and executed in 1836 six 
fresco paintings for Castle Hohenschwangau. 
Made admirable copies in water-colours of 
Eottmann's frescos. Works : Melting Fur- 
nace in Ferrara Valley, Entrance into Vils- 
alp Valley Tyrol, St. Gall Museum ; View 
in Fulscher Valley Tyrol, Ziirich Gallery ; 
Chapel of Ariola (1832), Hamburg Gallery ; 
Old Chapel near Taufers (1858) ; Upper Inn 
Valley (1859) ; Smithy in the Allguu (1860), 
Ufenau Island in Lake of ZQrich (1861), New 
Pinakothek, Munich. Kunst-Chronik, i. 52. 

SCHEUREN, KASPAR, born at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, Aug. 2, 1810. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Dilsseldorf Academy in 1829-35 
under Lessing and Schinner ; visited Hol- 
land, Munich, Tyrol, and North Italy; adopt- 
ed a peculiarly romantic style and excels in 
effects of colouring ; acquired great reputa- 
tion through his arabesque drawings for 
title-pages, dedications, etc. Became pro- 
fessor at Dilsseldorf Academy in 1855. Swed- 
ish medal for Art and Science ; Order of 
Red Eagle, do. of Falcon. Works : Castle 
by the Water (1829), Hamburg Gallery; 
Castle in Evening Light (1830), Schwerin 
Gallery ; Dutch Landscape (1832) ; Gypsies 
under Oak Trees (1831) ; View of Aix-la- 
Chapelle (1834), Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; 
Storm Landscape, Ravene Gallery, ib. ; Land- 
scape with Monks (1834) ; Monk Praying in 
Convent Yard, Provinzial Museum, Han- 
over ; Castle on the Lake (1837), Burg in 
Aar Valley (1838), Leipsic Museum ; Winter 
Landscape at Sunset (1839), New Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Old Castle on a Lake, Stettin 
Museum ; Pictures (24 water-colours) from 
Legends and History of the Rhine, Cologne 
Museum. Kugler, Kl. Schr., iii.; Mttller, 
464 ; W. Miiller, Diisseldf. K, 363. 

seldorf, Sept. 7, 1846. Genre painter, pupil 
of Dlisseldorf Academy under Carl Sohn, 
then of Wilhelm Sohn ; visited Belgium 
(1868), Holland (1870 and 1878), Berlin 
(1871-74), Dresden, Weimar, North Italy 
(1875 and 1877), and Paris. Professor at 
j Cassel Academy in 1879-81, then settled in 
Berlin. Works : Song of Olden Times 
(1868); Farewell (1869); Travelling Min- 
strel (1872); Interesting Reading (1873); 
The Lord's Day (1879), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Two Playing Children (1883) ; Rus- 
tic Love Couple (1884). Jordan (1885), ii. 
196; Mttller,x465; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 
647 ; xix. 383 ; xx. 701 ; xxi. 289 ; Kunst f. 
Alle, i. 99 ; D. Rundschau, xvii. 302 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K., xx. 40. 

SCHIAVA, LA (The Slave), Palma Vec- 
chio, but attributed to Titian, Palazzo Bar- 
berini, Rome ; canvas, life-size. A girl in 
the bloom of youth, her throat covered with 
a light white stuff striped in red, her skirt 
and sleeves red, with slashes showing a white 
lining, her undersleeves yellow. C. & C., 
: N. Italy, ii. 477 ; Burckhardt, 714, 722. 

SCHIAVONE, ANDREA, born at Sebeni- 
co, Dalmatia, in 
Venice in 1582. 
school ; proper 
name Medula 
or Meclola, but 
called Lo Schi- 
avone (the 
Slav). Went 
when young to Venice and studied the works 
of Giorgione and Titian, but had little spe- 
cial instruction. Obliged through poverty 
to work as a house decorator ; attracted at- 
tention of Titian, who procured him more 
suitable employment ; but, although he led 
a laborious life, died in poverty. Though a 
poor designer, he was remarkable as a col- 
ourist. He was more successful in cabinet 
pictures, some of which are charming, than 


in large compositions. Among his best 
works are : Adoration of the Shepherds, 
Holy Family, Vienna Museum ; Jupiter and 
lo, Madonna Enthroned (Vierge au Dona- 
teur), and a group of portraits, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Death of Abel, and four por- 
traits, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Madonna, 
Buda-Pesth Gallery. The identity of Schia- 
vone and the engraver Andrea Meldolla, de- 
nied by Zani and Bartsch, has been satisfac- 
torily proved by Ernest Hagen, of Hamburg 
(Kunstblatt, No. 37, 1853). His engravings 
(dry-point and burin on tin), generally after 


Parmigiano, are carelessly executed. Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole venitienne ; Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 
596 ; Bartsch, xvi. 31 ; C. & C., Titian, i. 

matia, 1st half of 15th century. Veneto- 
Paduau school ; called Giorgio by Sanso- 
vino, and Girolamo by Eidolfi. Pupil of 
Squarcione ; attained a certain rude free- 
dom and boldness, but faces and forms ex- 
aggerated and unnatural. Among his best 
works are : Madonna with Saints, do. with 
Angels, National Gallery, London ; Ma- 
donna, Berlin Museum. C. & C., N. Italy, 
i. 342. 

SCHIAVONI, FELICE, born at Trieste 
in 1803, died in 1868. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, son and pupil of Natale 
Schiavoni, then studied in the galleries at 
Milan, where he won a prize at the Academy, 
and at Venice and Vienna, worthily repre- 
senting his famous ancestor, Andrea Scia- 
voni, and upholding the traditions of the 
old Venetian school, especially as a colour- 
ist. Member of Venice and Vienna Acade- 
mies. Prize and great gold medal for art 
from the Emperor Nicholas of Russia. 
Works: Death of Raphael (for Emperor 
Alexander II.); Miracle of St. Anthony of 
Padua ; St. Simon, S. Antonio, Trieste ; 
Raphael and the Fornarina, Tosi Gallery, 
Venice ; Cupid (for theBrera, Milan); Christ 

bearing the Cross ; Christ Asleep ; Torquato 
Tasso reading to Eleonora ; Repose in 
Egypt (1824) ; Venus and Cupid (1832) ; 
Madonna (1854) ; Raphael painting the 
Fornarina (1861), formerly in Arthaber Col- 
lection, Vienna ; Holy Family (1864). His 
daughters Carolina and Julia were also 
talented painters, the former of landscapes, 
the latter of history and portraits. Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1868), i. 461 ; Wurzbach, xxix. 254. 

SCHIAVONI, NATALE, born at Chiog- 
gia, April 25, 1777, died in Venice, April 
15, 1858. History and portrait painter, 
pupil in Venice of Maggiotto ; went in 1800 
to Trieste, and in 1810 to Milan, where he 
painted Eugene Beauharnais and the whole 
royal family ; in 1816 invited by the Em- 
peror to Vienna, whence he returned to 
Venice in 1821 ; there studied exclusively 
the works of Titian and Paolo Veronese, 
and became professor at the Academy. 
Gold medal, Brussels. Works : Magdalen 
Penitent (1852), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
do., Vienna Museum ; Bacchante, Stiidel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Adoration of Shep- 
herds, British Museum, London. His sons 
Felice (1803-68) and Giovanni (1804^8) 
were also able history painters, and often 
painted conjointly with their father. Pict- 
ures by them in the Brera Gallery, Milan, 
Vienna Museum, and Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. Hormayr, Archiv. (1821), No. 129 ; 
(1824), Nos. 105, 106; Jordan (1885), ii. 
196 ; D. Kunstbl. (1851) ; Wurzbach, xxix. 
254, 257, 258. 

SCHICK, GOTTLIEB, born in Stutt- 
gart, Aug. 15, 1779, died there, April 11, 
1812. History painter, pupil of Hetsch, 
and greatly influenced by Dannecker ; went 
in 1799 to Paris to study under David, re- 
turned in 1802, then studied in Rome until 
1811 ; befriended especially by Humboldt 
and Josef Koch ; with the latter, Carstens, 
and Wiichter, one of the regenerators of 
German art. Works : Eve at a Spring, Co- 
logne Museum ; David before Saul (1803), 
Apollo among the Shepherds (1809), David 
before Saul, Bacchus and Ariadne, Portrait 



of Dannecker, Museum, Stuttgart ; Noah's ' 
Thauk-Offering (1805), Royal Palace, ib. 
Forster, iv. 69; Haakh, Beitruge, 13, 23, 
69 ; Kugler, Kl. Schr., 8. 

Hilpertsau, Baden, April 17, 1826, died at 
Tretenhof, June 26, 1875. Genre and his- 
tory painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy. 
Works : Dead Child viewed by his Play- 
mates, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Susanna and the 
Elders, Dresden Museum. 

MEO, born in 
Modena about 
1570 (?), died 
there, Dec. 27, 
1615. Lom- 
bard school; 
said to have 
been a pupil of 
the Carracci, 
but his style 
shows careful 
study of Correggio, whose works he imi- 
tated, but without servility. Patronized by 
Duke Ranuccio of Modena, for whom he 
painted some admirable pictures. His fres- 
cos of the History of Coriolanus, in the Pa- 
lazzo Pubblico, have been called worthy of 
Correggio. He was an excellent portrait 
painter, but his favourite subjects were Ma- 
donnas and Holy Families. He left but few 
pictures, as he wasted his time in gambling, 
and his death is said to have been caused 
by grief at a heavy loss of money. His best 
works are : Repose of Love, Portrait, Christ 
crowned with Thorns, SS. Jerome, Paul, and 
Sebastian, Naples Museum ; Painter's Por- 
trait, Holy Family, Uffizi, Florence ; Ma- 
donna, Pallavicini Gallery, Genoa ; Last 
Supper, Parma Gallery ; Madonna del Cam- 
panello, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Children, 
Heads, Turin Gallery ; Flight into Egypt, 
Dresden Gallery ; Massacre of the Inno- 
cents, St. John Baptist, Madonna, Two Holy 
Families, Madonna and Saints, Diana, Cu- 
pid, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Lanzi, ii. 
360 ; Siret, 845 ; Seguier, 188 ; Burckhardt, 

626, 764, 784, 795 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole lom- 

born at Leipsic in 1804, died at Nieder- 
fiihre, near Meissen, Sept. 10, 1878. Genre 
and history painter ; was at first a merchant, 
then an actor, before devoting himself to 
art in 1830. In his genre scenes he adhered 
to the old Dutch school. Was also an ex- 
cellent restorer of old pictures. Works : 
Vanitas, Museum, Leipsic ; The Contented 
Ones, President Giluther, ib.; Toper, Miu 
Dr. Mothes, ib.; Adoration of the Magi, 
Church at BOsenstiidt ; Christ and the Trib- 
ute Money, Descending of the Holy Ghost, 
Church at Podelwitz. 

SCHIESS, TRAUGOTT, born atHerisau, 
Switzerland, in 1834. Landscape painter, 
pupil in Munich of Steffan, and in Ztirich 
of Koller, also influenced by Biicklin in Ba- 
sle ; visited afterwards Cologne and Ant- 
werp. Medal, Berne, 1857. Works : View 
on Wallen Lake, Waterfall in Averse Valley, 
View in Glarner Mountains, St. Gall Mu- 
seum ; View near Iseltwald on Lake of Bri- 
enz, do. near Murg on Wallen Lake, Zurich 
Gallery ; Plateau in Swiss Alps ; Summer 
Evening ; Cows at the Water. 

SCHIFFER, ANTON, born at Gratz in 
1811, died in Vienna, June 13, 1876. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Vienna Academy. 
Works: View of the Schneeberg (1838), 
Museum, Vienna ; Grundel Lake in Upper 
Austria, Harrach Gallery, ib. ; View on Hin- 
tersee near Berchtesgaden (1845) ; Outlook 
from Schafberg near Ischl (1858) ; View of 
the Grossglockuer (1870); Gosau Lake with 
the Dachstein (1871). Cotta's Kunstbl., 
1845 ; D. Kuustbl., 1858 ; Wurzbach, xxix. 

SCHIFFER, MATHIAS, born at Puch, 
Styria, in 1742 or 1746, died after 1808. 
Landscape and architecture painter ; no 
particulars known. Works : Interior of 
Catholic Church (2, 1786, 1787), Schwerm 
Gallery ; others at Ratisbon and Gratz. 

SCHIFFMANN, JOST, born at Luzerne, 
Switzerland, March 30, 1822, died in Mu- 



nich, May 11, 1883. Landscape and still- 
life painter, pupil of Jacob Schwegler, a 
drawing-master ; being without means he 
joined in 1843 the papal Swiss guard in 
Borne, cultivating art in bis leisure hours ; 
having seen active service in 1848-49, be 
returned to Luzerne, and soon after settled 
in Munich. On a visit to Salzburg he met 
Hans Makart, just dismissed from the Vien- 
na Academy, and took him to Munich. Ap- 
pointed Conservator of the Salzburg Muse- 
um, he resigned in 1881, after more than 
ten years of efficient labours, and returned 
to Munich. Works : View in Tyrol, St. Gall 
Museum ; Shore of Walleustadt Lake (1853); 
Morning on Lake Luzerne ; Evening Land- 
scape (1854); Cemetery (1857); Souvenir of 
Wallenstadt Lake (1858) ; Old little Town 
on the Rhine (1861). Tscharner, Die bild. 
K in der Schweiz im J. 1883 (1884), 56. 

Barchfeld in 1798, died at Darmstadt in 
1851. Landscape painter, pupil of Prima- 
vesi in Darmstadt, then studied from nature 
in Italy, 1823; was much influenced by Ernst 
Fries, and became court painter at Darm- 
stadt in 1828. He was very happy in depict- 
ing momentary effects of light. Works : 
Castello Gandolfo on Lake Albano (1839), 
Darmstadt Museum ; View of the Capitol 
in Rome, do. of Forum Romanum, Thor- 
waldsen Museum, Copenhagen ; View of 
Imperial Palaces in Rome ; View of Rome ; 
do. of Mentz. Cotta's Kunstbl., 1829-33. 

enna in 1811, died there in 1881. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy, and studied from nature in Hungary, 
Transylvania, and Wallachia. Works : Bac- 
chante, Vienna Museum ; Roumanian (1855); 
Lady of Time of Louis XTV. (185G) ; Hun- 
garian Tinker (18G1) ; Tambourine Player 
(1864) ; Triumph of Neptune (1871). 
Wurzbach, xxix. 312. 

Osnabriick in 1793, died there in 1857. 
History painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy under Cornelius, with whom he went 

to Munich in 1825. Works : Rape of Helen, 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Scenes from 
Tragedies of ^Eschylus, Royal Palace, ib. ; 
Establishment of Succession in Bavaria, Ar- 
cades, Royal Garden, ib. Cotta's Kuustbl. 
(1829) ; FOrster, v. 

SCHINDLER, ALBERT, born at Engels- 
berg, Silesia, Aug. 19, 1805, died in Vienna, 
May 3, 1861. Genre painter, pupil of Vi- 
enna Academy under Fendi. Works : Cap- 
uchin giving Communion to Officer dying 
in his Cell (1834), Vienna Museum ; Recruit- 
ing (1839); Last Pilgrimage (1840); Officer's 
Farewell (1841), Count Victor Wimpffeu, 
Vienna. Wurzbach, xxx. 1 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K., xii. 128. 

Vienna in 1842. Landscape painter and 
illustrator, pupil of Vienna Academy and of 
Albert Zimniermann, and studied after 
Dutch masters, such as Hobbema and Ruis- 
dael ; later adhered to the style of French 
masters, especially Theodore Rousseau. 
Medals: Munich, 1883; Berlin, 1886. 
Works : Forest Smithy (1864) ; Priener 
Miihlen Valley (1866) ; Kiss in the Woods 
(1869) ; Views in the Prater (1870, 1871, 
1872, 1873); Wood Choppers (1873); Moon- 
rise on March River ; Autumn Landscape on 
the Fischa ; two Views on Isle of Lacroma 
(1879) ; View near Zfitphen, View at Haslau 
on the Danube (1883); 24 Cartoons for Zed- 
litz's Waldfriiulein. Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xxi. 804 ; Wurzbach, xxx. 8 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xviii. 512 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xv. 128. 

St. Polten, Lower Austria, July 28, 1777, 
died in Vienna, July 22, 1836. Landscape 
and genre painter, pupil and afterwards 
member of Vienna Academy. Court painter. 
Works : Landscape with Ruins, Battle be- 
tween Frederic the Warlike and King Bula 
of Hungary (1820); View of Salzburg (1828); 
Travellers attacked by Wolves (1830) ; The 
Fire in the Prater in 1833 (1834), Vienna 
Museum. Wurzbach, xxx. 10. 

born at Neu-Ruppiu, March 13, 1781, died 



in Berlin, Oct. 9, 1841. Landscape painter, | 
self-taught and an able master, although 
better known as an 
architect. Works : 
Ideal Landscapes 
(1815, 1820), Rocky 
Gate, Italian Laud- 
scape (1817), six dec- 
orative Land- 
scapes, Mountain 
Lake (1823), Castle 
by a Lake (1823), 
Ideal Landscapes 

(3),Gothic Cathedral, Harvest Festival (182(i), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; others, and Col- 
lection of Drawings and Sketches, Schinkel 
Museum, ib. Botticher, Fr. Schinkel und 
seine Werke ; Grimm, Rede auf Schinkel 
(Berlin, 1867); Jordan (1885), ii. 198 ; Kug- 
ler, K Fr. Schinkel (Berlin, 1842); Quasi, 
do. (Neu-Ruppin, 1866) ; Rosenberg, Bed. 
Malersch., 99 ; Springer, Gesch., 37 ; Wol- 
zogen, Aus Schinkel's Nachlass ; do., Schink- 
el als Architect, etc. (Berlin, 1864); Zeitschr. 
f. b. K., iii. 89. 

Burghausen, Bavaria, in 1694, died in Vi- 
euiia, March 22, 1762. Landscape painter, 
pupil of his step-father, Joseph Kammer- 
lohr. Travelled, and settled in Vienna. His 
figures were painted by Janneck and K. 
Aigen. Works : Six Landscapes, Vienna 
Museum ; St. Anna, Frauenkirche, Alten- 
Oetting ; Hunting Party riding to Falcon 
Chase, Huntsmen by Dead Game, Aschaffen- 
burg Gallery ; Landscapes with Figures (2), 
Schleissheim Gallery. Wurzbach, xxx. 30 ; 
Nagler, xv. 261. 

SCHIOTT, HEINRICH, born at Elsinore, 
Dec. 17, 1823. Portrait and genre painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy, where he 
won two medals in 1846 ; visited Paris, Lon- 
don, and Italy in 1850, and after his return 
painted several members of the royal family ; 
afterwards visited Norway and Iceland, and 
in 1872-73 Egypt, Palestine, Greece, and 
Italy. Member of Copenhagen Academy in 
1854 ; professor in 1866. Works : Portrait 

of Lund (1854) ; Genre Scenes from Norse 
Country Life ; Landscapes and Architectural 
Views in Egypt and Syria. Weilbach, 613. 

(FERDINAND), born in Berlin, May 6, 
1802, died at Nyon, on Lake Geneva, Juno 
8, 1866. Landscape painter, pupil of Ber- 
lin Academy, and greatly influenced by 
Schinkel; studied in Italy in 1827-30, allied 
with Koch, Reinhardt, and Turner ; in 1831 
opened a studio in Berlin, which attracted 
many pupils ; in 1835 became member, in 
1839 professor, and in 1852 senator of the 
Academy ; visited Italy again in 1845 and 
1865, when he fell seriously ill at Rome and 
died on his way home. Works : Tasso's 
House in Sorrento (1837), Park Landscape 
(1856), Coast near Naples (1864), National 
Gallery, Berlin. In fresco : Pyramids of 
Memphis, Corridor in Pyramid of Cheops, 
View of .33gina with Temple, View of Phi- 
galia with Temple (1850), New Museum, ib. 
Dioskuren, 1866 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 200 ; 
Kunst-Chrouik, i. 101 ; Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 326. 

at Jtilich, Rhenish 
Prussia, Sept. 5, 
1807, died in Carls- 
ruhe, Sept. 11, 
1863. Landscape 
painter, p u p i 1 of 
Dilsseldorf Acade- 
my under Schadow, 
when he studied his- 
tory painting, un- 
til Lessing's land- 
scapes induced him to take up that branch 
of art, in which he became famous as a rep- 
resentative of historical landscape in the 
style of Poussin ; visited Belgium (1830), 
the Black Forest and Switzerland (1835), 
Holland (1837), Normandy (1838), Italy 
(1839); became in 1830 assistant professor, 
in 1839 professor at Ddsseldorf Academy, 
and in 1853 director of the Carlsruhe Art 
School, which he reorganized. Member of 
Berlin and Dresden Academic* Works : 



Lonely Pond in Oak Wood (1832); Convent 
of St. Scholastica, six Biblical Landscapes 
with Life of Abraham, National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Autumn Landscape (1834), Arem- 
berg Gallery, Brussels; Mountain Road 
(1839), Darmstadt Gallery ; Grotto of Ege- 
ria (1841), Park in Evening Light (1847), 
Nether German Landscape (1864), Leipsic 
Museum ; Italian Landscape (1842), Inun- 
dation, Series of 26 Biblical Landscapes, 
D iisseld or f Gallery; Swiss Landscape (1844). 
Christiania Museum ; Storm (1848), Prague 
Gallery ; Moonlight with Rape of Hylas, Ital- 
ian Landscape, Provinzial Museum, Han- 
over ; Calm Evening after Stormy Day 
(1849), Konigsberg Museum ; Path on For- 
est Border (1850), Hamburg Gallery ; In- 
undation in the Woods (1853), Brunswick 
Gallery ; Via Mala (1853), four Landscapes 
with Story of Good Samaritan (1856-57), 
Storm in the Campagna (1858), Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; replica of Samaritan Cycle, Cassel 
Art Union ; Biblical Landscape, Stuttgart 
ij Museum ; North German 

-P x, Landscape, St. Gall Mu- 

^^^^/ v^ seum. Andresen, ii. 303 ; 

Forster, v. 406 ; Jordan 

(1885), ii. 199; Wolfg. 

Muller, Dusseldf. K, 323 ; 

Riegel, D. Kunststud., 365 ; 

D. Rundschau, xi. 381 ; 
Springer, Gesch., 171 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K., i. 158. 

SCHISCHION, JOHANN, born at Jela- 
buga, Government of Viatka, Jan. 13, 1827. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Moscow Art 
School and St. Petersburg Academy, where 
he won the first prize in 1863, and of which 
he became a member in 1866. Professor in 
1873 ; Order of Stanislaus. Works : Dilapi- 
dated Bridge (1868) ; Pine Forest (1871) ; 
Interior of Primeval Forest (1873), St. 
Petersburg Academy ; First Snow, Dawn in 
Spring (1874). 

SCHLEICH, EDUARD, born atHarbach, 
Bavaria, Oct. 12, 1812, died in Munich, Jan. 
8, 1874. Landscape painter, self-taught by 
study of nature in Bavarian Alps, Tyrol, and 


xii. 34, 233 ; 

North Italy, and after the old masters in the 
Munich and Schleissheim Galleries. Hav- 
ing been dismissed 
from the Munich 
Academy as "without 
talent," he took for 
his models Etzdorf, 
Morgenstern, and 
Rottmann, and be- 
came, after the latter, 
the most distin- 
guished landscape 
painter of the Munich school, upon which 
he exerted signal influence ; visited France, 
Belgium, Hungary, and Italy. Professor in 
1868 ; honorary member of Munich and sev- 
eral other Academies. Gold medal, Berlin ; 
Order of Michael. Works : Evening Land- 
scape, National Gallery, Berlin ; Alp in 
Tyrol, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Starnberg Lake, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Cattle Herd crossing 
Water, Dresden Gallery ; Alp in the Algau, 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Isar Meadows near 
Munich (1861), Konigsberg Museum ; View 
in Isar Valley (1858), Village with Church 
and Castle, Storm near Coast, Village near 
Pasing, Sketches (8, 1874), New Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Starnberg Lake, Alp in Ziller Val- 
ley, Venice by Moonlight, Schack Gallery, 
ib. ; Moonlight near Rotterdam (1873), 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; Village 
Landscape, View on the Wurm, Stuttgart 
Museum ; Storm Landscape (1851) ; View 
near Dachau (1856) ; Moonlight Night in 
Normandy (1858) ; Isar Meadows near Mu- 
nich (1860) ; Foggy Morning on Starnberg 
Lake (1860) ; Herrenchiem Lake (1871). 
Dioskuren (1875), No. 14 ; Cotta's Kunstbl., 
1830--40 ; D. Kuustbl., 1850-58 ; Graph. K, 
v. 6 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1874), i. 231 ; Jordan, 
(1885), ii. 201; Regnet, ii. 181; Schack, 
Meine Gemiildesammlung (1884), 225 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, ix. 161. 

DREAS, born at Lyngby, near Copenhagen, 
Nov. 2, 1810. Genre painter, pupil of Co- 
penhagen Academy, where he won med- 
als in 1831, 1833 ; studied while travelling 



and in the Munich Gallery ; returned to 
Copenhagen in 1842 ; became member of 
the Academy in 1852, and professor in 1858. 
Works : Coppersmith reading Letter to his 
Wife (1841) ; Poulterer (1842), New Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; Grandmother teaching her 
Grandson to Pray (1842), Schwerin Gallery ; 
Zealand Fisherman Family (1857), Sailors 
in a Tavern (1861), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Scene from Danish Sailor-Life (1848), Cop- 
persmith in his Workshop (1859), Copen- 
hagen Gallery. Weilbach, 614. 

SCHLESINGER, ADAM, born at Eberts- 
heim, Bavaria, in 1759, died in 1829. 
Still-life painter. Works: Currant Bush 
with Bird's Nest, Strawberry Plant with 
Snail, etc. (1820), National Gallery, Berlin. 

burg, Oct. 9, 1833. Genre painter, pupil of 
Dttsseldorf Academy and of Jordan ; lived 
for several years in Paris, and settled in Mu- 
nich. Works : Peasants in Holstein prepar- 
ing to go to Church (1854), Hamburg Gal- 
lery ; Saved from Shipwreck ; Post Office ; 
Children at the Well (1864); Young Couple's 
Visit to Parents (1866); At the Jeweller's ; In 
Danger, Out of Danger (1883). Mailer, 468. 

born in Fraukfort-on-the-Maiu in 1814. 
Genre painter, pupil of the Vienna Academy, 
but went early to Paris, where he was natu- 
ralized and has since lived. Popular paint- 
er of light subjects. Medals : 3d class, 
1840 ; 2d class, 1847 ; L. of Honour, 1866. 
Works : Seductions of Life, Walk to Church 
(1840) ; Spanish Guerillas, Margaret and the 
Tempter (1842) ; If Youth only Knew (1843); 
Harem Favourites, The Meal (1844) ; One 
of Rousseau's Days, Blind Man's Buff (1845); 
Bridge of Love (1846) ; Little Marguerite, 
A Harem, A Romance (1847) ; Voltaire's 
First Love (1848) ; Love's Confidences 
(1850) ; Improvising (1851) ; A Likeness 
Guaranteed (1853); Happiness in the Moun- 
tains, Hunting Butterflies, The Betrothed 
(1855) ; When the Masters are away (1857); 
Last Sitting of Charlotte Corday to the 
Artist Houer (1859); Foot-Bath, Tempta- 

tion, The Reception (I860) ; Festival of the 
Madonna (1864) ; Five Senses (1865) ; Car- 
mela, Reading (1866) ; Christmas Eve, Dead 
Bird (1867) ; Maria del Marco, Alone in the 
Studio (1868) ; Good Friends (1869) ; Tak- 
ing Pains for Nothing (1872) ; Miss Mis- 
chievous (1873) ; Brother and Sister (1874); 
The Dove-cot, Jane (1875) ; Like Grand- 
mother (1877) ; Broken Pot, Mistress's Bon- 
net (1879) ; Double Arrest (1880) ; Love in 
Old Times and Nowadays (1882) ; Modern 
Venus, Bohomieune (1884) ; Young Girl of 
Morocco (1885) ; The Favourite (1886). 
Claretie, Peintres, 110 ; Larousse ; Mdller, 

SCHLESINGER, KARL, born at Lau- 
sanne in 1826. Genre and landscape paint- 
er, pupil in Hamburg of Hermann Kauff- 
mann, in 1844 of Prague Academy under 
Ruben, and in 1850 of Antwerp Academy 
under Dyckmans ; settled in Diisseldorf in 
1852. Works : Emigrants going Aboard 
(1851), Wandering Musicians (1859), Even- 
ing on the Moselle (1863), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Moonlight with Priest carrying 
Viaticum, Proviuzial Museum, Hanover ; 
Memento Mori (1880). Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xvii. 786 ; Miiller, 468. 

DER, flourished about 1720, died in Mann- 
heim in 1745. Dutch school ; history and 
genre painter, pupil of Adriaan van der 
Werff; painted for the Elector Charles 
Philip of the Palatinate. Works : St. An- 
drew with the Cross (1732) ; Village Mu- 
sician (1731), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Tyrolese Peasant (1730), do. Woman, Lute- 
Player, Schleissheim Gallery. 

Schwerin, March 6, 1812, died there, Jan. 
13, 1878. Portrait, genre, battle, and ani- 
mal painter, pupil of Berlin Academy, 
whence he returned to Schwerin in 1840 ; 
studied in Paris under Horace Vernet in 
1847-48, and again in 1855-57 ; accompa- 
nied the Mecklenburg troops during the 
campaign in Schleswig-Holstein, and was 
made court painter in 1853. During his 



second stay in Paris he won the favour of 
Napoleon III. and painted the Empress 
Eugenie for the palace at St. Cloud ; spent 
the winter of 1874-75 in Italy and painted 
in Rome and Pompeii landscapes and archi- 
tecture pieces. Works : Stable Boy's Joy 
(1836), Horse Stable (1845), Eide of Witches 
to the Blocksberg (1853), Russian Team, 
. I Death of Niclot (1857), Skirmish 

\ Q^^ near Walsmiihlen iu 1719, Por- 
traitsof Fritz Reuter (186G), Gus- 
the ( 1868 ). Friedrich Kuckeu 
(1869), Count Friedrich von Schack (1875), 
Grand Duke Paul Friedrich, and of himself, 
(1876), Schwerin Gallery. Schlie, 67. 

born in Elberfeld, Dec. 21, 1832. History 
painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under 
Karl Sohn ; took prize of Berlin Academy 
in 1860 ; lived several years in Paris, and 
settled in Rome. Gold medal, Berlin, 1870. 
Works : Maid of Orleans ; Venus rising 
from the Sea (1871) ; Thetis surprised by 
Peleus (1872), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; The- 
seus and Ariadne ; Pandora before Prome- 
theus and Epimetheus (1878), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin. Mflller, 469 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, vi. 107 ; Leixner, Mod. K, ii. 14. 
SCHLOSSER, KARL, born in Darmstadt 
in 1836. Genre 
painter, pupil in 
Frankfort of Jakob 
Becker, and in Paris 
of Couture ; settled 
about 1875 in Lon- 
don, where he ex- 
hibits at the Royal 
Academy and the 
Grosvenor Gallery. 
Medal, Vienna ; 

Knight of Order of Merit. Works : Last 
Rehearsal ; Political Adversaries (1871) ; 
First Bottle of Champagne ; Obligatory In- 
struction (1875); Village Lawyer (1876); 
Forbidden Fruit (bought by Napoleon III.); 
Reprimand ; Advice in Need (1878), Stadel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; The Refectory (1877) ; 

Carriage Accident, Grocer's Shop in Tyrol 
(1878) ; Political Discussion, Sunset at San 
Remo, Compulsory Education (1879) ; Sou- 
venir de Palermo (1880) ; Singing Lesson, 
Finishing Touch, A Duet (1881) ; Out of 
Tune, Pianissimo, An Intermezzo (1882); Old 
Friends, A Book Worm, Palermo (1884) ; 
From Bordigherra (1885); An Old Bachelor 
(1886). Gaz. des B. Arts (1865), xviii. 319, 
522 ; (1867), xxii. 537. 

nich, March 14, 1789, died there, June 15, 
1869. History painter, pupil of Munich 
Academy. Painted some of the frescos in 
the Glyptothek after Cornelius's cartoons. 
Visited Rome in 1830 ; became professor at 
Munich Academy in 1831 ; went to Pompeii 
in 1844 to study ancient painting. With 
Fuchs he invented in 1846 stereochromy, a 
method of preserving the colours of frescos, 
used by Kaulbach in the Berlin Museum. 
Works : Christ crowned with Thorns ; Al- 
tarpieces (1838), Bamberg Cathedral. 
Kunst-Chronik, iv. 181. 

SCHMALZ, HERBERT, born in Eng- 
land ; contemporary. Genre and portrait 
painter ; exhibits at the Royal Academy 
and the Grosvenor Gallery. Works : Mu- 
riel, Sir Galahad (1881) ; Voices, Alas ! 
(1882) ; Beyond, Temple of Eros, How 
Long !, Idaline (1883) ; Too Late !, Queen 
of the May, Felice, All is Vanity (1884) ; 
Elaine, Denise, Souvenir de Blankenberghs 
(1885) ; Topsy (1886). 
SCHMID, MATHIAS, born at See, Tyrol, 
Nov. 14, 1835. His- 
tory and genre paint- 
er, pupil of Munich 
Academy (1856) un- 
der Schraudolph, and 
of Piloty in 1869, 
when persecution by 
the clergy in Tyrol 
on account of his 
liberal ideas caused 
him to return to Mu- 
nich. Medal, Vienna, 1873. Works : Ruth 
going to Bethlehem (1858) ; Entombment ; 




Flight into Egypt ; Alpine Carters ; Dealer 
in Sacred Images ; Mendicant Monks ; Col- 
lection of Confessions ; Judge of Morals 
(1873) ; Removal of the Protestants of the 
Zillerthal ; Smugglers ; Flutist and Peasant 
Woman ; Festival of the Parson's Cook 
(1874) ; Betrothal (1879) ; Legendary Pict- 
ures, Villa Tschavoll near Feldkirch ; His 
Lathered Reverence, Repairing the Damage 
(1882) ; Salvation (1883) ; Blind-Man's-Buff 
(1884); Forsaken (1885); In the Picture 
Gallery (188G). In fresco : Three Marys at 
Christ's Tomb (1859), Cemetery, Innsbruck. 
Allgem. Kunst-Chronik, viii. 279, 377 ; 
ix. 244 ; Ulustr. Zeitg. (1874), ii. 343 ; (1877), 
i. 10 ; (1883), i. 315 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 
386 ; xviii. 649 ; six. 352 ; xx. 279 ; xxii. 
37 ; Kunst Alle, i. 103, 224 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K., xii. (Mittheilungen, v. 8) ; xix. 131. 

SCHMIDT, HEINRICH, born at Saar- 
brtick, Rhenish Prussia, about 1740, died 
in 1821. History painter, studied in Italy, 
where he spent most of his life, chiefly at 
Naples. His works show the influence of 
Raphael Mengs and of the French school. 
He was much employed by the Grand ducal 
court of Darmstadt. Works : Artemisia bv 
the Ashes of her Husband (1785), View near 
Rouciglione in the Campagna (1792), Adam 
and Eve listening to the First Thunder, Di- 
ana and Callisto, Daughter of Jairus, Darm- 
stadt Museum. 

at Hildburghausen, Feb. 11, 1749, died in 
Dresden, Oct. 28, 1829. Portrait painter, 
son and pupil of Johann Thomas Schmidt, 
Saxon court painter ; travelled in Italy and 
France ; became court painter in Dresden . 
in 1775 ; visited Russia and different Ger- 
man cities. Member of Dresden Academy 
in 1795. Works : Assembly of Princes in 
Pillnitz (1791); Princess Augusta of Saxony 
(1783), Dresden Gallery ; Pastel Portraits 
of Napoleon, Suwaroff, Nelson, Archduke 
Charles, and others. Nagler, xv. 343. 

Stuttgart in 1808. History painter, pupil 
in Stuttgart of J. G. von Milller, in Munich 

of Cornelius, and in Paris of Ingres. Pro- 
fessor at Stuttgart Art School. Works : 
Annunciation to the Shepherds (1839) ; 
Mary and St John at Christ's Tomb (1844); 
Judgment of Christ (1861), Stuttgart Mu- 
seum ; Resurrection (1864). Muller, 471. 

Grafenworth, Nether Austria, Sept. 25, 1718, 
died at Krems, June 28, 1801. History 
painter, first instructed by his father, a 
sculptor, then studied after the great mas- 
ters. Several of his works may be seen at 
the Vienna Academy, and in the Gallery at 
Gratz. Mayer, Der Maler M. J. Schmidt 
(Vienna, 1879). 

SCHMIDT, MAX, born in Berlin, Aug. 
23, 1818. Landscape painter, pupil of Ber- 
lin Academy and of Karl Begas, Karl Kril- 
ger, and Wilhelm Schirmer. Travelled in 
Turkey, Palestine, and Egypt in 1843-44 ; 
visited the Ionian Islands in 1847, Rome in 
1853, Italy arid England in 1861 and 1870. 
Became professor at Weimar Art School in 
1868, and at Ki'migsberg Academy in 1872. 
Member of Berlin Academy. Gold medals, 
Berlin, 1858, 1868 ; Medal, Vienna, 1873 ; 
Orders of Crown, Red Eagle, and White 
Falcon. Works : Schwarza Valley, Berlin 
Art Union ; Evening in Provence (1850) ; 
Four Periods of the Day (1852) ; Seraglio 
Gardens (1853); Moonlight on the Sea, and 
Forest Scene (I860) ; View of Nice (1861) ; 
Terracina (1863) ; Wood and Mountain 
(1868), Spree in Sultry Weather (1877), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Woodland Soli- 
tude (1871), Approaching Storm on Amber 
Coast East Prussia (1878), Konigsberg 
Museum ; Coast near Smyrna, Schack Gal- 
lery, Munich ; Swamp, Cologne Museum ; 
Tempest on the Sea, Rostock Museum ; 
Pastoral Scene, Dantzic Museum. In fres- 
co : Scenes in Egypt and Greece, New Mu- 
seum, Berlin. Jordan (1885), ii. 203 ; Mul- 
ler, 472 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 328. 

at Rotterdam, April 12, 1819 (?), died at Delft, 
June 1, 1849. Genre, history, and portrait 
painter, pupil of G. de Meyer. Travelled in 



Germany in 1840 ; became professor at 
Delft, Academy in 1842. Works : Portrait 
Group of Young 
Ladies, Wealth 
and Poverty, Mar- 
riage Contract 
(1838); Monk 
comforting Sick 
Woman (1839); 
Children's School, 
Confession (1840); 
Last Moments of 
a Monk (1842); 
Monks in Meditation, Einilie of Nassau, 
daughter of William the Silent, Eotterdam 
Museum ; Charles V. receiving the Extreme 
Unction, Ravene Gallery, Berlin ; De Pro- 
fuudis (1845), Cologne Museum; Dutch 
School Room, New Pinakothek, Munich. 
Immerzeel, iii. 70 ; Kramm, v. 1480. 

Frankfort, April 18, 1830, died in Vienna, 
Sept. 2, 18G3. Animal painter, self-taught ; 
went about 1850 to Diisseldorf, in 1856 to 
Carlsruhe, in 1857 to Berlin, visited Italy 
in 1860-G1, and settled in Vienna. Painted 
especially horses. Gold medal, Brussels, 
1861. Works : Tartar Horses in Snow 
Storm (1863), Gsell Gallery, Vienna ; Thirsty 
Cattle, ib. ; Transportation of Hungarian 
Mares, Raveno Gallery, Berlin ; Shying Ox- 
en (1864) ; Roman Cattle-Drivers (1868 ?) ; 
Hungarian Horses shying before Upset Ve- 
hicle, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Tartar Horses 
shying before Dead Horse. Wurzbach, 
xxx. 327 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, ix. (Mitthei- 
lungen, ii. 23). 

SCHMITZ, ADOLF, born in Cologne; 
contemporary. History painter, pupil of 
Stiidel Institute, Frankfort ; formed himself 
after French and Belgian masters. Works : 
Christ and Judas, The Widow's Mite (1854) ; 
Emperor Henry HI. challenging Henry I. of 
Lorraine ; Bishop John of Speier protecting 
the Jews ; Emperor Max on the Martin 
Wall. In fresco : Entry of Princess Isabella 
into Cologne in 1235, Legend of Marsilius, 
St. John's Festival in Cologne (after Pe- 

trarch), Gtirzenich Saal, Cologne ; Dance of 
Elves in Titania's Dream, Pringsheim Man- 
sion, Berlin. Miiller, 472. 

nich, June 16, 1846. History painter, pupil 
of Munich Academy, and in 1864-67 of Pi- 
loty ; lived for several years in Italy, greatly 
influenced by his sojourn in Rome. Works : 
Last Moments of Mother of Louis XIV. 
(1867) ; Nymph and Satyr, Charles V. at 
VaUadolid (1869) ; Venetian Banquet (1870) ; 
Audience in the Munich Grottenhof (1871) ; 
Van Dyck painting Children of Charles I. 
(1876) ; Duel on the Sea (1877) ; Venus and 
Cupids (1878), Leipsic Museum ; Journey 
of Charles V. to San Tuste ; Unlike Spouses 
(1881) ; Sick Actress (1882) ; Cycle of Bac- 
chus (1883), Banquet Hall in the Drachen- 
burg near Konigswinter on the Rhine. 
Miiller, 473 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 59, 307 ; 
xix. 183 ; xx. 704 ; Leixner, Mod. K., i. 105. 

at Mentz in 1754, died there in 1839. Land- 
scape and portrait painter, pupil of Franz 
Josef Heideloff (1676-1772), but mostly 
self-taught by careful study of nature ; 
worked in Mannheim, Erfurt, and Mentz ; 
also painted altarpieces. Works : Wood 
Landscape by Moonlight, Darmstadt Mu- 
seum ; Old Castle on a Rock on the Rhine, 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Night Scene in 
the Woods (1786), Oldenburg Gallery. His 
brother Georg was also a good landscape 
painter. N. Necrol. der D. (1839). 

sailles, May 15, 1788, died in Paris, March 
15, 1870. History and genre painter, pupil 
of David, later of Regnault, Gros, and Ge- 
rard. Early abandoned the classical school, 
and going to Italy after 1824 painted scenes 
from the life of the people with much suc- 
cess. Member of Institute, 1837 ; appoint- 
ed director of the French Academy in Rome 
in 1840 ; lived in Paris in 1847-52 ; again 
director in Rome in 1852-66 ; L. of Honour, 
1825 ; Officer, 1843 ; Commander, 1866 ; 
Knight of the Papal Order of St. Gregory 
in 1847. Works : Good Samaritan, Jere- 



iniah weeping over Ruins of Jerusalem 
(1819) ; Gypsy Woman telling the Fortune 
of Sixtus V. (1820) ; replica (1829), Raczyn- 
ski Gallery, Berlin ; Inundation ; Pasture in 
Roman Campagna ; Brigand's Wife fleeing 
with her Child ; Brigand's Wife Asleep ; 
Girl confessing to a Hermit ; Wounded 
Guelph, Costumes of Nettuno (1825) ; 
Italian Women before a Madonna ; Battle 
of the Trebia ; Sleeping Pilgrims ; Women 
Bathing in Lake Nemi ; Family of Peas- 
ants ; Neapolitan Peasants ; Women Har- 
vesters listening to a Song by a Shepherd ; 
Battle at the Hotel de Ville, July 28, 1830 ; 
Sack of Rome in 1527 ; Eudes raising the 
Siege of Paris in 886, Battle of Cerisoles, 
Esther and Mordecai, Monks reading 
Prayers to Pisan Shepherds (1837) ; Pro- 
cession of Crusaders, Modern Good Samar- 
itan, Young Greek (1838) ; Mass in the 
Country ; Peasants listening to a Pifferaro ; 
Incident of the Sack of Aquilea by Attila, 
Young Woman weeping over her Dead Hus- 
band ; Girhj, dressing after a Bath ; Funei-al 
of a Young Martyr ; Woman Bathing ; Rest 
in Egypt ; Death and the Woodsman ; Con- 
tadina Praying ; Saint recalling a Child to 
Life ; Capuchin Physician ; Pifferaro's Les- 
son ; Jeremiah ; Goatherd's Betrothed ; 
Woman Asleep in a Vineyard ; Battle of ! 
Senef, Versailles Museum ; St. Genevieve j 
(Notre Dame de Bonne Nouvelle). Revue 
des Deux Mondes (1855), x. 749 ; Larousse. 

Neustadt, Bavaria, Sept. 24, 1782, died in 
Munich, Oct. 1, 1861. Animal painter, pu- 
pil of Augsburg Academy. Works : Par- 
tridges, National Gallery, Berlin ; Dead Fowl 
(3), Vulture killing Dove 
(1860), New Pinakothek, 
Munich; Foreign Birds, 
Schleissheim Gallery. Jordan (1885), ii. 

HANN VETT (Veit Hans), born at Schnee- 
berg in 1764, died in Leipsic, April 30, 
1841. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of Leipsic Academy under Oeser, went in 

1788 to Konigsberg, where through Oeser's 
recommendation he was soon known MS a 
drawing master and portrait painter, but re- 
turned to Leipsic in 1790, painted minia- 
tures, afterwards historical pictures, and il- 
lustrated the works of prominent authors. 
Visited Vienna and Paris in 1802, was made 
instructor at the Leipsic Academy in 1803, 
and professor and director in 1816. Works : 
Healing of the Sick by the Disciples, MalePor- 
trait, Leipsic Museum. Brockhaus, xiv. 450 ; 
Nagler, xv. 399; N. Necrol. der D. (1841). 

LIUS, Ritter, 
born in Leipsic, 
March 26, 1794, 
died in Dresden, 
May 24, 1872. 
History and land- 
scape painter, son 
and pupil of Jo- 
hann Veit Schnorr 
von Karolsfeld, 
whom he assisted 
when a mere boy ; 
then pupil of Vienna Academy, but studied 
especially after the early German and Italian 
masters. Went in 1817 to Florence and in 
1818 to Rome, where he became one of the 
German brotherhood of the Pre-Raphaelites 
under the leadership of Cornelius and Over- 
beck, and painted some of the frescos in the 
Villa Massimi in 1822-27 ; visited Sicily, and 
in 1827 went to Munich as professor at the 
Academy ; executed several monumental dec- 
orations in the Konigsbau (1842), and in 
1846 went to Dresden as professor at the 
Academy and director of the Gallery. Vis- 
ited London in 1851, and was induced by 
Buusen to resume his formerly planned 
work of illustrating the Bible, which has 
made his name popular in England. Mem- 
ber of many Academies. Grand Cross of 
Order of Albrecht ; Knight of Order pour 
le merite ; Order of Michael, etc. Works : 
St. Roch giving Alms (1817), Leipsic Mu- 
seum; The Erl-King, Schack Gallery, 
Munich ; Visit of Zachariaa to Holy Fain- 



ily (1817), Visit of Ananias (1865), Con- 
version of Saul (1867), Dresden Gallery; 
Kuth and Boaz, Hamburg Art Union ; 
Christ and the Children, Naumburg Cathe- 
dral ; Marriage at Cana (1819), formerly 
Lord Cathcart, Scotland ; Madonna (1820), 
Cologne Museum ; Vigne near Olevano 
(1821); Poet of the Nibelungen Lied, 
Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; Domine quo 
vadis ? Basle Museum ; Marriage of Sieg- 
fried and Chrimhilde, Siegfried's Farewell, 
Eight Scenes from Ariosto's Roland, Carls- 
ruhe Gallery ; Scene from Nibelungen Lied 
(1830), New Pinakothek, Munich; Luther 
in Worms, Maximiliaueum, ib.; Death of 
Barbarossa (1832) ; Good Samaritan (1833), 
Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort. In fresco : Cycle 
from Ariosto's Eoland (1822-27), Villa Mas- 
simi, Rome ; Cartoons for do., Carlsruhe 
Museum ; Sketches for do., Leipsic Muse- 
um. Encaustic : Cycle from Nibelungen 
Lied (1830-50), do. from Lives of Charle- 
magne, Frederic Barbarossa, and Rudolf von 
Hapsburg (1835-42), 
Kouigsbau, Munich ; 
two Cartoons for Ni- 
belungen Cycle (1863), 
National Gallery, Ber- 
lin. Art Journal 
(18G5), 72; (1872), 
204 ; Forster, iv. 223 ; v. 91, 428 ; Graph. 
K, i. 59 ; Illustr. Zeit. (1872), i. 469 ; Jor- 
dan (1885), ii. 204; Kugler, Kl. Schr., iii.; 
Kunst-Chrouik, vii. 332 ; ix. 745 ; xiii. 249 ; 
Land und Meer (1872), No. 40 ; Nagler, xv. 
404 ; Riegel, D. Kunststud., 210 ; Springer, 
Gesch., 80 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, ii. 1, 285. 

WIG FERDINAND, born in Leipsic, Nov. 
11 (Oct. 11 ?), 1789, died in Vienna, April 
30 (13 ?), 1853. History painter, brother of 
preceding, pupil of his father and of Vienna 
Academy, but studied chiefly Raphael and 
Michelangelo ; visited in 1834 Munich, Tyr- 
ol, Switzerland, and Paris, and in 1837 
Dresden, Weimar, and North Germany ; be- 
came member of Vienna Academy in 1835 
and custodian of the Belvedere Gallerv in 

1841. Works : Knight watching through a 
Window a Lady writing (1808), Gotha Mu- 
seum ; Mephistopheles appearing to Faust 
(1818), Madonna (1828), Gretchen in Prison 
(1834), Vienna Museum ; Golo and Gene- 
vieve (1820) ; Huntsman-Lover Listening 
(1820), Gotha Gallery ; The Erl-King, Lore- 
ley (1821) ; Coalition of Austrians and Tyr- 
olese under Chasteler (1822) ; The Tyrolese 
under Andreas Hofer (1830), Ferdinandeum, 
Innsbruck ; Christ before Caiaphas (1831) ; 
Maid of Orleans (1834) ; Liberation of Peter 
(1836) ; Finding of the Cross ; Christ Feed- 
ing the Four Thousand (1839) ; Tristan and 
Isolde ; Old Man in Mediaeval Costume, 
Dresden Museum. Andi-esen, v. 311 ; Nag- 
ler, xv. 415 ; Wurzbach, xxxi. 55. 

SCHOBELT, PAUL, born at Magdeburg, 
March 9, 1838. German school ; history 
and genre painter, pupil of Dtisseldorf, Ber- 
lin, and Brussels Academies, then in Paris 
of Gleyre and in Berlin of Schrader ; went 
in 1863 to Rome, where he has since resided. 
Works : Grave-Digger Scene in Hamlet 
(1860); Creation of Eve ; Neapolitan Marri- 
age Suit ; Flora with Genii of Spring ; Venus 
and Bellona (1879), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Rape of Proserpine (1882). Jordan (1885), 
ii. 207 ; Miiller, 474 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 88. 

SCHODL, MAX, born in Vienna in 1834. 
Genre and still-life painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Friedliinder ; visited Paris, 
London, and Italy. Medal, Vienna, 1873. 
Works : At the Hotel, Tea (1869) ; Antiqui- 
ties, Dessert (1870) ; do., and Before Masked 
Ball ; Fish, Lobster (1871). Wurzbach, xxi. 

MUK, born in Vienna in 1779, died there, 
Jan. 26, 1853. Landscape painter, self- 
taught, with Claude Lorrain and Poussiu for 
his models ; member of Vienna Academy in 
1813; visited Italy in 1817. Works: Ca- 
puchins burying Friar, Interior of Italian 
Church (1830), View in Moravia (1829), 
View of Traun Falls (1830), Vienna Museum ; 
Landscape, Griitz Gallery. Nagler, xv. 420; 
Wui'zbach, xxxi. 70. 



SCHOEFF, J., flourished at The Hague 
about 1640-60. Dutch school ; landscape 
painter, whose style suggests the manner of 
Jan van Goyen, but even more of Pieter 
Molyn and Joris van der Hagen ; bought the 
freedom of the city at The Hague in 1641. 
Works: W T ood Landscape with Wanderers 
(1651), Schweriu Gallery ; one (1641), A. 
Bredius, Amsterdam ; River Landscape 
(1649), Van Gel- 
der, The Hague ; 
two (dated), Pro- 
fessor Lemcke, %*/ . /*^A | 
Aix-la-Chapelle. I O 3 I 

Schlie, 576; Zeitschr. f. b. K., vii. 175, 
354 ; xvi. 60 ; xvii. 128. 

born iu Brussels about 1665, died there (?). 
Flemish school ; landscape painter, pupil of 
A. F. Boudewyns in 1682 ; master of Brussels 
guild in 1690, its dean in 1692-94. Works : 
Landscapes with figures (2), Louvre ; Prom- 
enade of the Fattened Ox, Fish Market, 
Brussels Museum ; Village Kirmess, Berlin 
Museum ; View of St. Cloud, Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Fruit Market, Fish Market, Stock- 
holm Museum ; Landscape with Figures, 
Uffizi, Florence. Fotis, Cat. Brussels Mas., 
447 ; Kramm, v. 1482 ; Michiels, ix. 345. 

at Amsterdam, July 11, 1824. History and 
genre painter, pupil of Petrus Jacobus 
Greive. Works : The Widow of Oldenbar- 
neveldt imploring Mercy of Prince Maurice 
for her Son (1855) ; Cornells do Witt com- 
pelled to Annihilate the Eternal Edict (1857) ; 
Lady Jane Grey seeing her Husband led to 
the Scaffold ; Plaucius the Inventor of Sea 
Charts (1861) ; Preparations for the Jour- 
ney ; Morning Walk, Sunday Morning, Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam ; Stable with old Hunts- 
man by his Dead Horse, Museum Fodor, ib. 
SCHOLTZ, JULIUS, born at Breslau, 
Feb. 12, 1825. History painter, pupil of 
Konig in Breslau and of Dresden Academy 
under Julius Hiibner. Visited Belgium and 
France ; painted portraits in St. Petersburg 
for several mouths ; settled in Dresden, where 

he is professor at the Academy. Member of 
Berlin Academy. Gold medal, Berlin. Works: 
Old Woman Praying 
(1850) ; Choir Boy 
(1854) ; Officer's Wid- 
ow with her Children 
at Church (1859), New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Uhland's " Three Men 
crossed over the 
Rhine ;" Episode of 
the Italian War (1859); 
Last Banquet of Wal- 
lenstein's Generals (1861), Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; Volunteers of 1813 before Frederick 
William IV., Breslau Art Union ; replica 
(1872), National Gallery, Berlin. In fresco : 
Life of Duke Albert, Albrechtsburg, Meis- 
sen. Jordan (1885), ii. 208 ; Kaulen, 87. 

at Worms iu 1810, died at Munich in 1868. 
Genre painter, pupil of Munich Academy in 
1832, took up painting in 1838, having at 
first (since 1826) practised lithography at 
Darmstadt and Carlsruhe ; painted especial- 
ly night scenes by lamp- and fire-light, after- 
wards also social political problems, in which 
he displayed a subtle knowledge of human 
character. Works: Girl Reading; Going to 
Church iu the Berner Overland ; Domino 
Players (1845) ; Sunday Morning in Black 
Forest (1846), Darmstadt Museum ; Con- 
versation in Peasant Room (1849), New Pi- 
nakothek, Munich ; Return of the Soldier 
(1857); Scene from Rebel's Karfunkel ; 
Southern Emigrants iu North German Port ; 
Artists' Union (with 50 portraits). Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1840-45) ; D. Kuustbl. (1850-57) ; 
Dioskuren (1860). 

SCHON, MARTIN. See Schongauer. 

lau, near Vienna, about 1770, died atMentz 
in 1847. Landscape painter, pupil of Vien- 
na Academy under Wutky. Visited Bohe- 
mia and Switzerland ; resided some time in 
Italy, and went to Paris in 1804. Lived in 
Vienna, but travelled often in Germany, Hol- 
land, Belgium, and England. Member of 



Amsterdam Academy. Works: Sunset on 
Bay of Bairn (1804), Museum, Vienna ; Snow 
Mountains over an Alpine Lake, Waterfall, 
Czernin Gallery, ib.; Waterfall of Terni, Jo- 
anneum, Gratz ; Four Periods of the Day, 
Vienna; Sunset (1810), do. by the Sea 
(1817), Lonely Lake, Waterfall at Noon, 
Moonlight Night by the Sea (1812), View of 
Florence at Sunset, do. by Moonlight, Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Falls of the Ehine near 
Schaffhausen, Schleissheim Gallery. Wurz- 
bach, xxxi. 128. 

enna, Oct. 4, 1832, died at Hirschstetten, 
near Vienna, Feb. 21, 1877. History paint- 
er, pupil of Vienna Academy, of Rahl, and 
of Fiihrich ; copied afterwards in Italy the 
old masters, especially Giorgione and Titian ; 
lived in Rome in 18G2-72 and returned to 
Vienna. Works : Godfrey of Bouillon lay- 
ing down his Arms at Holy Sepulchre (1852) ; 
Bishop Ambrose and Emperor Theodosius 
(1859) ; St. Augustine and the Boy (18G4) ; 
Tasso's Leonora (1867) ; Life and Art (1870). 
Kunst-Chronik, xiii. 546 ; Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xvii. 789 ; Wurzbach, xxxi. 142. 

Dresden in 1809, died in Munich in 1845. 
Architecture painter, pupil of Dresden 
Academy. First painted theatre decora- 
tions ; went to Munich in 1830, devoted 
himself to architecture painting, and trav- 
elled for sketches in Germany, Italy, Swit- 
zerland, Austria, and Holland. Medireval 
German buildings were his favourite sub- 
jects. Works : Old Butcher's Quay in 
Strasburg (1840), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Market-Place of Basle (1839) ; Cathedrals 
of Bacharach, Limburg, and Erfurt. 
Nagler, xv. 471. 

born at Biberach, March 23, 1609, died in 
Augsburg about 1680 (1695?). German 
school. History and landscape painter, pupil 
of Johann Sichelbein, afterwards studied 
in Rome, and after his return worked at 
Lyons, Munich, Bamberg, Salzburg, Vienna. 
Works : Assumption, Augsburg Cathedral ; 

Crucifixion, Wurzburg Cathedral ; Recon- 
ciliation of Jacob and Esau, replica, and 
Gideon watering his Flocks, Sacrifice of 
Minerva, Vienna Museum ; Shepherd's Fes- 
tival, Battle of the Giants, Two Musical 
Parties, Dresden Gallery ; Last Judgment, 
Brunswick Gallery ; Seleucus and Antiochus, 
Oldenburg Gallery ; Sacrifice to Diana, 
Schleissheim Gallery. Kugler (Crowe), ii. 
528 ; Nagler, xv. 469. 


called Hipsch 
Martin or 
Martin Schiin, 
born at Col- 
mar about 
1446, died 
there, Feb. 2, 
1488. Ger- 
man school. 
History and 
portrait paint- 
er, probably 
pupil of Rogier van der Weyden in Flanders. 
Was the greatest German painter and en- 
graver of the 15th century. Works : Ma- 
donna of the Rose Hedge (1473), St. Mar- 
tin's, Colmar ; two Altar- Wings with Annun- 
ciation, Museum, ib. (the 16 panels in the 
Museum attributed to him are probably by 
his scholars) ; Nativity, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; do., Vienna Museum. None of the 
works in the Louvre, Madrid, and Brussels 
Museums, and in the National Gallery and 
South Kensington Museum, London, are 
authenticated. Academy >* . . -, 
(1880), ii. 335 ; Allgem. J Y \ LL ^ 
Zeitg. (1880), Nos. 129, JL fc+ 
156 ; L'Art (1881), iii. /V5> /4Q0 
272; Cli. Blanc, Ecole V 

allemande ; Dohme Iii. ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1859), iii. 257, 321; (1881), "xxiii. 95; 
Heideloff, K. des Mittelalt. in Schwaben, 
117 ; Jahrb. der kongl. preuss. Kunst- 
sammlg., iv. 131 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 134 ; 
D. Lit. Zeitg. (1881), 20 ; Mt-nard, L'Art 
en Alsace-Lorraine, 72 ; Repert. f. K., vii. 
31, 167; Schnaase, viii. 391; Woltmann, 



Kunst im Elsass, 226 ; W. & W., ii. 104 ; 
Wurzbach, Martin Schongauer (Vienna, 
1880) ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, i. 258; xvi. 74; 
xxii. 34. 

at Lengefekl, Saxony, Aug. 15, 1824. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Dresden Academy un- 
der Julius Htlbner, then studied in Rome. 
Professor at Dresden Academy. Works : 
Raising of Tabitba by Peter (1855), Dresden 
Gallery ; Christ's Return, Church in Losing, 
Saxony ; Christ on the Mount of Olives, 
Altai-piece, Cherson, Russia. Mailer, 475. 

tigheim, Wilrtemberg, in 1852. Landscape 
and architecture painter, pupil of Kurtz in 
Stuttgart and of Adolf Lier in Munich ; 
travelled in Italy and Holland. Professor 
in Carlsruhe in 1880. Medal, Munich, 
1879. Works : Italian Coast Study ; Fish- 
ers' Return ; Dantzic Fish Market ; Har- 
bour of Genoa ; Rotterdam ; Ostend Canal ; 
Suabian Imperial City ; Venetian Fishing 
Boats (1871), Hamburg Gallery ; Harbour 
of Ostend (1879) ; View of Flushing at Low 
Tide (1881), Dresden Museum ; Evening 
near Dordrecht, Stuttgart Museum ; Spring 
in Suabia, High Water in the Neckar (1884). 
MUller, 475 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xxi. 
808 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 380 ; Zeitschr. f. 
b. K, xix. 158 ; xx. 72. 

SCHONMANN, JOSEF, born in Vienna, 
April 19, 1799, died there, May 26, 1879. 
History painter, pupil of Vienna Academy, 
which sent him to Rome in 1832. Honorary 
member of Accademia dei Virtuosi, Rome, 
in 1838 ; member of Vienna Academy in 
1848. Works : Death of Dido (1822) ; Hec- 
tor calling Paiis to Battle (1828); Holy 
Family (1833), Vienna Museum ; St. Jo- 
seph (1835), S. Antonio, Trieste ; Portrait 
of Count Franz Saurau, Joanneum, Griitz. 
In fresco : The Great Prophets, Altlerchen- 
feld Church, Vienna. Wurzbach, xxxi. 167. 

SCHONN, ALOIS, born in Vienna, March 
11, 1826. Genre painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Fuhrich and Leander Russ. 
Went through the Italian campaign of 1848 

and the Hungarian War ; studied in Paris 
in 1850-51 ; then travelled in Syria, Egypt, 
Nubia, and Arabia, returning homo by way 
of Italy, and visited Hungary in 1856. Gold 
medal in Berlin ; medal in Munich ; Order 
of Franz Joseph. Works : Return from 
Skirmish at Poute Tedesco (1848) ; Hun- 
garian Family returning Home after War 
(1849) ; Evening on the Nile (1852) ; De- 
parture of Tyrolese Students from Vienna 
in 1848 (1864), Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; 
Gypsy Camp (2, 1857), Coburg Gallery, 
Vienna ; Storming of Lodrone (1850), On 
the Coast of Genoa (1872), Museum, ib. ; 
Goose Market in Cracow (1869), Academy, 
ib. ; Scene in Persecution of Jews (1870) ; 
Festival in Capri, Fish Market at Chioggia, 
do. in the Ghetto at Rome (1871) ; Scene 
before Wine Depot in Monte Testaccio 
(1882) ; Market in Bosnia, do. in Tunis 
(1883). Wurzbach, xxxi. 98 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xvii. 261 ; xviii. 510 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
iv. 259 ; vi. 213 ; viii. (Mittheilungen, i. 40). 
SCHOOL OF ATHENS, Raphael, Cam- 
era della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome ; fresco, 
arched top, H. 16 ft. x 26 ft. 8 in. The 
Triumph of Science ; companion to the 
Dispute of the Sacrament, which represents 
the Triumph of Religion. A vast portico, 
the arcades of which are pierced with niches 
filled with statues ; those in front, Apollo 
and Minerva ; in the centre, Plato, with Aris- 
totle beside him, is expounding to disciples 
standing around, while Diogenes lies on the 
steps, with Aristippus passing him talking 
to Epicurus ; at left, on steps, Aleibiades, 
Xenophon, and others, listening to Socra- 
tes ; below them, Pythagoras, with his wife 
Theano, his son Telauges, and his pupil 
Archytas, Anaxagoras standing, Heraclitus 
sitting alone, and Democritus or Epicurus 
by base of pillar ; at right, on steps, Pyrrho, 
Arcesilaus, and others, and below them Ar- 
chimedes (portrait of Bramante) teaching 
geometry, and Ptolemy and Zoroaster stand- 
ing beside Raphael and Perugino. Painted 
in 1511. Called also Philosophy. Studies 
in Albertine College, Vienna, and Louvre ; 



cartoon in Ambrosian Library, Milan. Va- 
sari says the fresco represents the union of 
Theology and Philosophy through Astron- 
omy, and points out St. Matthew in the 
so-called Pythagoras. Giorgio Mantovano 
(1560) engraved it under the title of St. 
Paul disputing with Stoics and Epicureans. 
It has also been said to represent St. Paul 
preaching at Athens. Engraved by Volpato ; 
G. Ghisi. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 331 ; Mlintz, 

Frederick Watts, Dining Hall of Lincoln's 
Inn, London ; fresco, H. 40 ft. x 45 ft. The 
great legislators of the world, Confucius, 
Moses, Justinian, and others, thirty-three 
figures in all, grouped in a manner obvious- 
ly inspired by Eaphael's School of Athens. 
A grand work, allied in conception and 
drawing to the Eoman and in colour to the 
Venetian school. It is surpassed in size 

School of Athens, Raphael, Camera della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome. 

327 ; Passavant, ii. 79 ; Springer, 172 ; Kug- 
ler (Eastlake), ii. 428 ; Perkins, 123. 

SCHOOL, EVENING (De avondschool), 
Gerard Don, Amsterdam Museum ; wood, 
H. 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft, 4 in. The teacher, seat- 
ed behind a table at left, is talking, with 
his left forefinger raised ; in his front, a 
boy, his figure lighted by the flame of a can- 
dle on the table and a lantern on the floor, 
is leaning over a book ; other pupils in fore- 
ground at left, and in background; above, 
a curtain, draped to right. G. van der 
Pot sale, Rotterdam (1808), 17,500 francs. 

among modern works only by Cornelius's 
Last Judgment, at Munich. Portfolio 
(1870), 66. 

SCHOOL OF LOVE. See Cupid, Edu- 
cation of. 

SCHOOL, TURKISH (Ecole turque), 
Alexandre Drcamps, Fodor Museum, Am- 
sterdam ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 3 ft. In- 
terior, with the turbaned pedagogue seated 
on a divan and the children disposed in va- 
rious groups. Painted in 1846 ; formerly 
in collection of Marquis Maison ; acquired 
in Paris, 1857. Decamps painted a similar 



subject in water-colour, Salon of 1842. His 
Turkish School Dismissed (Sortie de 1'ecole 
turque) was sold at Comtesse Lehon sale 
(1861) for 34,000 francs. 

Antwerp in 1650, died in Vienna, 1726. 
Flemish school ; portrait and history paint- 
er, pupil of Erasmus Quellinus ; went early 
to Koine and thence to Vienna, where he 
became court painter to Leopold I., and, on 
account of his skill as a portrait painter, 
was invited to England. He also lived at 
The Hague, Amsterdam, and as court paint- 
er at Dllsseldorf, whence he returned to 
Vienna on the death of the Elector John 
William. He was one of the boldest man- 
nerists of his time, and not without merit in 
painting the nude. "Works : Narcissus, Girl 
with Bird, Old Woman with Basket, do. 
with Book, Artist's Portrait, Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Job and his Wife (1710), Augs- 
burg Gallery ; St. Jerome, St. Sebastian, 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg. Michiels, 
v. 93 ; Nagler, Hon., i. 502. 

SCHOOTEN, JORIS VAN, born in Ley- 
den about 1587, died after 1650. Dutch 
school ; history and portrait painter, pupil 
of Coenracl van der Maes at Leydeu ; paint- 
ed large archery pieces full of character and 
expression, good colouring, and chiaroscu- 
ro ; also a few biblical subjects in an Ital- 
ianized style. Works : Adoration of the 
Magi, Amsterdam Museum ; Allegory on 
Plague in Leyclen, 1574 (1643), Tabula Ce- 
betis (1624), Group Portraits of Officers of 
Archers' Company (7, 1626-28), Captains of 
Civic Guard (1650), Leyden Museum. 
Kramm, v. 1491 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 357 ; 
Kiegel, Beitriige, i. 127. 

SCHOPF, JOSEF, born at Telfs, Tyrol, 
Feb. 2, 1745, died at Innsbruck, Sept 15, 
1822. History painter, pupil of Martin 
Knoller in 1768 ; was in 1776-83 in Rome, 
where he was influenced by Raphael Mengs ; 
then settled in Innsbruck, but visited many 
places to paint frescos. Occasionally men- 
tioned in Goethe's essays. Monument 
erected to him at Telfs in 1875. Works : 

Madonna, Coronation of the Virgin, Christ 
on the Cross, John the Baptist, Venus with 
the Dove, Figure Study, Artist's Portrait, 
three other Male Portraits, Ferdinandeuui, 
Innsbruck ; St. Benedict, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Evening in the Campagna ; Horace 
Reading (1790), Lord Bristol ; Christ on 
the Cross, Cathedral of Brixen. In fres- 
co: Transfiguration, and others, Benedic- 
tine Church, Aschbach; Assumption, Church 
in Brunecken ; do., St. John Neponiuk's 
Church, Innsbruck ; do., Serviten Church, 
ib.; and many other Tyrolese churches. 
Kuust-Chronik, xi. 125 ; Wurzbach, xxxi. 

SCHOPFER, HANS, the younger, born 
in Munich, died in 1610. German school ; 
history painter, son of a painter of same 
name. He became Bavarian court painter. 
His works are sometimes attributed to Hans 
Schiiufelin and Albrecht D(lrer. Works by 
Hans the elder : Margrave Philibert of 
Baden (1549), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
do., Germanic Museum, Nuremberg; Duke 
Frederick of Bavaria (1546), Duchess Hel- 
ena (1547), Schleissheim Gallery ; Female 
Portrait (1540), Hohenzolleru Museum, Sig- 
maringen. By Hans the younger : Hans 
Kaspar von Pienzenau (1558), Germanic 
Museum, Nuremberg ; Countess Euphro- 
syne von Oettingen (1569), Regina von 
Lamberg (1569), Anna Schellenberg (1571), 
Anna von Frauenberg (1580), Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Altarpieces for Church of the Pil- 
grimage, Ramersdorf, near Munich. Nag- 
ler, Mon., iii. 587. 

SCHOREEL. See ftcorel. 

SCHORN, KARL, born in Diisseldorf, 
Oct. 17, 1800, died in Munich, Oct. 7, 1850. 
History painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy, of Cornelius in Munich, of Gros and 
Ingres in Paris in 1824-27, and from 1832 
of Wach in Berlin. Settled in Munich, 
where he was made professor at the Acad- 
emy in 1847, and visited Italy. Orders of 
Red Eagle and St. Michael. Was the father- 
in-law and master of Karl Piloty. Works : 
Mary Stuart and Rizzio ; Salvator Rosa 



among Robbers (1835) ; Charles V. in Con- 
vent of San Yuste ; Card Players (1837), 
and Pope Paul III. before Luther's Picture 
(1839), National Gallery, Berlin ; Initiation 
of Young Monk, Puritans in Camp, Raczyn- 
ski Galley, ib.; Italian Brigands Praying ; 
Cromwell before Battle of Dunbar, Kon- 
igsberg Museum ; Anabaptist Prisoners be- 
fore Bishop of Mtinster (1843-45) ; 
The Flood (1845, unfinished), 
New Pinakothek, Munich. In fres- 
co : Arcades of Royal Garden, Mu- 
nich. Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 37; Leix- 
ner, Mod. K, i. 101. 

born at Dordrecht, 
Nov. 11, 1787, died 
there, Dec. 22, 1838. 
Marine painter, pupil 
of A. Meulemans and 
Martinus Schouman ; 
created great enthusi- 
asm with his first pict- 
ures in 1818, and be- 
came one of the best 
marine painters of his 

time. Member of Antwerp, Brussels, Ghent, 
Amsterdam, and Berlin Academies. Works : 
Marines (3), Coast View, Museum, Amster- 
dam ; do. (2), Fishermen's Huts in the 
Downs, Museum Fodor, ib. ; Stormy Sea, 
Hague Museum ; View of Moerdyk, Agitat- 
ed Sea, Rotterdam Museum ; Dutch Coast, 
Berlin Museum ; Agitated Sea, Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; do., Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Rising 
Storm near Sea Coast, New Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Departure of French from Dordrecht 
in 1814, Bombardment of Algiers in 1810 
(with Schouman ). Immerzeel, iii. 75 ; 
Kramm, v. 1493 ; Kugler, Kl. Schr., iii. 

at Dordrecht, Aug. 19, 1808, died at Dres- 
den, July 23, 1865. Marine painter, son 
and pupil of preceding, in whose footsteps 
he followed successfully ; studied also much 
from nature, in France, Germany, and Bel- 
gium ; became professor at the school of 
navigation at Medemblyk in 1830, and re- 

moved to Dttsseldorf in 1856. Member 
of Amsterdam and Rotterdam Academies. 
Many prizes, medals, and orders. Works : 
Calm Sea with many Vessels, Ghent Muse- 
um ; Leaving Roadstead of Texel in Stormy 
Weather ; The Willem Sluice near Amster- 
dam, Agitated Sea, Museum, Amsterdam ; 
Harbour of Bath in Stormy Weather, Muse- 
um Fodor, ib. ; Shipwreck near Kykduin 
North Holland (1847), Konigsberg Muse- 
um; Agitated Sea with Boats, Schwerin Gal- 
lery. D. Kunstbl., 1853 ; Immerzeel, iii. ; 
Kramm, v. 1493. 

SCHOULTZ, EMMA VON, born in Rus- 
sia ; contemporary. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Friedrich Kraus in Berlin. 
Works : Interesting Reading (1866) ; The 
Artist and her Mother (1868) ; Composer's 
Children ; Visit of Condolence (1871); Story 
of the Field ; Quartering of Soldiers on the 
Retreat. Mtiller, 476; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
vi. 173. 

drecht, baptized Jan. 31, 1770, died at Breda, 
Oct. 30, 1848. Marine painter, pupil of Mi- 
chiel Versteeg, and afterwards of his uncle, 
Aart Schouman (1710-92). Works : Explo- 
sion of Gunboat near Antwerp, Expedition 
to Palembang Sumatra, Amsterdam Mu- 
seum ; Tempestuous Sea (2), Haarlem Mu- 
seum ; Marine, Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; 
Departure of French from Dordrecht, Bom- 
bardment of Algiers (with Schotel). Im- 
merzeel, iii. 78 ; Kramm, v. 1495 ; Cotta's 
Kunstbl, 1827, 1838. 

SCHRADER, JULIUS, born in Berlin, 
June 16, 1815. His- 
tory painter, pupil of 
Berlin Academy and 
under W. Schadow of 
Diisseldorf Academy ; 
visited Italy in 1845 
-47, also England, 
Holland, and Belgi- 
um. Became profes- 
sor at Berlin Acad- 
emy in 1848. Medals in Berlin (2), Paris 
i (2d class, 1855), Weimar, and Vienna (1873). 



Several orders. Member of Berlin, Vienna, 
and Dresden Academies. A great master 
of colour ; his pictures are brilliant out- 
wardly, but sometimes wanting in deeper 
feeling. Was the first Berlin artist to be 
influenced by the Belgian colourists, Gallait 
and De Biefve. Works : Cenci before Greg- 
ory VII. (1844), Dantzic Museum ; Attempt 
to poison the Emperor Frederick II. ; Sur- 
render of Calais to Edward HI. (1847), 
Parting of Charles I. (1855), Esther before 
Ahasuerus (1856), Portrait of Consul Wa- 
gener (1856), Homage of Berlin and Co- 
logne (1874), National Gallery, Berlin ; Bac- 
chus Asleep (1846), Bacchante playing with 
Panthers, Ravene Gallery, ib.; Frederick 
the Great after Battle of Kolin (1849), Leip- 
sic Museum ; Wallenstein and Seni (1850) ; 
Jephthah's Daughter (1850), Konigsberg 
Museum; Leonardo da Vinci's Death (1851) ; 
Children in Prayer (1852), Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; Milton and his Daughters (1855) ; 
Cromwell at the Death-Bed of his Daugh- 
ter (1859), Cologne Museum ; Lady Mac- 
beth walking in her Sleep (1860) ; Queen 
Elizabeth signing Mary Stuart's Death- War- 
rant ; Mary Stuart's Last Moments ; Shake- 
speare as a Poacher before the Judge, 
Stuttgart Museum ; Adoration of the Magi 
(1884) ; Portrait of Cornelius (1864), do. of 
himself (1865), do. of Dagobert von Oppen- 
heim, Cologne Museum ; do. of the Art His- 
torian Friedrich Eggers (1873), Schwerin 
Gallery ; Portraits of Humboldt, Rauke, 
and Moltke. In fresco : First 12 Christian 
Monarchs, Royal Chapel, Berlin ; Consecra- 
tion of St. Sophia, New Museum, ib. Jor- 

dan (1885), ii. 209 ; Wolfg. Mtiller, Diisseldf. 
K, 155: Mttller, 476; Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 147 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iv. 19 ; v. 
121 ; vi. 106 ; xx. 95. 

born at Obersdorf, Algau, in 1813. History 
and genre painter, brother and pupil of Jo- 

liann Schraudolph, then at Munich Acad- 
emy under Heinrich Hess ; went with Fors- 
ter to Italy, to make designs after antique 
frescos, then painted in Munich frescos in 
the Basilica and All Saints' Chapel, at Ath- 
ens in the royal palace, and at Speyer in 
the cathedral, for which he had meanwhile 
made studies in Italy, whither he accompa- 
nied his brother in 1844. Afterwards joined 
the Benedictine Order. Nagler, xvL 11. 

younger, born in 
Munich in 1843. 
History and genre 
painter, son and pu- 
pil of Johann Schrau- 
dolph, and of Munich 
Academy under Hein- 
rich Hess. Lived in 
Dresden in 1865; 
fought in the cam- 
paign of 1866, and in 
Franco-German War (1870-71). Became 
director of Stuttgart Art School in 1883. 
Medal, Munich, 2d class, 1883. Works: 
St. Elizabeth distributing Bread ; Munich 
Brewery ; Pensive Maiden at Piano ; Easter 
Procession from Faust ; Quartet on Vene- 
tian Terrace ; Dolce far niente ; Decorative 
Paintings in Munich houses. Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xxi. 809 ; Reber-Pecht, iii. 290. 

Oberstdorf in Al- 
giiu in 1808, died 
May 31, 1879. His- 
tory painter, pupil 
of Munich Acad- 
emy under Schlott- 
hauer and Corne- 
lius. Helped paint 
the frescos of many 
Munich buildings ; 
went to Rome in 

1844 ; after his return decorated the ca- 
thedral at Speyer. Orders of St. Michael, 
Maximilian, and Bavarian Crown. Works : 
Two Pictures with Hovering Angels, Basle 
Museum; Peter's Catch of Fish (1865), 



Christ healing the Sick (1862), Ascension, 
Madonna and St. John, Mary and Mary 
Magdalen at Golgotha (1863); St. Agnes 
and Lamb (1842), Madonna and Child 
(1840), Two Pictures of Hovering Angels, 
New Pinakothek, Munich. In fresco : Por- 
tions of Glyptothek, Munich ; All Saints' 
Church, ib.; Basilica, ib.; Decoration of the 
Cathedral (1846-53), Speyer. Kunst-Chro- 
uik, xiv. 616. 

SCHREYER, ADOLF, born in Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, May 
9, 1828. Animal 
painter, pupil of Stil- 
del Institute, Frank- 
fort ; studied the horse 
in the riding-school 
and anatomically, then 
in Stuttgart, Munich, 
and Diisseldorf ; trav- 
elled in 1848 with 
Prince Thurn and 
Taxis through Hungary, Wallachia, and 
Southern Russia ; accompanied the Austri- 
ans on the march through the Dauubian prin- 
cipalities in 1854 ; visited Syria and Egypt 
in 1856, Algiers in 1861 ; lived in Paris un- 
til 1870, when he settled at Krouberg, near 
Frankfort ; lives alternately there and in 
Paris. Member of Antwerp and Rotterdam 
Academies. Medals : Brussels, 1863 ; Paris, 
1864, 1865, 1867 ; Munich, 1876 ; Order of 
Leopold, 1866 ; court painter to Grand 
Duke of Mecklenburg, 1862. Works : Ar- 
tillery attacked by Prussian Hussars (1854), 
Ravene Gallery, Berlin ; Wallachian Trans- 
portation Train in Rainy Weather, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Battle near Waghiiusel, 
Baden, in 1849 (1858), Cannon drawn up 
Steep Hill (1861), Schwerin Gallery ; Cos- 
sack Horses (1864), Charge of Artillery ol 
Imperial Guard (1865), formerly in Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Battle of Komorn ; Prince 
Thurn and Taxis wounded at Temesvar 
Cuirassiers' Attack in Battle on the Moskwa. 
1812 ; Horses on the Puszta ; Wet Day in 
Moldavia ; Travelling in Russia ; Wallachian 
Peasants crossing Ford ; Wallachian Stable 

on Fire ; Tunisian Cavalry (1883). Works 
n United States : Arabs Resting, Arabs Re- 
peating, W. H. Vanderbilt, New York ; 
Sorses at Fountain, Abd-el-Kader leaving 
lonstantinople, J. J. Astor, ib. ; Wallachian 
Teamsters, Watering-Place, William Astor, 
b.; Arabs on March, Desolation, Miss C. 
LJ. Wolfe, ib. ; Wallachian Team, Halting- 
Place, August Belmont, ib.; Winter in 
Wallachia, J. H. Stebbins, ib.; Noon Rest, 
R. Hoe, ib. ; Cossacks in Snow, M. Graham, 
ib. ; Wallachian Team in Snow, W. Rocke- 
feller, ib.; Russian Inn, T. R. Butler, ib.; 
Alarm, J. W. Drexel, ib.; Danger, M. K. 
Jesup, ib.; Burning Stable, D. O. Mills, 
ib.; Horses at Fountain, C. P. Huntington, 
ib. ; Travelling in Russia, Attack, C. S. 
Smith, ib.; Wallachian Teamsters, H. V. 
Newcomb, ib.; Arabs in Desert, Samuel 
Hawk Collection, ib. ; Gypsy Boy -with 
Horse, L. Tuckerman, ib. ; The Halt, H. C. 
Gibson, Philadelphia ; Cold Day, Retreat, 
L'Embourbe Plains of Hungary, W. T. 
Walters, Baltimore ; Watering-Place, Cor- 
coran Gallery, Washington. In the Morgan 
sale, New York, 1886, were sold : Wallachian 
Pack-Horses ($4,300), Arab Scout ($3,500), 
Wallachian Post Station ($1,150), Arab at 

Fountain ($3,100). Ulustr. Zeitg. (1865), 
i.; Gaz. des B. Arts (1864), xvii. 369 ; (1865), 
xviii. 511 ; (1867), xxii. 540 ; Kaulen, 91 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 37 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
viii. (Mittheilungen, i. 59). 


SCHRODL, ANTON, born at Schwechat, 
near Vienna, in 1825. Animal and land- 
scape painter, probably studied in Vienna ; 
visited Styria and Upper Austria. His works, 
marked by careful execution, are to be found 
in many private collections. Works : Storm 



on the Lake, View near Hallstadt (1851) ; 
Animals Besting (1855) ; Hungarian Puszta 
(18G2), Count Edmund Zichy ; In the Sta- 
ble (1870) ; Sheep and Booster, Dead Stag, 
Dog Besting, Pheasants and Partridges, Sta- 
ble Interior at Leopoldsdorf (1872). Mai- 
ler, 478 ; Wurzbach, xxxi. 344. 

SCHBODL, NOBBEBT, born in Vienna 
in 1842. Genre and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Jacob Becker ; paints with ingenious 
treatment ideal figures and portraits ; has 
also attempted historical subjects, landscapes 
and animal pieces. "Works: Symbolical 
Figures of Night and Day ; Bape of the Sa- 
bine Women ; Four Illustrations of " Who 
does not love Wine, Woman, and Song?" 
(1879). Bosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 320. 

SCHEODTEB, ADOLF, born at Schwedt, 
in the Uckennark, 
June 28, 1805, died 
in Carlsruhe, Dec. 9, 
1875. Genre painter, 
pupil of his father and 
of Berlin Academy, 
and in 1829 of W. 
Schadow in Diissel- 
dorf. Went to Frank- 
fort - on - the - Main in 
1848, returned to 

Dilsseldorf in 1854 ; called to Carlsruhe as 
professor in 1859, retired in 1872. One of 
the happiest representatives of humour in 
German art. Works: Wine Testing, (1822), 
Bhenish Tavern (1833), Don Quixote (1834), 
Scene from Shakespeare's Henry V. (1839), 
Forest Smithy (1841), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Till Eulenspiegel as Baker, Baveue 
Gallery., ib.; The Seasons, Primeval Forest 
iu Brazil, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Baron Miin- 
chausen relating his Hunting Adventures 
(1842), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Scene from 
Till Eulenspiegel (1844), Kiinigsberg Mu- 
seum ; Don Quixote and his Dul- 
cinea (1858), Diisseldorf Gallery ; 
Falstaff in Tavern (1859), besides 
other pictures of the same charac- 
ter ; subjects from Milnchausen and Till 
Eulenspiegel ; Two Monks in Convent Cel- 

lar (18G3) ; Hans Sachs (18GC) ; and numer- 
ous illustrations for books. Kunst-Chronik, 
xi. 289 ; Jordan (1885), iL 210 ; Blanckarts, 
93 ; Nagler, xvi. 24 ; Beber, ii. 239 ; Land 
und Meer (1875), ii. 935. 

Schkeuditz, Prussian Saxony, March 21, 
1795, died in Berlin, Oct. 18, 1835. Genre 
painter, pupil of Leipsic and Dresden Acad- 
emies, and of Pochinann. Beturned to Leip- 
sic in 1819 ; lived by portrait painting until 
he took to genre, on advice of the elder 
Schnorr, and settled in Berlin in 1826. 
Works : Violin Lesson (1828), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Mother and Daughter Spin- 
ning ; Auction of a Painter's Effects (1832) ; 
Jewish Family Besting (1834) ; Village School 
(1835). Jordan (1885), ii. 211 : Nagler, xvi. 

SCHBOTZBEBG, FBANZ, born in Vien- 
na in 1811. Portrait painter, pupil of Vi- 
enna Academy ; influenced by Karl Marko. 
Visited Italy in 1837, Germany and Belgium 
in 1842, and later Italy again, Paris, and 
London. Very fashionable painter for many 
years ; has been called the Austrian W r inter- 
halter. Member of Vienna Academy ; Franz 
Joseph Order. Works: Leda and Swan 
(1839), Vienna Museum ; Empress Elizabeth 
of Austria, Duchess Therese von Wtlrtem- 
berg, Archduchess Mathilde of Austria 
(1867), New Pinakothek, Munich ; and nu- 
merous other portraits. Wurzbach, xxxii. 
18 ; Mtlller, 478. 

BOVICH, born in St. Petersburg in 1791, 
died at Sorrento in 1830. Landscape paint 
er, pupil of St. Petersburg Academy under 
Ivanoff and Worobieff. Visited also Ger- 
many and Italy. Works : Colosseum, Lake 
Nemi, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 

Hamburg, June 28, 1820. Genre painter, 
pupil in Munich of Cornelius and Heinrich 
Hess in 1836-42. Studied in Borne in 1847- 
48 ; settled in 1855 in DUsseldorf, where 
he was influenced by Jordan. Works : Por- 
trait of the painter Gttnther Gensler (1854), 



Hamburg Gallery ; Eepentant Son ; Twelve 
o'clock ; Meeting of old Friends ; New 
Schoolmaster ; Grandfather telling a Story; 
and similar subjects ; an Altarpiece Christ 
on the Mount of Olives (1857). Miiller, 479. 

enna in 1824, died there in 1853. History 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy. Works : 
Romeo and Juliet (1850); Death of the 
Prince of Orange ; Fisher ; Radt von Haps- 
burg showing his Soldiers to his Brother 
(1852), Vienna Museum. Wurzbach, xxxii. 

Dessau, Nov. 10, 1806. History and land- 
scape painter, pupil in Dessau of Beck, then 
of Dresden Academy and of Munich Acade- 
my under Cornelius and Schnorr ; went in 
1833 to Florence, 1834 to Rome, visited Or- 
vieto in 1836, Naples in 1838, went back to 
Dessau in 1839, to Munich in 1840, visited 
Venice in 1845, and, invited by Cornelius, 
settled in Berlin in 1850. Made professor 
by Duke of Anhalt-Dessau in 1863. Works : 
Jacob and Rachel, Parable of the Great Sup- 
per, Parable of Rich Man, Allegory of Faith, 
Love, and Hope (1834-39); Paul in the 
House of Peter in Jerusalem ; Fall of Man 
(1846); Feeding of the Five Thousand 
(1848) ; Solomon's Judgment (1853), Court 
House, Dessau ; Invention and Power of 
Music, Cycle Concert Hall, ib.; Entomb- 
ment, and Resurrection (1866), Schloss- 
kirche, ib. ; Christ on Mount of Olives ; 
David and Jonathan (1865); Sacrifice of 
Manoah (1872) ; Paul at the House of Lydia ; 
Peter and Tabitha; Hagar and Ishmael. 
Andresen, ii. 262 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 

born in Prague, Aug. 15, 1834. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of Leutze in Diissel- 
dorf in 1857, of Antwerp Academy in 1860- 
61, and of Cogniet in 1861-62. Lived in 
Italy in 1863-66, in Paris until 1870 ; then 
went to Brussels, where he became a friend 
of Czermak, and next settled in Dresden. 
Works : Tristan and Isolde (1870) ; Lucre- 

zia Borgia and a Venetian Lady ; A Por- 
trait Painter (Jubilee Exhib., Berlin, 1886). 
MiiUer, 479. 

SCHUCH, WERNER, born at Hildes- 
heim, Hanover, Oci 2, 1843. Landscape 
and genre painter, self-taught. Was at first 
an architect, and in 1870 professor of archi- 
tecture in Hanover. Began painting in 1872, 
copying in Dresden Gallery, and sketching 
in Tyrol and Italy. Studied also in Diissel- 
dorf in 1877. Gold medal, Berlin, 1886. Pro- 
fessor. Works : On the Look-Out ; Heath ; 
In Time of Dire Distress (1876), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Robber Knights in Am- 
bush (1877), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Quack, 
Hanover Gallery ; Gustavus Adolphus' Body 
taken to Wolgast ; Ride for Life or Death ; 
Silent Cloisters ; Song is Over ; Flight of 
Croats ; Peacebreaker, Wiesbaden Gallery ; 
Footpads (1880) ; Landscape with brown 
Heather (1881), Dresden Museum ; Swed- 
ish Recruiters (1882), KOnigsberg Museum ; 
Going into Winter Quarters, Close to the 
Enemy (1884) ; On Evil Ways (1885). Jor- 
dan (1885), ii. 212 ; MCiller, 480 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xvii. 380, 735 ; xviii. 213 ; Kunst 
f. Alle, i. ; Leixner, Mud. K, ii. 101 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., xx. 42. 

in New York, May 14, 1855. Genre painter, 
pupil of William Morgan and J. G. Brown 
in 1875-78. Exhibited at the National 
Academy since 1877. Studio in New York. 
Works : Song without Words (T. B. Clarke, 
New York) ; Nydia Last Days of Pompeii 
(1879) ; Accident at the Circus (1880) ; Fair 
Client (1881) ; Fisherman's Children (1882) ; 
Signing the Marriage Contract, Christmas 
Eve (1883) ; Turned Away, Evening (1884) ; 
Gather ye Rosebuds, Out in the Snow 
(1885) ; Dreaming of the Sea, Before the 
Curtain (1886). 

SCHUFRIED, DOMINIK, born in Vienna 
in 1810. Landscape painter, pupil of Vi- 
enna Academy. Works : Ruins of Guten- 
stein (1838) ; Mountain Landscape (1848) ; 
Peasant Family near Gutenstein (1856), Vi- 
enna Museum. Wurzbach, xxxii. 136. 



SCHUHLEIN (Schtlchlin), HANS, flour- 
ished in Ulm about 1468-1502. German 
school ; history painter, probably a scholar 
of B. van <ler Weyden, and a master of high 
repute in Ulm, where he appears as senior 
master of a guild of painters, sculptors, etc., 
in 1473 ; he executed an altarpiece, with his 
pupil Zeitblom, now in a private collection in 
Hungary. Works : Altarpiece with Nativ- 
ity, Adoration, etc. (14G9), Church at Tiefen- 
bronn, Wtirtemberg; Ysiclor and Susanna, St. 
Servatius (2), David with Head of Goliath, 
Zacharias and Elizabeth, Munich Gallery ; 
Anna and Cleopas, Schleissheim Gallery ; 
six Altar-Wings, Maurice Chapel, Nurem- 
berg ; others in Augsburg Gallery and 
Stuttgart Museum. Ch. Blanc, Ecole alle- 
mande ; Dohme, li. ; Heideloff, K. des Mit- 
telalt. in Schwaben, 117 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 
145 ; Schnaase, viii. 421 ; W. & W., ii. 110. 

SCHULTEN, ARNOLD, born at Dilssel- 
dorf in 1809, died there, July 30, 1874. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Diisseldorf 
Academy in 1822-49, and with Scheuren, 
Lasinsky, Pose, Funk, and others, formed 
the school of landscape painters, which, un- 
der the guidance of Johann Wilhelm Schir- 
mer, contributed essentially to the renown 
of the Rhenish Academy. Works : Land- 
scape with Hunting Lodge (1831), Ab- 
bey of Altenburg (1831), Kloster Arnsteiu 
(1833), Entrance into Plain, Woodland 
(1834), do. with Cattle (1837), Return from 
the Chase (1840), Stag Hunt (1841), Kochel 
Lake (1842), Tegernsee (1843), Laacher 
Lake (1844), Brook among Rocks (1847), 
Pyrmont on the Elz (1848), View near Wal- 
lenstadt Lake (1852), Rhenish- Westphalian 
Art Union ; Isola Bella in the Lago Mag- 
giore, Villa Rosenstein near Stuttgart. 
Blanckarts, 72 ; Wiegmann, 352. 

many ; contemporary. Battle and genre 
painter, lives in Berlin ; skilful in composi- 
tion, but weak in colouring. Works : Zie- 
then Hussars foraging (1854); Frederick 
the Great iu Battle of Torgau ; do. in Bat- 
tle of Hoheufriedberg ; Peter the Great 

after the Battle of Poltava (1859); Bivouac 
in 17th Century ; Prince Henry and the 
Bridal Pair (1862); Cupid and Psyche 
(1863); Crossing to Alsen ; The first Bomb- 
shell at Kdniggriitz ; King William decorat- 
ing the Crown Prince with the Order pour 
le merite on the Battlefield of Kouiggriitz. 
Dioskuren (I860), 33, 255, 332, 341; 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 294. 

at Wittstock, Prussia, in 181(5. History and 
genre painter, pupil in Berlin of Wach and 
of Blechen ; painted frescos in the Old Mu- 
seum at Berlin after the sketches of Schin- 
kel, and four scenes from the Myths of Her- 
cules and Theseus of his own composition ; 
also in the Royal Chapel two Prophets, and 
twelve Kings and Priests of the Old Testa- 
ment. Among his genre pictures an Italian 
Woman with a Blind Boy before the Ma- 
donna is noteworthy. Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 40. 

Dantzic, May 5, 1801, died there, June 12, 
1873. Architecture and landscape painter, 
pupil of Dautzic Art School under Breysig, 
and of Berlin Academy under Hummel ; 
went in 1823 to Munich, attracted there by 
Domeuico Quaglio, and in 1824 to Italy, 
whence he returned to Berlin in 1828 ; was 
made director of Dantzic Art School in 
1831, member of Berlin Academy in 1836 ; 
visited Rome again in 1839 ; founded in 
1855 the Art Union and in 1856 the Ar- 
chaeological Union in Dautzic. Great gold 
medal for art. Honorary member of St. 
Petersburg Academy. Works : View in 
Milan Cathedral (1827), Steeple of do. 
(1829), National Gallery, Berlin ; Choir in 
Konigsberg Cathedral (1835), Royal Palace, 
ib.; replica (1837), Konigsberg Museum ; 
Castle Hohenzollern (6); Interior of Ulm 
Cathedral ; do. of Strasburg Cathedral ; 
View of Siena ; Piazza del Gran Duca ; Or- 
vieto Cathedral ; Triumphal Arch of Trajan 
at Ancona ; Street of Tombs in Pompeii ; 
Konigsberg Cathedral ; Artus Hof in Dant- 
zic. Andresen, ii. 141 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 



213 ; Kunst-Chronik, v. 153 ; vii. 307, 423 ; 
viii. 619 ; Land und Meer (1873), ii. 383. 

SCHULZ, JULIUS, born in Germany; 
contemporary. Hunt, landscape, and mili- 
tary genre painter ; lives in Berlin ; attrac- 
tive through his humorous touch. Works : 
Stag Hunt ; Winter Landscape with Hunts- 
men ; Cuirassiers on the March, Uhlans by 
Peasant Cottage, Koyal Palace, Berlin ; 
Drunken Cossack ; Prince Bliicher and 
Count Nostitz at Ligny. 

Selchow, Brandenburg, Nov. 2, 1796, died 
in Neu-Euppin, March 3, 1866. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Berlin Academy. 
Fought in the wars of 1814-15 ; travelled 
in Holland, France, and England in 1821. 
Became professor in Berlin in 1840 ; visited 
Munich in 1841, and studied glass painting. 
In 1847 went to St. Petersburg. Some- 
times called Jagd-Schulz, owing to his fond- 
ness for hunting scenes. Works : Cossacks ; 
Quartering of Troops (1828) ; English Brig 
on the North Sea at Cuxhaven (1831), Tem- 
pest on Sea off Calais (1831), Poachers 
(1831), National Gallery, Berlin ; Mouse- 
Trap Vender and Peasant Woman (1836), 
Weimar Museum ; Return from the Chase ; 
Deer in Forest ; Dead Birds (1834), Game 
Vender (1840), KOnigsberg Museum. Jor- 
dan (1885), ii. 213; Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 288. 

SCHULZ, LEOPOLD, born in Vienna in 
1804, died atHeiligenstadt, near Vienna, Oct. 
6, 1873. History painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy, then (1829) in Munich of Cor- 
nelius and Schnorr ; visited Italy in 1830- 
31, and after his return to Munich painted 
in the Kiinigsbau scenes from Hymns of 
Homer and Idyls of Theocritus ; returned 
to Vienna, where he became custodian of 
Count Lamberg's Gallery, and in 1844 cor- 
rector at the Academy. Works : The Chris- 
tian Heroes of the First Crusade (1835) ; 
Martyrdom of St. Florian (1837) ; Duke 
Ernest the Iron wooing Cimburgis of Mas- 
sovia (1850); Patron Saints of Austrian 
Monarchy (1853); Louis the Bavarian an- 

nouncing Liberation to Frederick the Fair 
(1851), Vienna Museum. Forster, v. 506 ; 
Wurzbach, xxxii. 183. 

Haus Amstel bei Neun, Diisseldorf, May 11, 
1831. Genre painter, pupil of Dusseldorf 
Academy and of Vautier ; studied for one year 
(1851) at Antwerp, then painted portraits in 
different cities, and settled at Dusseldorf in 
1871. Works: Copyist; Children's Car- 
nival ; Lost Honour ; In the Gentlemen's 
Room ; Differences ; For Examination ; 
Dainties ; Court Room Scene, Dusseldorf 
Gallery ; Captured Gypsies, Divine Service 
in the Country (Jubilee Exhib., Berlin, 
1886). Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 794 ; Land 
und Meer (1884), i. 499. 

CHRISTIAN), born at Doberan, Mecklen- 
burg-Schwerin, May 14, 1797, died at Dres- 
den, June 22, 1869. History painter, pupil 
of Rudolf Suhrlandt, but really self-taught, 
then studied at Dresden Academy in 1819- 
1821, and in Rome in 1821-25 ; visited Na- 
ples, Orvieto, Perugia, Florence ; after his 
return settled in Dresden, but was called to 
Schwerin by the Grand Duke in 1830 to 
paint frescos, became court painter, lived 
again in Dresden in 1852-55, 
returned to Schwerin, where 
he became blind, in 1863. 

Works : Hol y Famil y ( 1821 )> 

Adoration of the Magi (1826), 
Return of Henry the Pilgrim (1836), Battle 
at Gransee (1839), Departure of Henry the 
Pilgrim (1857), Gallery, Schwerin ; Henry 
the Lion (1842), The Three Faculties, 
Grand-ducal Palace, ib. In fresco : The 
Seasons, Loggia, ib. Andresen, ii. 121 ; 
Forster, v. 534. 

HEINRICH, born in Berlin, Aug. 8, 1767, 
died there, Sept. 27, 1827. History painter, 
pupil at Berlin Academy of Johann Chris- 
toph Frisch, went in 1795 to Italy ; became 
senator, and professor of anatomy at the 
Berlin Academy in 1801 ; professor of paint- 
ing in the royal gallery in 1815, and secre- 



tary of the Academy in 1816. Works : 
Burggrave Friedrich of Zollern surrender- 
ing the Emperor ; do. recognizing his Wife 
as Cavalry Leader (1800), Crossing of the 
Rhine at Caub by the Prussian Army (1826), 
Royal Palace, Berlin ; Julius Sabiuus taken 
Prisoner ; Meeting of Alexander and Napo- 
leon. N. NecroL der D. (1827), ii. 852 ; 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 43. 

VICH, born in Saratov in 1836. Genre 
painter, pupil of St. Petersburg Academy. 
Works : Unfaithful Peasant Woman ; Re- 
turn from the Ball ; Chimney Sweep ; Cook 
(1872) ; Blessing of the Bride (1874). 

Leipsic, Dec. 17, 1818, died in Dresden, 
March 10, 1874. History painter, pupil in 
Leipsic and in Dresden of Bendemann. 
Visited Italy ; settled in Dresden, where he 
became professor of the Academy in 1857. 
Works : Resurrection of Christ, altarpiece, 
Eppendorf ; Bishop of Speyer protecting 
Persecuted Jews (1851), Dresden Gallery ; 
Emperor Albrecht and Swiss Ambassadors 
(1842), Leipsic Museum ; crayon drawings 
of the masterpieces of Dresden Gallery. 
Kunst-Chronik, ix. 388. 

sace about 1824, died at Merchantville, N. 
Y., Aug. 21, 1879. History painter, pupil 
of Yvon in Paris. Settled in the United 
States in 1847 ; for eleven years director of 
the schools connected with the Pennsyl- 
vania Academy. Works : How we won the 
Battle ; Leisberger preaching to the Indians; 
Men of Progress ; King Solomon and the 
Iron Worker. Am. Art Rev. (1880), 46. 

born at Berthelsdorf, Saxony, May 9, 1824. 
History painter, pupil of Dresden Academy 
under Julius Htlbnerin, 1842-48 ; then 
lived in Munich, and since 1852 in Dresden. 
Works : Bravery of a Saxon Dragoon ; 
Storming of Great Redoubt at Battle of 
Borodino, Saxon Grenadiers repulsing 
French Cavalry after Battle of Jena (1862), 
Dresden Gallery. Mttller, 482. 

SCHUT, CORNELIS, the elder, born in 
Antwerp, baptized May 13, 1597, died there, 
April 29, 1655. 
Flemish school ; 
history painter, 
among the pupils 
of Rubens the one 
in whose works the 
master's style is 
most distinctly re- 
flected ; master of 
the guild about 
1619 ; with G. de 
Crayer, Liemaeckere, Stadius, and Theodor 
Rombouts decorated in 1635 the triumphal 
arches in Ghent for the entry of Prince 
Ferdinand. Frequently painted centre fig- 
ures for flower-wreaths by his friend Dan- 
iel Seghers. Works : St. Nicholas appear- 
ing to Emperor Constantino (masterpiece), 
Church at Willebroek, Brabant ; Martyrdom 
of St. George, Madonna in Glory, Purifica- 
tion, Museum, Antwerp ; Pieta, St. James's, 
ib. ; Coronation of the Virgin, Circumcision, 
Assumption, St. Francis Xavier among the 
Indians, do. in Japan, St. Charles's, ib. ; God 
the Father and Holy Ghost, Dead Christ, 
Resurrection of the Dead, St. Willebroed's, 
ib. ; Martyrdom of St. James, Brussels 
Museum ; Allegorical Representation of Cir- 
cumcision, Ghent Museum ; Alexander cut- 
ting the Gordian Knot, Lille Museum ; Chil- 
dren Playing in a Landscape, Rotterdam 
Museum ; Annunciation, Aschaffenburg Gal- 
lery ; Beheading of St. James, Bamberg 
Gallery ; Feast of Venus, Brunswick Gal- 
lery ; do., and Neptune and Venus, Dresden 
Gallery ; Vulcan in a Grotto, Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Hero and Leander, Madonna 
in a Garland, Vienna Museum ; Coronation 
of the Virgin, Copenhagen Gallery ; Tribute 
to Ca;sar, Stockholm Museum ; Adoration 
of the Shepherds, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. His nephew, Cornelis Schut, the 
younger, went to Spain with his father, an 
engineer in the service of Philip IV. ; set- 
tled in Seville, where lie was one of the 
principal founders of the Academy in 1660 



and its director ; died there in 1675 or 
1676 ; imitated Murillo. Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
flamande ; Kramm, v. 1500 ; Micbiels, viii. 
339 ; Booses (Reber), 272 ; Van den Bran- 
den, 757. 

elder, born at FlOrsheim, near Mentz, Sept. 
27, 1718, died in Frankfort, Dec. 6, 1791. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Hugo Schlegel 
in Frankfort (1731), then of Appiani. Long 
painted in fresco before devoting himself to 
landscape painting, in which he followed 
Saft-Leveu. His best pictures were painted 
between 1760 and 1775. Works: Rhine 
Views (10, one dated 1787), Architectural 
Pieces (3), Pilgrims by Ruins, View near 
Waterloo (1780), Views of and near Mentz 
(6), two others, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; 
Landscape with Figures, Interior of St. 
Bartholomew's in Frankfort, Bamberg Gal- 
lery ; Rhine Views (7), four others, Cassel 
Gallery ; Interior of Gothic Church (1769), 
View on the Neckar (1777), five others, 
Darmstadt Museum ; River Landscapes (3, 
1750, 1765), Market Day on the Romerberg 
in Frankfort (1754), Morning Landscape 
(1760), The Devil's Bridge on St. Gothard 
Road (1781), View of Aschaffenburg (1787), 
four others, Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
others in Amalienstift, Dessau, in Christi- 
ania, Gotha (4), Oldenburg (2), and Prague 
Galleries. His nephew and pupil, Christian 
Georg Schiitz, the younger (1758-1823), 
painted especially attractive Rhine Views, 
and was one of the founders of the Frank- 
fort Museum. In the Darmstadt Museum 
are, by him, five Landscapes (one dated 
1786) ; in the Schleissheim Gallery, four 
Rhine Views. Kugler (Crowe), ii. 565 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xix. 725 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
xv. 260. 

SCHUTZE, WTLHELM, born in Berlin 
in 1814. Genre painter, pupil of KlOber ; 
very successful in homely scenes of lively 
composition and good colouring. Works : 
Cellar with Students and Girls (1834) ; 
Game of Chess, Blind Man's Buff, Princess 
of Liegnitz ; Flower Girl (1838) ; Mother 

washing her Child (1854) ; Child's portrait 
(1880), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Hostile 
Inmates, Emil Caiman, New York. Cotta's 
Kunstbl., 1834-38 ; D. Kunstbl., 1854. 

DERIC, born at Strasburg, Sept. 8, 1825. 
Genre, landscape, and marine painter, pupil 
of Gleyre. Medals: 3d class, 1851; 2d 
class, 1861, 1863; L. of Honour, 1870. 
Works : Terpsichore (1861), Centaurs hunt- 
ing a Wild Boar (1864), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Judgment of Paris (1863) ; Head of 
St. John (1863), Count Nieuwerkerke ; 
Pygmalion embracing his Statue (1864) ; 
Rape of Europa (1865), Arras Museum ; 
Charlemagne learning to write (1867) ; The 
First Astronomer (1867) ; Roman Slaves, 
St. Simon Stylites (1868); Hero, Pope's 
Walk in the Campagna (1869); Bather, 
Souvenir of Italy (1870) ; Alsatian Family 
emigrating to France (1872) ; Boatwoman 
of the Rhine, Amazon (1874) ; Seven Capital 
Sins, Flight of Nero (1875) ; Joan of Arc 
hearing Celestial Voices (1876) ; Souvenir 
of Italy, Diana Bathing (1877) ; Ariadne 
Abandoned, Bather (1878) ; Potiphar's Wife 
(1879) ; The Gorgon (1880) ; Panel for the 
Mayor's Office in Rheims, Interview between 
Csesar and Ariovistus (1881) ; Souvenir of 
Alsace (1882) ; Callisto, Alsatian Gleaner 
(1883) ; Return of Ulysses, Rhine Fisher- 
men (1884) ; Huntsmen Drinking at Well, 
Bather (1885) ; Ulysses (1886). Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1881), xxiii. 510 ; Bellier, ii. 485. 

SCHUZ, THEODOR, born at Thumling- 
en, Wiirtemberg, March 26, 1830. Genre 
painter, pupil of Stuttgart Art School under 
Rustige, Neher, and Steinkopf ; went in 1854 
to Munich, and studied at the Academy un- 
der Piloty in 1857-63 ; visited Italy in 1858 
and Middle Germany in 1859, and settled 
in Diisseldorf in 1866. Works : Evening 
Bell (1857); Walk on Easter Morning (1858); 
Midday Rest during Harvest (1862); Amuse- 
ment in Vineyard (1869) ; Sunday Afternoon 
in the Village (1873) ; Evening Landscape 
in Harvest Time (1879) ; Village View (1883). 
Muller, 482 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 419. 



SCHWAIGER, HANS, born at Neuhaus, 
Bohemia, in 1854. Genre painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy and of Trenkwald ; paints 
in water-colours fairy and fantastic scenes 
with a burlesque humour. Works: Cycle 
of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales ; do. of Pied 
Piper of Hameln ; The Water Sprite (1880). 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, xvi. 236. 

SCHWALBE, OEEST. See Kiprenski. 

in Berlin, July 6, 1833. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Berlin Academy under Max Schmidt 
in landscape painting ; after a year and a half 
in Rome, went over to genre under Anton 
von Werner. Gold medal. Works : Broken 
Flowers (1874) ; Gypsy Woman (1875) ; 
Sweet Fruits, Slumber Song (1876). Mai- 
ler, 483. 

SCHWARTZ, FRANS, born in Copenha- 
gen, July 19, 1850. His- ,>^^ 
tory and genre painter, / 
pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy ; won the gold 
medal with his first pict- 
ure ; having travelled be- 
fore in foreign parts, vis- 
ited in 1878 Germany, 
Hollan d, Paris, North 
Italy, and Spain. Works : 
Job and his Friends ; In a Sick Room (1875); 
Christ healing the Sick (1876) ; Death of 
Jacob (1878). Sigurd Miiller, 309. 

SCHWARTZ, MARTIN, latter part of 
15th century. German school. He was a 
Dominican monk in Rothenburg, and paint- 
ed in the manner of Zeitblom. Some of 
his pictures have been attributed to Schon- 
gauer. Works : Small altarpiece with Christ 
Crucified, etc., St. Sebastian pierced with 
Arrows, Vienna Museum (both ascribed to 
Schongauer) ; four Altar- Wings with Annun- 
ciation, Nativity, Adoration of the Magi, 
Death of Mary, St. Maurice's Chapel, Nurem- 
berg; Christ Crucified and Saints, Parish 
Church, Schwabach, near ib. Nagler, Mou., 
iv. 675 ; Schnaase, viii. 432. 

Kursk, Russia, in 1838. Genre painter, 

pupil of St. Petersburg Academy and of 
A. Lefevre in Paris. Member of St Pe- 
tersburg Academy in 1865. Works : Con- 
ference of Foreign Ambassadors with Rus- 
sian Boyars ; Muscovite Ambassador to a 
Foreign Court ; A Strelitz ; Czar's Pilgrim- 
age. Mailer, 483. 

at Amsterdam, Oct. 20, 1814, died there, 
Aug. 27, 1874. Historical, genre, and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Leutze in Philadel- 
phia, whither he went with his parents early 
in life, then studied at the DOsseldorf Acad- 
emy in 1838-44 under Schadow, Sohn, and 
Lessing ; took Rembrandt for his ideal. 
Member of Amsterdam Academy in 1844. 
Great gold medal, Amsterdam, 1860. 
Works : Woman in Prayer, Amsterdam 
Museum ; Columbus before the Junta at 
Salamanca ; Michelangelo by the Body of 
Vittoria Colonna (1854) ; Waiting, First 
Divine Service of the Puritans in Amer- 
ica (1858). Cotta's KunstbL (1848) ; D. 
Kunstbl., 1851, 1858 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xvii. 795. 

sterdam, Dec. 20, 1852. Genre painter, 
daughter and pupil of preceding, and pu- 
pil of Gabriel Max. Works : Girl's Head 
(1873), He is coming ! (1882), Three Or- 
phans of Amsterdam (1885), Amsterdam 

Ingoldstadt in 1550 (?), died in Munich 
about 1597. German school ; history and 
portrait painter, pupil in Munich of Mel- 
chior Bocksberger ; formed himself chiefly 
in Venice after Titian and Tintoretto, and 
after his return became court painter to 
Duke William I. of Bavaria. He painted 
many altarpieces for churches in Munich, 
Augsburg, Landshut, Ingoldstadt, and other 
places, which are marked by good composi- 
tion and vigorous colouring, but the heads 
are mostly without expression. He also 
showed considerable skill in decorating in 
fresco many houses in Munich. Works : 
Descent from the Cross, Aschaffenburg Gal- 



lery ; Christ on the Cross, Male Portrait, 
Bamberg Gallery ; Pieta, Darmstadt Muse- 
um ; Christ on the Cross, Dresden Museum ; 
The Virgin with Infant in Cradle adored by 
Angels, Gotha Museum ; Christus Salvator, 
Mater Dolorosa, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; 
Madonna Enthroned, St. Jerome, St. Cath- 
arine, Artist's Family, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; St. Michael overcoming Satan, St. 
Michael's, ib.; Passion of Christ, and of the 
Prophets, Church at Ingoldstadt ; Christ 
before Pilate, Christ bearing the Cross (2), 
Christ on Mount Tabor, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery. - Gerstner, Gesch. von Ingoldstadt, 
195 ; Sighart, 707. 

MAETIN, nourished about 1480-1510. 
German school ; history painter. Works : 
Departure of the Apostles, Madonna and 
Saints, Bamberg Gallery ; Annunciation, 
Nativity, Adoration of the Magi, Death of 
the Virgin, Germanic Museum, Nurem- 

Carlsruhe in 1818, died in Eome in 1877. 
Landscape and architecture painter, pupil of 
Feodor, the Calmuck (court painter at Carls- 
ruhe in 1806, died there in 1821), then of 
Frommel, and in 1821 of Munich Academy. 
Works : View around Bay of Cattaro, Carls- 
ruhe Gallery ; Wooded Shore with Hunts- 
men in Boats (1844), Fiirstenberg Gallery, 
Donaueschingen ; View at Cervara near 
Eome, Schack Gallery, Munich. 

EICH) THEODOE, born at Konigsberg, 
April 7, 1819. History painter, pupil of 
Konigsberg Art School, then (1847) of Leip- 
sic Academy under Jiiger ; travelled in Ba- 
varia, Tyrol, and Salzburg. Works: St. 
Boniface (1854) ; Charlemagne and Witti- 
kind (1855) ; Ulrich von Hutten crowned 
Poet (1861). His brother Georg Karl (born 
Nov. 14, 1822) is also a history painter. 

in Vienna in 1803. History painter, pupil 
of Vienna Academy. Visited Munich and 
in 183.7 Eome. Became second custodian 

of Vienna Academy Gallery in 1844, and 
Irst custodian in 1861. Works : Finding of 
the Veil at Klosternenburg (1841) ; Ibycus 
calling the Cranes to avenge his Death, Vi- 
nna Museum ; do. (1869) ; David thanking 
God for his Victory over Goliath (1843) ; 
Parting of Siegfried and Chriemhild (1844) ; 
Chriemhild's Dream, Prophecy of the Mer- 
maids to Hagen ; Madonna (1858) ; Judith 
1859) ; Conversion of Wittikind ; St. Fer- 
dinand ; Five frescoes for the Chapel of the 
Vienna Insane Asylum. Wurzbach, xxxii. 

Vienna in 1804. Landscape painter, brother 
of preceding, with whom simultaneously pu- 
pil of Vienna Academy ; travelled in the Aus- 
trian provinces and Bavaria, whence most 
of his subjects are taken, and visited Italy. 
Works: Views on the Danube, in Styria, 
Tyrol, Bavaria, etc. (1832-71); Lago di 
Garda (1844) ; Sunrise over the Marchfeld, 
Vintage near Vienna, View of Briinn, do. of 
Witkowitz-Moravia, do. of Troppau, do. in 
Silesia, do. of Cracow, Hunt in Galicia 
(1868), Court Saloon of Northern Railway 
Station, Vienna. Wurzbach, xxxii. 367. 

Weimar, March 5, 1835, died there, Dec. 
16, 1866. History painter, son of and first 
instructed by the engraver Karl August 
Schwerdgeburth, then pupil of Friedrich 
Preller and (1856) of Antwerp Academy ; 
assisted Guffens and Swerts on the frescos 
in the Bourse and St. Nicholas's Church 
there, and in 1860 returned to Weimar. 
Works : Thomas Miinzer a Prisoner before 
the Princes in Frankenhausen ; Hathburg 
First Wife of Henry the Fowler ; Young 
Goldsmith's Masterpiece ; Salzburg Protes- 
tants' Last Look upon Home, Bremen Gal- 
lery ; Easter Promenaders from Goethe's 
Faust, Cologne Museum.- Kunst-Chronik, 
ii. 45. 

SCHWIND, MOEITZ VON, Bitter, born 
in Vienna, Jan. 21, 1804, died in Munich, 
Feb. 8, 1871. History painter, pupil in Vi- 
enna of Ludwig Schnorr and of the Acad- 



emy, then of Munich Academy (1828) under j 
Cornelius ; decorated in 1832-34 a room in 
the Konigsbau 
with encaustic 
pictures, in 1834 
-35 painted sixty 
compositions in 
water-colours for 
Castle Hohen- 
schwangau, visit- 
ed Rome in 1835, 
lived in Carls- 
ruhe in 1840-44, 
in Frankfort 

in 1844-47, and became professor at the 
Munich Academy in 1847 ; painted the fres- 
cos in the Wartburg in 1854-55, and those 
in the Vienna Opera House in 1864-67. 
One of the most eminent painters of mod- 
ern times, and the most gifted representa- 
tive of German romanticism. Member of 
Berlin, Vienna, Paris, and other Academies. 
Bavarian, Prussian, Saxon, and Greek Or- 
ders ; knighted in Austria in 1855. Works 
in oil : The Arts in the Service of the Ma- 
donna ; Triptych, Frauenkirche, Munich ; 
Riibezahl, Morning Hour, "Wedding Jour- 
ney, Crusader's Return, Knight and Hermit, 
Danube and Tributaries, Prisoner's Dream, 
Wiland the Smith, Hero and Leander, Erl- 
King, and twenty-five others, Schack Gal- 
lery, ib. ; Cycle of Pictures of Travel (19) ; 
Rhine and Tributaries, Raczynski Gallery, 
Berlin ; The Rose (1847), National Gallery, 
ib. ; The Elbe ; Knight Kurt's Wooing 
(1839), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Knight Falken- 
stein's Ride, Leipsic Museum ; Artist's Pil- 
grimage ; Rudolf von Hapsburg's Ride to 
Speyer, Kiel Gallery; Dance of Elves (1845), 
Minstrels' Contest at the Wartburg (1846), 
Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; A Symphony 
(1852), New Pinakothek, Munich ; St. Eliz- 
abeth's Glove (1856), Weimar Museum ; Cin- 
derella (3). Water-colours : Sketches for 
Cycle at Hohenschwangau (60) ; Legend of 
the Seven Ravens (14, 1857), Weimar Muse- 
um ; Legend of Melusine (11), Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Story of Cinderella (6, 1851-54); A 

Queer Saint ; St. Wolfgang and the Devil, 
Emperor Max on the Martin Wall, Vienna 
Academy. In fresco : Subjects from Tieck's 
Works (1833-34, partly encaustic), Scenes 
in Life of Rudolf von Hapsburg, Royal 
Palace, Munich ; Myth of Cupid and Psyche 
(1837), Castle RUdigsdorf, near Leipsic; 
Mythological Cycle (1839), Kunsthnlle, 
Carlsruhe ; Allegorical Figures (1839), As- 
sembly Room of the Estates, ib.; Life of St. 
Elizabeth (6), Cycle (6) from History of Thu- 
es to these in Weimar Museum) ; Paintings 
in church at Reichenhall (1863); Two Cycles 
from German Operas (1866), Opera House, 
Vienna. Brockhaus, xiv. 614 ; Forster, v. 
132 ; Ftthrich, M. v. Sch. (Leipsic, 1871) ; 
Holland, do. (Stuttgart, 1873); Mtiller, do. 
(Eisenach, 1873) ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1873), i. 
83 ; ii. 451 ; (1874), ii. 447 ; Jordan (1885), 
ii. 215 ; Kunst-Chronik, vi. 78 ; Graph. K., 
i. 9, 49, 77 ; Nord und S(id, iii. 353 ; xiv. 23 ; 
xv. 357 ; Pecht, i. 195 ; Reber, ii. 83 ; Re- 
gnet, ii. 215 ; Schack, Meine Gemaldesamm- 
lung (1884), 42 ; Springer, Gesch., 144 ; 
Wurzbach, xxxiii. 127 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
iv. 90 ; v. 129 ; vi. 253 ; vii. 29, 75, 97, 103 ; 
viii. 257 ; xi. 11. 

SCHWINGEN, PETER, born at Muffen- 
dorf in 1815. Genre painter, pupil of Dlis- 
seldorf Academy in 1832-45. Paints scenes 
of common life with much truth and a touch 
of satire. Works : St. Martin's Day among 
the Children of DUsseldorf (1837) ; Feast 
after drawing the Prize (1845) ; Shooting at 
Birds for a Pig (1844) ; Rich Uncle's Visit 
(1845) ; Subhastation (1846) ; Expectation, 
Duty on Bread (1847) ; The Distress is over 
(1848); Dentist (1849); Warrior's Return 
(1851) ; New Wine (1852). Wolfg. Mttller, 
Diisseldf. K, 301 ; Wiegmann, 333. 

SCHWOISER, EDUARD, born at Brfl- 
sau, Moravia, in 1827. Genre and history 
painter, self-taught. In 1857 changed from 
genre to history, and later took up monu- 
mental painting. Works: Mother Conva- 
lescent (1856); Albrecht von Hapsburg 
blessing his Son before Departure for Pales- 



tine (1855); Henry IV. at Canossa, Maxi- 
milianeum, Munich. Fresco: Tournament 
in Munich Market Place, and other histori- 
cal subjects, National Museum, ib. ; Decora- 
tions in Castles of Ludwig II. in Bavarian 
Highlands and on the Chiemsee. Miiller, 
484 ; Wurzbach, xxxiii. 194 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, iii. 196. 

SCIO, MASSACRE OF, Eugene Delacroix, 
Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 13 ft. 10 in. x 11 

Massacre of Scio, Eugene Delacroix, Louvre, Paris. 

ft. 6 in. ; signed. Scene after the massacre. 
In the foreground, Greek families, seated on 
the shore, await their fate ; among them are 
the dead and the dying, old men in despair, 
and young women doomed to slavery ; be- 
hind them, a Turk on a prancing steed is 
dragging at his horse's tail a nude young 
girl, who throws up her arms in a vain effort 
to hide her shame ; in the background, the 
city, with flames and smoke and scenes of 
violence. Salon, 1824; bought by State 
(G,000 francs) ; Exposition universelle, 1855. 

Engraved by Masson. Lithographed by 
Blanchard. Delacroix had never been in 
Greece when he painted this picture, which 
was one of his ablest protests against the 
classic school. Chesneau, CEuvre de Dela- 
croix, 30 ; Larousse, xiv. 404 ; Annales du 
Musee, Salon de 1824, i. PL 33. 

SCIPIO, CONTINENCE OF, illustration 
of the story told by Livy (xxvi. 50), Polyb- 
ius (x. 19), and others, that Scipio, after the 
capture of Carthagena in Spain, 
B.C. 210, won the gratitude of the 
Celtiberi by restoring to Allucius, 
a prince of their nation, his be- 
trothed, a beautiful young girl 
who had been adjudged to him- 
self as spoil of war. 

By Jan Brueghel, the elder, 
Munich Museum ; copper, H. 2 
ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. ; signed, dated 
1609. Scipio seated upon a throne 
in front of an open tent pitched 
at the foot of a mountain crowned 
with trees, with Allucius, the 
maiden, and her parents, who 
kneel, and are offering presents, 
in a semicircle before him ; near 
the tent are horses ; Roman sol- 
diers conduct prisoners, and on 
the left is seen the sea with the 
city of Carthagena. From Diissel- 
dorf Gallery. 

By Giulio Romano, National 
Gallery, London ; canvas, trans- 
ferred from wood, H. 1 ft. 2 in. x 
5 ft. Scipio, seated at the en- 
trance of his tent, surrounded by officers, ad- 
dresses the maiden standing before him as 
if to acquaint her with his intentions ; in 
background, the city of Carthagena. From 
the Orleans Gallery ; sold to Lord Berwick 
for 480 ; afterwards in Beaucousin Collec- 
tion, whence passed to National Gallery. 
Engraved by P. S. Bartoli. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. The Roman general, seated in the 
open air, indicates to Allucius, who inclines 
before him, that he may lead away his be- 



trothed, who places her hand on her heart 
to indicate her gratitude ; behind Scipio, a 
young woman is about to put a crown upon 
his head, while lictors and soldiers standing 
near express astonishment at his noble act 
Painted in Rome about 1643 (?) ; belonged 
to M. Merville, then passed to Sir Robert 
Walpole, Houghton House, whence acquired 
by the Empress of Russia for 30,000 francs. 
Engraved by Francis Legat (1784) ; Claude 
Dubose. Larousse, iv. 1086 ; Reveil. 

By Primaticcio (?), Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 
ft. 2 in. x 3 ft. 11 in. Scipio, at left, on an 

Continence of Scipio, Primaticcio, Louvre. 

elevated seat, surrounded by his soldiers, 
shows the young Allucius his betrothed, at 
right, accompanied by an aged woman ; two 
prisoners, one bearing a golden vase, are 
kneeling. Perhaps by Dubreuil. Villot, 
Cat. Louvre ; Landon, Musue, xii. PI. 14 ; 
see Reveil, xii. 864. 

Subject treated also by Sebastiano Ricci, 
Louvre ; G. Horst, Berlin Museum ; Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg; Franyois Lemoyne (1727), Nancy 

SCIPIO, TRIUMPH OF, Mantegna, Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; canvas, tempera, 
H. 2 ft. 4i x 8 ft. 10 in. Represents the in- 
troduction into Rome of the worship of Cyb- 

ele, 204 ac. At left, the image of the god- 
dess is borne on a litter by Phrygian priests ; 
in front, Claudia Quinta is kneeling, and 
behind her, P. Cornelius Scipio, Nasica, and 
other Romans and Asiatics are standing. 
Portfolio (1874), 1 ; Livy, L. xxix. 10 ; Ovid, 
Fasti, iv. 305. 

SCIUTI, GIUSEPPE, born at Catania, 
Sicily, contemporary. History painter, dis- 
tinguished for his characteristic and truth- 
ful representations from history and life of 
antiquity. Works : Musical Entertainment 
in Ancient Rome ; Burial of Tirnoleoii 
(1874); Pindar with the Olympian Gods; 
Sappho deserted by Phaou; Preparations 
for Greek Festival (1876). 

SCOREL (Schoreel, Schoorle), JAN VAN, 
born at Schoorl, 
near Alkmaar, 
Aug. 1, 1495, 
died at Haar- 
1 e m , or at 
Utrecht, Dec. 6, 
1562. Dutch 
school. Histo- 
ry, portrait, and 
landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Wil- 

lem Cornelisz in Haarlem (about 1509-12), 
of Jacob Cornelisz in Amsterdam, and of 
Mabuse in Utrecht ; afterwards studied per- 
spective and architecture at Cologne, and at 
Speyer with a priest, as also painting at 
Strasburg, Basle, and at Nuremberg with Al- 
brecht Dilrer, whom he left on account of the 
latter's strong adherence to Luther's teach- 
ings. He then worked inStyriaaudCarinthia 
(1520), and from Venice went to Jerusalem, 
returning whence he stopped in Rome and 
was appointed overseer of the Vatican Gal- 
lery by his countryman, Pope Adrian VI., 
after whose death he went back to Utrecht ; 
moved to Haarlem and taught there about 
1527, but soon returned to Utrecht. From 
his school issued Martin Heemskerk and 
Antonis Mor. Greatly influenced by his so- 
journ in Rome, he was the first Dutch paint- 
er in the Italian style ; his finest pictures 



were destroyed by the Iconoclasts. Those 
still existing are distinguished for vigorous 
conception, pleasing expression, a warm 
tone of brownish colour, and careful execu- 
tion. Of late attempts have been made to 
identify him with the Master of the Death 
of Mary. Works : Repose in Egypt, Por- 
trait of a Lady, National Gallery, London ; 
Magdalen, the Queen of Sheba, Bathsheba 
at the Bath, Adonis, Archery-Piece with 17 
portraits (1531), Amsterdam Museum ; Ma- 
donna, Portrait of a Gentleman, do. of a Boy 
(1531), Rotterdam Museum ; Fall of Man, 
Baptism of Christ, St. Cecilia, Portrait 
Group of 12 Knights Templars, City Mu- 
seum, Haarlem ; Crucifixion, Episcopal Mu- 
seum, ib.; Madonna, four Group Portraits 
of Knights Templars, Museum Kunstliefde, 
Utrecht ; two Altar- Wings with Christ Bear- 
ing the Cross and Resurrection, Altar with 
Scenes from Life of Moses, Portrait of Old 
Lady, Episcopal Museum, ib. ; Good Samar- 
itan, St. John's Hospital, Bruges ; Crucifix- 
ion (1530), Bonn Museum ; two Altar- Wings, 
Cologne Museum ; Female Bust Portrait, 
Diisseldorf Academy ; Portrait of Cornells 
Aerntsz van der Dussen (1550), do. of Agathe 
von Schoenhoven, Berlin Museum ; David's 
Victory over Goliath (attributed to Bron- 
zino), Dresden Gallery ; two Altar-Wings 
(attributed to Pourbus), Worlitz Gallery ; 
Male Portrait, Ambras Collection, Vienna ; 
Altar of Holy Kith and Kin (1520), Church 
at Ober-Vellach, Carinthia ; Portrait of a 
Boy, Bergamo Gallery ; Male Portrait (at- 
tributed to Bruyn), Turin Gallery ; Portrait 
of Agnes van Schoenhoven (1529), Doria 
Gallery, Rome ; St. Magdalen, Palermo Mu- 
seum ; Portrait of Young Man (about 1525), 
Warwick Castle, England ; do. (about 1545), 
Longford Castle, ib. Ch. Blanc, Ecole hol- 
landaise ; Immerzeel, iii. 73 ; Kramm, v. 
1485 ; Graph. K, vi. 91 ; Jahr- 
buch preuss. Kunstsammlg., 
ii. 193 ; Michiels, v. 150 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 168 ; xix. 112 ; xxi. 
365; W. &. W., ii. 536; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
xviii. 46 ; xxi. 83, 145. 

SCORZA, SINIBALDO, born at Voltag- 
gio, July 16, 1589, died in Genoa in 1631. 
Genoese school ; pupil of Carosio, an ob- 
scure painter in Voltaggio, afterwards of 
Giovanni Battista Paggi. Excelled in paint- 
ing landscapes, enlivened by human figures 
and animals. Painted in Turin from 1G19 
to 1625, when he returned to Genoa. Annun- 
ciation, Voltaggio. Soprani, 127 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole genoise. 

SCOTT, DAVID, born in Edinburgh, 
Oct. 10 (12?), 1806, died there, March 5, 
1849. History painter, educated as a de- 
signer and engraver, but finally devoted 
himself to painting. His first exhibited 
picture was The Hopes of Early Genius 
(1828). In 1829 he was elected an asso- 
ciate of the Scottish Academy ; in 1832 he 
visited Italy, and remained fifteen mouths 
in Rome studying anatomy and painting 
and making many sketches, returning to 
settle in Edinburgh in 1834. Elected R.S.A. 
in 1835 ; received prizes for pictures in 1838 
and 1841, but, though he finished many 
ambitious works, he failed to win public 
favour and died a disappointed man. He 
published a series of outlines called "Mono- 
grams of Man" (1831), and made illustra- 
tions for Coleridge's " Ancient Mariner " 
(1837) and "Pilgrim's Progress" (1850). 
Works : Death of Sappho (1829), Mrs. Con- 
stable, Edinburgh ; Nimrod (1831), W. Dick- 
son, ib.; Artist's Portrait (1832), Discord 
(1833), James Leathart, Newcastle ; Vin- 
tager (1833), National Gallery, Edinburgh ; 
Oberon and Puck (1834), R. Carfrae, ib.; 
Descent from Cross (1835), J. M. Gow, ib.; 
Orestes and the Furies (1837), W. B. Scott, 
ib.; A Vintager, Ariel and Caliban (1837), 
National Gallery, ib.; Paracelsus Lecturing 
(1838), J. T. Gibson Craig, ib.; Philoctetes 
in Lemnos (1839), George Cousin, ib. ; Queen 
Elizabeth in the Globe Theatre (1840), 
Lord Young, ib.; Traitor's Gate (1841), R. 
Carfrae, ib. ; Vasco de Gama passing the 
Cape of Good Hope (1842), Trinity House, 
Leith; Wallace (1843), R. Carfrae, Edin- 
burgh ; Crucifixion the Dead Rising (1844), 



J. Leathart, Newcastle ; Peter the Hermit 
(1845), Charles Jenner, Portobello; Tri- 
umph of Love (1846), R Carfrae, Edin- 
burgh ; Queen Mary on the Scaffold (1847), 
Mrs. White, Netherurd (?); Portrait of Ralph 
Waldo Emerson (1848), Public Library, Con- 
cord, Mass.; Hope passing over the Sky of 
Adversity (1848), D. Nicolson, Edinburgh. 
W. B. Scott, Memoir (Edinburgh, 1850) ; 
Cunningham ; Redgrave ; Art Journal, ii. 
120 ; Blackwood's Mag., cxxx. 589 ; John 
M. Gray, D. S. and his Works (Edinburgh 
and London, 1884). 

SCOTT, JULIAN, born at Johnson, La- 
moille County, Vt., Feb. 14, 1846. Historical 
genre painter ; served as a volunteer in Army 
of the Potomac in 1861-63 ; studied in 
schools of National Academy in 1863-64, and 
under the direction of Emanuel Leutze until 
1868. Visited Paris in 1866. First ex- 
hibited in the National Academy in 1870 ; 
elected an A.N.A. in 1871. Studio in Plain- 
field, N. J. Works : Rear Guard at White 
Oak Swamp (Union League Club, New 
York), Gen. O. B. Wilcox in Libby Prison 
(1870) ; Near the Outposts (Judge J. R 
Brady), On Board the Hartford (1874), Loy- 
all Farragut ; Old Records (1875), William 
E. Dodge, New York ; Capture of Andre 
(1876), J. A. Harper, ib.; Reserves awaiting 
Orders (1877) ; Poke o' Moonshine, Medita- 
tion (1878) ; In the Cornfield at Antietam 
(1879) ; Hancock at the Battle of Williams- 
burg (Capt. J. S. Wharton), Bessie Scott 
(1880, Artist) ; Fishing Boats at Antium 
near Rome (1882) ; Outpost Duty, Rescue 
of the Colour-Bearer at the Battle of Proc- 
tor's Creek May 16, 1864 (1883); Art Stu- 
dent, Sortie at Petersburg in 1864 (1884) ; 
Game of Freeze-Out (1886). 

SCOTT, SAMUEL, born in London about 
1710 (?), died there, Oct. 12, 1772. Best 
marine painter of his time in England, and, 
says Dallaway, the father of the modern 
school of painting in water-colours. A boon 
companion of Hogarth, and one of the jovial 
water party to Graveseud in 1732. His Old 
London Bridge (1745), and Old Westminster 

Bridge, are in the National Gallery, London. 
Walpole, Anecdotes (ed. Wornum), 709. 

Landseer, M'Grath, London. Sir Walter, 
seated with the favourite companions of hia 
walks, the deerhound Maida and his Dandy 
Dinmonts. Sometimes called from the local- 
ity the Rhymer's Glen picture. Royal Acad- 
emy, 1833 ; painted for Mr. Wells, of Red- 
leaf ; passed to Jacob Burnett, at whose sale 
(1876), for 3,202 10s. to Vincent Calma- 
dy (?); sold at Christie's (1886) for 2,047 10s. 

Faed, private gallery, England. Sir Walter 
Scott, surrounded by his friends, in his 
library at Abbotsford. Among them are 
Henry Mackenzie, John Wilson, George 
Crabbe, Lockhart, William Wordsworth, 
Francis Jeffrey, Robert Ferguson, Thomas 
Moore, Dr. John Allen, Thomas Campbell, 
Sir David Wilkie, and Archibald Constable. 
Engraved by John Faed. 

SCRETA, KARL (Ritter Scotnowsky von 
Zaworzic), born in Prague about 1604, died 
there, 1674. German school ; history and 
portrait painter, imitated Guido Reni and 
Caravaggio, but kept free from mannerism, 
and was a correct draughtsman. During 
the Thirty Years' War he went to Italy, 
lived in Venice, Bologna, and Florence, and 
' visited Rome with Wilhelm Bauer in 1(534. 
The Academy of Bologna offered him a pro- 
fessorship, but he returned to Prague, where 
he was employed by Ferdinand HI. Works : 
Altarpieces in all the principal churches of 
Prague ; Portraits and other pictures, Prague 
Gallery ; Male Portrait, Darmstadt Muse- 
um ; do., Gotha Museum ; Figures of Saints 
(8), Moses, Portrait of Bernard do Witte, 
prior of Malta (1651), Dresden Museum ; 
Christ and the Woman of Samaria, Old Man 
with Writing Tablet, Schleissheim Gallery. 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 526 ; Nagler, xvi. 183. 

SCURI, ENRICO, born in Bergamo in 
1806. History painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy. Works : Hercules and Alcestis 
(1828) ; King Starus killing his Daughter 
(1830), Vienna Museum. 



SCYLLA, picture. See Nicomachus. 

Vedder, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 
Mass. A formidable creature, half serpent, 
half dragon, dull in colour and inert, but 
with a malignant, ever-watchful eye, lies 
coiled upon a spit of sand beside a sultry 

Bearded Dwarf, Velasquez, Madrid Muse- 
um ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. 9 in. A 
man with coarse features and heavy black 
hair and beard, wearing a cloak and linen 
collar, sitting on the ground, with his fists 
on his thighs. Engraved by F. Ribera ; 
etched by F. Goya ; Laguillermie ; B. Mau- 
ra; H. Gucrard. Ch. Blanc, cole espa- 
gnole ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1880), xxii. 176 ; 
Curtis, 30 ; Madrazo, 630. 


SEBASTIAN, ST., according to the le- 
gend, was commander of a company of the 
Praetorian Guards and a special favourite of 
Diocletian ; his fervent Christianity having 
made him obnoxious to the Emperor, the 
latter ordered him to be bound to a stake 
and shot to death with arrows. Irene, wid- 
ow of a martyr, going with others to take 
his body for burial, found that none of the 
arrows had penetrated a vital part, and carry- 
ing him to her home nursed him to health 
again. Diocletian, infuriated, had him beat- 
en to death with clubs and his body thrown 
into the Cloaca Maxima. The martyrdom 
of St. Sebastian is a favourite subject with 
painters, and many of the great artists have 
left representations of it. 

By Annibale Carracci, Louvre ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. Bound to the 
trunk of a tree, pierced with arrows, his 
armour and clothing at his feet ; in dis- 
tance, right, mounted Roman soldiers de- 
parting. Collection of Louis XVI. ; be- 
longed previously to Due de Montmorency 
and to Cardinal Richelieu. One of the best 
of Annibale's works in the Louvre. En- 
graved by G. Audrau. Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Camille Corot, W. T. Walters, Balti- 
more ; canvas, H. 8 ft. x 4 ft. In fore- 
ground, the wounded Saint lies upon dra- 
pery, while two women bind up his wounds ; 
trees rise on each side, meeting at top to 
form an arch, through which are seen the 
departing soldiers ; above, two cherubs, 
looking down. Salon, 1853 ; Exposition uni- 
verselle, 1867, after a modification of trees 
and background. In 1871 Corot gave it as 
a prize in a lottery in aid of the wounded 
in the Franco-German War. The winner 
sold it for 9,000 francs to Durand Ruel, who 
resold it for 15,000 francs to Mr. Barlow, an 
Englishman, from whom it passed to Mr. 
Wallis, who sold it to Mr. Walters for 
$10,000. Larousse, xiv. 445. 

By Eugene Ddacroix, Church of Nantua, 
France ; canvas, H. 7 f t. x 8 ft. The saint, 
nude, pierced with arrows, is lying swoon- 
ing on the ground under a tree ; beside him 
are Irene and a companion, one drawing out 
an arrow while the other is gazing anxiously 
at the executioners, seen in background. 
Salon, 1836 ; bought by State for 3,000 
francs and given to the factory at Nantua ; 
sold in 1869 to M. Brame for 23,000 francs ; 
this led to a lawsuit, and the Court of Ap- 
peals at Lyons finally decided that objects 
of art thus given cannot be alienated. En- 
graved by Salmon ; Boilvin. Lithographed 
by Menut Alophe. Chesneau, O3uvre de 
Delacroix, 167 ; Larousse, xiv. 445. 

By Anton van Dyck, Louvre, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 6 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 9 in. The saint 
bound to a tree ; beside him two angels, one 
of whom unbinds one limb while the other 
draws out one of the arrows. Engraved by 
P. van Schuppen. Replica in Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg. Engraved by Reveil ; Vor- 
sterman ; Voet. Larousse, xiv. 445 ; Guif- 
frey, 252 ; Smith, iii. 42, 97. 

By Anton van Dyck, Munich Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 8 ft. 3 in. x 5 ft. 10 in. The 
saint, nude, bound to a tree in centre ; to 
left, a man in blue and a negro in crimson ; 
to right, two mounted soldiers, one with 
a scarlet banner. Formerly in Diisseldorf 



Gallery. Engraved by Ch. de Mechel ; J. 
H. Lips; W. Peare. Sketch at Christ 
Church, Oxford. Guiffrey, 252 ; Smith, iii. 
16 ; Eastlake, Notes, 67. 

St. Sebastian, Anton van Dyck, Louvre, Palis. 

By Guercino, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
canvas, H. 5 f t. 3 in. x 5 f t. 6 in. St. Sebas- 
tian, nearly nude, kneeling on one knee, 
with eyes upraised, one hand on breast, in 
the other holds two arrows. Painted in 
1652 for Cardinal Macchiavelli. Engraved 
by Giovanni Folo ; Pasqualini(1628); Bona- 
fede. Gal. du Pal. Pitti, ii. PI. 20 ; La- 
vice, 60. 

By Guido Keni, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 7 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 2 in. The saint, nude, 
his hands tied behind to a tree, gazing up- 
wards. Sketch, far advanced. Formerly in 
sacristy of SS. Salvatore, Bologna. En- 
graved by G. Asioli. Similar picture in 
Madrid Museum ; engraved by Bartsch ; F. 
Gregori. Pinac. di Bologna, PI. 31 ; La- 
vice, 12. 

By Guido Reni, Dulwich Gallery, Eng- 
land ; H. 5 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. Life-size, 
nearly whole-length figure, with narrow 

white scarf round hips, hands behind back, 
tied to a tree, head raised ; to right, in dis- 
tance, four soldiers ; barren landscape ; 
dark sky. Said to have been formerly in 
Palazzo Barberini, Rome. 

By Guido Reni, Louvre ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 
10 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. St. Sebastian, his arms 
tied behind to a tree and his body pierced 
with an arrow, turns his eyes towards heaven ; 
in the background, Roman soldiers leaving. 
Belonged to Cardinal Mazarin ; bought for 
Louis XTV. in 1670. Many copies and rep- 
etitions in manner of Guercino. Filhol, 
vi. PI. 467 ; Landon, Musce, xii. PI. 35 ; Vil- 
lot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Andrea Mante.gna, Vienna Museum ; 
wood, 2 ft. 1 in. x 11 in.; signed. The 
saint, pierced with arrows, in front of a 
round arch, with fragments of sculpture and 
two marble figures of boys on parti-coloured 
floor. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 387 ; Mdndler, 

St. Sebastian, Guido Reni, Louvie, Pans. 

By Antonio Pollajuolo, National Gallery, 
London ; wood, H. 9 ft. 7 in. x 6 ft 6 in. 
The saint, bound on high to a tree, is shot 
at by archers ; background, a landscape 
with horsemen. Painted in 1475 for An- 
tonio Pucci, for family chapel in SS. Annun- 



ziata, Florence ; sold to National Gallery in 
1857 by Marchese Pucci. The saint is a 
portrait of Giuo di Lodovico Capponi. A 
fine work, but praised to exaggeration by 
Vasari. Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 292 ; C. & C., 
Italy, ii. 392 ; Richa, Cliiese, viii. 54 ; Cat. 
Nat. Gal.; Kichter, 32. 

By Theodule Ribot, Luxembourg Museum, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. 
The saint extended, in front ; beside him, 
Irene and another woman are trying to 

St. Sebastian, Antonio Pollajuolo, National Gallery, London. 

stanch the blood which flows from his 
wounds. In manner of Caravaggio. Salon, 
18G5 ; bought by State for 6,000 francs. 
Larousse, xiv. 445. 

By Eubem, Berlin Museum ; canvas, life- 
size. Painted in Italy about 1GOG. Formerly 
in Muuro Collection, England ; acquired in 
1884 for 101. Waagen, Treasures, ii. 136. 

By II Sodoma, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, 
figure life-size. The saint, pierced with ar- 
rows, bound to a tree, in a landscape with 
ruins ; above, an angel about to crown him. 

On the reverse of the same canvas is a Ma- 
donna in Clouds, with SS. Gismondo and 
Koch and three Flagellants beneath. Paint- 
ed in 1525 for the brotherhood of St. Sebas- 
tian in Camellia, Siena, who bore it as a 
banner in processions. Placed in Uffizi in 
1786. Vasari, ed. Mil., vi., 390; Molini, 
Gal. di Firenze, ii. 89 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
iii. 225 ; Lasinio, i. PI. 72. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 
canvas, in narrow interval between two win- 
dows. The saint fastened to a tree, with 
the arrows in his body. " The most majes- 
tic St. Sebastian in existence ; there is not 
a more remarkable picture in Venice. "- 
Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 342. 
By Titian. See Altarpiece of Brescia. 

By Titian, Harrach Collection, Vienna ; can- 
vas stretched on panel, life-size. The saint, 
with hands bound behind his back, one ar- 
row in breast and one in left leg, looks up 
to heaven. Said to have come from the 
sacristy of S. M. della Salute, Venice ; but 
may be the one once in the Escorial. C. & 
C., Titian, ii. 427 ; Hume, Titian, 82. 

By Titian, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
canvas, full-length, life-size. The saint, 
bound to a tree, with an arrow in his breast. 
From Barberigo Collection, now so injured 
that it cannot be shown. Possibly the orig- 
inal of the St. Sebastian painted for Charles 
V., once in the Escorial, but now lost. C. 
& C., Titian, ii. 423. 

By Titian, Vatican. See Madonna di San 

By Paolo Veronese, S. Sebastiano, Ven- 
ice ; canvas. The saint, in armour, and 
standing with a banner in his hand at the 
top of a flight of stairs, exhorts his com- 
panions, Marcus and Marcellinus, who are 
surrounded by weeping friends, to confess 
their faith. Zanotto, 428 ; Larousse, xiv. 

Subject treated also by Garofalo, Mont- 
pellier Museum ; Bartolommeo Schidone, 
Naples Museum ; Denis Calvaert, Caen Mu- 
seum ; Luca Giordano, Dresden Museum ; 
Antonello da Messina, Dresden Gallery, 



Berlin Museum ; Sfindro Botticelli, ib.; Lo- 
renzo Lotto, ib. ; Michelangelo da Caravag- 
gio, Dresden, Munich, and Tours Museums ; 
Bartolommeo Carducci, Madrid Museum ; 
Giovanni Dossi, Brera, Milan ; Giacomo 
Cavedone, Vienna Museum ; Domenichino, 
S. M. degli Angeli, Borne ; Giorgione, Brera, 
Milan ; Giacomo Palma, younger, Dresden, 
Schleissheim, and Munich Galleries ; Cesare 
Procaccini, Brussels Museum ; Spagnoletto, 
Madrid, Valencia, Augsburg, and Naples Mu- 
seums, and Hermitage (2), St. Petersburg ; 
Girolamo da Santa Croce, Berlin Museum ; 
Liouello Spada, Modena Museum ; Mas- 
simo Stanzioni, Louvre ; Paolo Veronese, 
Vienna Museum ; Eustache Lesueur, Tours 
Museum ; Antonio Pollajuolo, Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence, and Modena Gallery ; Hans Hol- 
bein, Munich Gallery ; Correggio, Dresden 
and Vienna Museums ; Bernardino Luini, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Vincenzo Fop- 
pa, Brera, Milan ; Lodovico Carracci, Capi- 
tol Gallery, Rome ; Perugino, Palazzi Bor- 
ghese and Sciarra, ib.; Rubens, Palazzo 
Corsini, ib.; Guido Reni, Capitol Gallery, 
ib.; Jules Richomme (Salon, 1844); Charles 
Lefebvre (Salon, 1866) ; Louis Courtat (Sa- 
lon, 1874) ; Eugene Thirion (1875). 

SEBASTIAN! See Bastiani. 

ENTIN), born at Caudebec (Seine-Infe- 
rieure), Aug. 21, 1801, died in 1879. Land- 
scape, decorative, and panoramic painter, 
pupil and assistant of Daguerre for 16 
years, and of Leon Cogniet. Medals : 3d 
class, 1838 ; 2d class, 1840 ; 1st class, 1844 ; 
2d class, 1848 ; L. of Honour, 1867. Works : 
Views in France, Belgium, Germany, Italy, 
Spain (1831-48); Distribution of Colours at 
the Barriere de 1'fitoile (1849); View of New 
Orleans, Niagara Falls (1853) ; Broadway- 
New York (1855) ; Niagara Falls in Winter 
(1857) ; Grand Mosque at Cordova (1857), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Lake of Alligators 
Louisiana (1863) ; Cartuja de Miraflores 
near Burgos Spain (1869), Rodez Muse- 
um ; View of Biarritz (1865) ; Christ on 
Mount of Olives (1866) ; Interior of St. Pe- 

ter'sRome (1867) ; do. of St. Stephen's 
Vienna (1868); Views in Egypt, Syria, Con- 
stantinople, Rome, and Venice (1867-77) ; 
Niagara Falls, New York (1878). Bellier, 
ii. 487. 

SEDDON, THOMAS, born in London, 
Aug. 28, 1821, died in Cairo, Nov. 23, 1856. 
Landscape painter ; brought up as a cabi- 
net-makerand designer of furniture. Gained 
silver medal of Society of Arts, 1848 ; in 
1851 adopted painting as a profession, and 
in 1852 exhibited Penelope at her Web. 
Afterwards devoted himself to landscape. 
Accompanied Holrnnn Hunt to the East in 
1853, and in 1854 exhibited The Pyramids 
and Jerusalem. Returned to the East in 
October, 1856, and died the next month. 
Work : Jerusalem and the Valley of Je- 
hoshaphat (1854), National Gallery, Lon- 
don. Soc. of Arts Journal, June, 1857 ; 
Cat. Nat. Gal., 126. 

in Potsdam in 1810. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Wach, and in 1836 of Watelet in 
Paris. Visited Switzerland and Italy. Works: 
Orphan praying at her Parents' Grave (1836) ; 
Mont Blanc from Sallenches (1842); Water- 
Mill in Rocky Valley ; Paris from Pantin, 
Castle, Berlin ; View of Janina. Rosen- 
berg, Berl. Malersch., 36. 

Alzey, Hesse, in 1808 or 1809. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Catoir in Mentz and of 
Munich Academy in 1825. Left Munich in 
1830, became inspector in 1837, and direc- 
tor in 1839, of Darmstadt Gallery ; profes- 
sor in 1859. Works : View ou Upper Rhine 
(1834); Rhine View at 
Sunrise (1837), New Pino- 
kothek, Munich ; Saw-Mill 
(1837) ; Evening Devotion of Peasants at 
Shrine (1843), Thunderstorm in the Moun- 
tains (1854), View on Kochel Lake, Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Village on the Wttrm (1858). 

in 1754, died at Schwerin, July 26, 1802. 
German school ; architecture, landscape, 
and portrait painter, studied in Dresden 



and Vienna and went in 1789 to Home ; 
was called to Schwerin as court painter in 
1794. Works : Portrait of a Musician 
(1784), do. of Joseph Haydn (1785), Grotto 
of Egeria near Home by Moonlight (1789), 

Antique Eoman Vault (1789), The Colos- 
seum (1789), Schwerin Gallery. Sohlie, 

at Griinstadt, Palatinate, in 1719, died at 
Darmstadt in 17G8. German school ; genre 
painter, pupil of an elder brother and of 
Brinkmann. Became court painter in Darm- 
stadt in 1753. Works : Tinker's Family, 
Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; The 
Rat-Catcher, Basle Museum ; Landscape 
with Peasants at Meal, Christiania Gallery ; 
Flight into Egypt, Four Scenes in Life of 
Christ, Calling of St. Peter, Allegory in 
Glorification of Landgrave Ludwig VIII. of 
Hesse, Peasant Boys as the Three Magi, 
Beggar Children at a Well, Musicians rest- 
ing before Tavern, Children in Chicken 
Yard, Bachanal, Dead Fowl and Imple- 
ments of the Chase, Market Scene, Land- 
grave Ludwig VHL Hunting, Artist's Por- 
trait, Darmstadt Museum ; Peter's Denial 
(1765), Fortune-Teller, Weimar Museum ; 
others in Amalienstift, Dessau ; Stadel Gal- 
lery, Frankfort (3), Leipsic Museum (2), 
etc. ; Boy teasing Dog ; Maiden with Lighted 
Taper ; Boy with Chopping-Board ; Flight 
into Egypt by Torch-Light. Nagler, xvi. 

SEEL, ADOLF, born at Wiesbaden, Mar. 
1, 1829. Architecture painter, pupil of Diis- 
seldorf Academy under Karl Sohn in 1844- 
50. Studied a year in Paris ; visited Italy in 
1864-65, Spain, Portugal, and Northern Afri- 
ca in 1870-71 ; and travelled in the Orient in 
1873-74. Works: Interior of Byzantine 

Church (1862) ; St. Mark's in Venice ; Font 
in St. Mark's ; Cathedral of Halberstadt in 
Winter ; Lions' Court of 
Alhambra; Arab Court 
in Cairo (1876), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Interi- 
or of St. Mark's (1869), 
Egyptian Harem (1878), 
Diisseldorf Gallery ; 
The Monks at Convent 
Gate, Provinzial Muse- 
um, Hanover ; Church 
Interior, Wiesbaden 
Gallery. Meyer, Conv. Lex., xix. 858. 

Wolfach, Flirstenberg, in 1772, died at 
Stuttgart in 1814. Military, genre, and por- 
trait painter, pupil of the Karlsschule at 
Stuttgart ; represented his subjects with 
spirit and great truthfulness. Court paint- 
er and director of Stuttgart Gallery in 1804. 
Resumed study in Munich and in Vienna 
in 1808. Works : French Hussars Resting, 
French Infantry at Camp Fire (1796), Aus- 
trian Soldiers joking with Peasant Girls 
(1800), Austrian Cavalry Resting (1801), 
French Grenadiers foraging surprised by 
Austrian Hussars (1808), Cavalry Skirmish 
(1810), Battle Scene, ten other similar sub- 
jects, Portrait of the Artist (3), do. of his 
Father, do. of his Mother, Fiirstenberg Gal- 
lery, Donaueschingen ; Series representing 
the Deeds of Wurtemberg Troops in 1806 
and 1809, Royal Palace, Stuttgart ; Portraits 
of Archduke Charles (1800), King Frederick 
of Wiirternberg, Grand Duke of Baden, etc. 
Nagler, xvi. 202. 

SEELOS, GOTTFRIED, born at Bozen, 
Tyrol, in 1832. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Vienna Academy and of Selleny. Trav- 
elled in Tyrol and Italy. Works : Mountain 
Lake, and many other Views in Tyrol 
(1852-66) ; Zenoburg near Meran (1867) ; 
Kolman in the Tyrol (1869), Vienna Acad- 
j emy ; Still Water ; Chestnut Trees ; Pine 
Grove ; Sigismundskron at Bozen ; Riviera 
near Mentone ; Palms near Monaco ; Sum- 
mer Afternoon, Vienna Museum ; Vogel- 



weidhof (with figures by Defregger) ; Val- 
ley of Vajolet, Covered Post (1871). Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xvii. 803 ; Wurzbacb, xxxiii. 811. 

SEGE, ALEXANDRE, born in Paris in 
1817, died there, November, 1885. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Flers and Leon Cog- 
niet. Painted large pictures, well-coloured, 
and in a simple, attractive style. Medals : 
1869 ; 2d class, 1873 ; 3d class, 1878 ; L. of 
Honour, 1874. Works : Bridge of Kenan, 
Rocks of Piegut (1868) ; Brook at Pebouet, 
River Beauce (1869) ; Oaks of Kertrugonnec 
(1870) ; Farm at Kerouol, Morning in the 
Alps (1874), Mme. E. Perrin ; Evening on 
the Beauce (1875) ; Thorn Broom in Blos- 
som (1876), Luxembourg Museum ; Green 
Road (1878), M. Hede ; Valley of Courtray 
(1879); Fields at Coubron (1880); Pine 
Tree of Antoigny (1881); Chestnut Trees of 
Beauvoir (1882) ; Valley of Ploukermeur 
(1883) ; En Pays chartrin (1884) ; Meadows 
of Saint-Pair, Valley of La See (1885) ; En- 
virons of Granville (1886). Claretie, Pein- 
tres, 387. 

SEGERS (Seghers), HERCULES, died 
in Amsterdam about 1650. Dutch school ; 
landscape painter, settled in The Hague 
about 1633, afterwards in Amsterdam, hav- 
ing for some time travelled in the Alps and 
in Norway ; friend of Rembrandt. Works : 
Dutch Landscapes (2), Berlin Museum. 
Journal des B. Arts (1871), 178 ; Kramm, v. 
1510 ; Meyer, Gemalde kongl. Mus., 428. 

SEGHERS (Segers, Zeghers), DANIEL, 
born in Antwerp, Dec. 5, 1590, died there, 
Nov. 2, 1661. Flemish school ; flower paint- 
er, pupil of Jan Brueghel in 1611 and mas- 
ter of the guild in same year ; entered the 
Order of Jesuits in 1614, visited Rome, 
painted much for the church of his Order in 
Antwerp, and could hardly fulfil the numer- 
ous commissions by princes who vied with 
one another in securing works by his hand ; 
frequently painted flowers to enframe sub- 
jects by such masters as Rubens, Schut, Die- 
penbeek, and Erasmus Quellin. Works : 
Garland about Portrait of Ignatius Loyola 
(by Schut), do. about Madonna (by do.), 

Flower-Piece, Antwerp Museum ; Bouquet, 
Brussels Museum ; Garland about Statuette 
of Madonna (1645), do. about Portrait of 
William ILL, Hague Museum ; do. around 
Bust of Ceres (1644), Rotterdam Museum ; 
two Flower pieces (1643) -and four Garlands 
about Reliefs, Dresden Gallery ; Garland 
about Relief, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Gar- 
land about Holy Family, do. about do. (by 
Van Dyck), do. about Madonna, do. about 
Holy Sacrament, Vienna Museum ; do. about 
Madonna, Bologna Museum ; do. about Male 
Bust, Uffizi, Florence ; Garlands (4) about 
pictures by Schut, Festoons (2), Madrid 
Museum ; Garland of Roses, do. about Ma- 
donna (1651), Hampton Court Gallery; 
Flowers and Land- ^r 
scape (with Schut), M) 
South Kensington /-TV J f 4 

Museum; other speci- -OtlnW) /^ ** 
rnens in galleries of 
Aschaffenburg Bam- 
berg (2), Brunswick J 
(2), Carlsruho (1644), J 
Cassel, Copenhagen, Donauest-hingen, Olden- 
burg (3), Schleissheini (3) ; in Museums of 
Berlin (2), and Weimar. Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
flamande ; Immerzeel, iii. 84 ; Kramm, v. 
1508 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 346 ; Messager 
des sciences, etc. (1868), 341 ; Michiels, ix. 
194 ; Rooses (Reber), 427 ; Van den Bran- 
den, 1126. 


SEGNA, Sienese school, beginning of 
14th century. Disciple of Duccio. Like 
Ugolino, he remained faithful to the old 
school, and the surfaces of his pictures 
equal those of that master in softness and 
lustre. A picture by him, Four Saints, 
said to have been finished in 1305-6, is in 
the Academy of Siena. Better examples 
are : A Majesty in the Church of Casti- 
glione Fiorentino, near Arezzo ; and Christ 
on the Cross, National Gallery, London. 
C. & C., Italy, ii. 56 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., i. 
320 ; ii. 165 ; W. & W., i. 433. 

SEIBOLD, CHRISTIAN, born at Mentz 
in 1697 or 1703, died in Vienna, May 19, 



1768. German school ; portrait painter, in 
the style of Denner ; became court painter 
to the Empress Maria Theresa in 1749. 
Works : Portrait of himself, Louvre ; do., 
Bamberg Gallery ; do., Gotha Museum ; do. 
(1759), Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; 
do., Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Por- 
traits of Two Girls, Museum, ib. ; Portraits 

of a Youth 
a Girl. 

Man ; 

Old Woman, 
of himself, Dresden Gallery ; Bust of Old 
Man, Christiania Gallery ; do. of Old Lady, 
Male portrait, Stuttgart Museum. Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 564. 

at Grilneberg, Silesia, Sept. 6, 1809. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Berlin Academy and 
of Biermann. Made sketching tours in 
Switzerland and Tyrol, and in Italy and Sic- 
ily in 1846-47. Settled in Berlin. Assisted 
Pape in Decoration of the Berlin New Mu- 
seum. Works : Cefalu in Sicily (1850) ; 
Lake Nemi (1851) ; Gravedona on Lake 
Como (1859) ; Blue Grotto in Capri (I860), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Strait of Messina 
(1863). Jordan (1885), ii. 217. 

tria in 1505, died at Linz in 1567. History 
and portrait painter, who may in some re- 
spects be considered as the founder of mod- 
ern painting in Austria. In 1530 he painted 
Charles V. at Augsburg, in 1532 at Bologna, 
and in 1531 became court painter to Ferdi- 
nand I., whom, in 1532, he followed to Vi- 
enna, and in 1550 to Augsburg. Between 
1535 and 1545 he visited Spain and Bel- 
gium, and twice the court of Charles V. ; 
settled in Linz about 1558. Works : Two 
portraits of Charles V. (1532, 1550), Vienna 
Museum ; portraits of Ferdinand I, Queen 
Anna, Philip of Spain, Ferdinand of Tyrol, 
Philippine, Welser, two bust portraits of 
Charles V., Ambras Collection, Vienna ; 
Male portrait (1568), Weimar Museum. 
W. & W., ii. 507; Zeitschr. f. b. K, x. 

born in Munich in 1811. History and 
genre painter, pupil of Cornelius in Munich. 
Went to Rome in 1835. Works: Joseph 
sold by his Brethren (1829) ; Madonna En- 
throned ; St. Catharine of Alexandria ; Ma- 
ter Amabilis ; Christ blessing Little Chil- 
dren ; St. Joseph and the Infant Christ ; 
Christ with the Wise and Foolish Virgins, 
and Return of the Prodigal, Santa Trinita 
de' Monti, Rome ; genre pictures of Roman 
life. Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 804. 

SEITZ, ANTON, born at Roth, near Nu- 
remberg, in 1830. Genre painter, pupil of 
Friedrich Wagner and Reindel in Nurem- 
berg, and in 1853-63 of Fluggen in Munich, 
where he settled. Gold Medal in 1869. 
Works : Policeman and Country Girl (1856) ; 
Miser (1860) ; Garret Studies (1862) ; Peas- 
ants and Quack; Alchemist; Music Rehears- 
al ; King of the Shooters (1874, D. W. Pow- 
ers, Rochester, N. Y.) ; Market Scenes ; Pho- 
tographer in the Country ; Wayfarers (1881), 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Rustic Letter- 
Writer, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; A 
Good Friend (1883). Regnet, ii. 262. 

SEITZ, LTJDWIG, born in Rome in 
1843. History painter, son and pupil of 
Alexander Max Seitz, having first studied 
under Cornelius and Overbeck ; imitates the 
old Italian masters, for the reproduction of 
whose style he shows considerable talent. 
Work : Deluge. Seubert, iii. 296 ; Mtiller, 

SEITZ, OTTO, born in Munich, Sept. 3. 
1846. History painter, pupil of Piloty. 
Medals in Vienna, and in Philadelphia 
(1876). Works : Murder of Rizzio (1869) ; 
Loose Leaves Dead Love (1871) ; Happy 
Hours (1873) ; Faun and Nymph (1875) ; 
Neptune (1876); Edward IV. 's Sons; Pro- 
metheus Bound. Seubert, iii. 296 ; Miiller, 

SELL, CHRISTIAN, born in Altona, 
Aug. 14, 1831. History and genre painter, 
pupil of his father and in 1851-56 of Diis- 
seldorf Academy under Hildebrand and 
Schadow ; accompanied German army in the 



campaigns of 1864, 1866, and 1870. Works : 
Defence of Castle in Thirty Years' War ; 
Soldiers bearing their 
Wounded Command- 
er, Provinzial Museum, 
Hanover ; Best after 
Repulsed Storm(1856); 
Siege of Breisach 
(1862); Soldiers in 
Thirty Years' War dis- 
tributing Booty, Leip- 
sic Museum ; Combat 
in the Woods at Sadowa ; Beginning of 
Pursuit at Sadowa (1872), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Transportation of Prisoners of War 
(1882), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Prisoners at 
Sedan. Jordan (1885), ii. 217 ; Miiller, 488. 
SELLENY, JOSEF, born at Meidling, 
near Vienna, j 
Feb. 2, 1824, 
died in Vienna, 
May 22, 1875. 
painter, pupil of 
Vienna Acad- 
emy under En- 
der and Perger. 
Visited Italy in 
1854 ; made a 

voyage round the world on the Novara in 
1857-59 ; and accompanied Archduke Max- 
imilian to Brazil in 1859, bringing back 
over a thousand sketches from these two 
expeditions. President of Vienna Artists' 
League in 1868. Became insane two years 
before death. Member of Vienna Academy. 
Orders : Iron Crown, Mexican Guadeloupe, 
and Brazilian Rose. Works : Desolate 
Church-Yard, Near Waidbruck in the Ty- 
rol, Vienna Museum ; Snow Storm (1852) ; 
Cape Circello (1855); Kuins of Amphithea- 
tre at Terracina (1855); Funchalin Madeira 
(1863); Cape of Good Hope (1864) ; Island 
of St. Paul (1869); Tahiti (1870); Rock Tem- 
ple of Mahamalaipur ; Water-colours after 
Rottmann's Munich Court Garden frescos ; 
and numerous other landscapes in oil and 
water-colour. Wurzbach, xxxiv. 58 ; Kunst- 

Chronik, xi. 135, 156, 190, 206, 217 ; xix. 
170 ; Zeitsch. f. b. K, iv. 114 ; xi. 252. 

at Nancy (Meurthe), Dec. 25, 1830, died 
there, Nov. 26, 1882. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of Louis Leborgne 
and of Leon Cogniet. Won the grand prix 
de Rome in 1857. Medals : 1865 ; 2d class, 
1872. Conservator of the Nancy Museum. 
Works : A Kitchen (1857), Nancy Museum ; 
Levite of Ephraim (1864), ib. ; Magdalen 
(1864), ib.; Death of Leander, Gallic Pris- 
oner condemned to die of Hunger (1865) ; 
Last Years of Tiberius in Isle of Caprea, The 
Ammazatoio at Rome (1867) ; Lost Soul 
(1868); Italian Souvenir (1869), Nancy Mu- 
seum ; Graziella (1870) ; Nereid (1872) ; 
Christ at the Tomb (1875) ; Interior of a 
Roman Ammazatoio, Led a (1880) ; Black- 
smith's Shop in Andelys (1881) ; Head of a 
Negro (1882). Bellier, ii. 491. 

Sweden in 1819. Portrait painter, self- 
taught. In 1842 settled in Buffalo, N. Y. 
First exhibited at the National Academy in 
1858 ; elected an A.N.A. in 1871 and N.A. 
in 1875. One of the founders of the Buffa- 
lo Academy, of which he was secretary and 
superintendent in 1862-76, president in 
1876, and again superintendent in 1878. 
Works: Head of Jewish Rabbi (1859); 
Abandoned ; Quahaug Rock Narragansett, 
Preparing her Paper for the Club (1879). 
Portraits: Of the Artist (1871, Academy, 

] Buffalo) ; W. G. Fargo (1874) ; George W. 
Clinton, National Science Rooms, Buffalo ; 
Mrs. Sellstedt (1882) ; Benjamin Fitch 

i (1883) ; Brother and Sister -- Portraits 
(1884), Franklin Locke ; Charles Day 

COMO, born in Bologna, July 18, 1580, 
died (?). Bolognese school ; pupil of Cal- 
vart, afterwards of Guido, and one of his fa- 
vourite assistants ; went to Rome in service 
of Cardinal Maurice of Savoy and painted 
many pictures in manner of Guido. Among 
his works are : Christ the Redeemer, St 



Catherine, St. Eugenius, Bologna Gallery ; 
Marriage of St. Catherine, Vienna Museum. 
Malvasia, ii. 249 ; Ch. Blanc, cole bo- 
lonaise ; Lanzi, iii. 97. 

SEMINI, ANDREA, born in Genoa about 
1525, died after 
1591. Genoese 
school ; son and 
pupil of Antonio 
Semini ; also stud- 
ied Perino del Va- 
ga and spent eight 
years in Rome, 
where he learned 
to imitate Raphael 
Mucli employed in 
Genoa and Milan. Works : Nativity, Turin 
Gallery ; Conception, S. Pietro, Genoa. An- 
drea's sons, Cesare and Alessandro, were 
mediocre painters. Soprani, 57 ; Lanzi, iii. 
243 ; Ch. Blanc, IScole genoise. 

SEMINI, ANTONIO, born in Genoa about 
1485, died after 1547. Genoese school ; 
pupil of Lodovico Brea, whose style he mod- 
ernized. Painted sometimes in collabora- 
tion with Teramo Piaggia or Terarno di Zo- 
agli, his fellow-pupil under Brea. Semini's 
Nativity, in S. Domenico, Savona, is in the 
manner of Perugino, which Perino del Yaga 
had introduced at Genoa. Soprani, 22 ; 
Lanzi, iii. 237 ; Ch. Blanc, iScole genoise. 

SEMINI, OTTAVIO, born in Genoa 
about 1530, died in Milan in 1604. Geno- 
ese school ; sou and pupil of Antonio Semi- 
ni ; also studied Perino del Vaga and works 
of Raphael in Rome. Aided his brother An- 
drea in many works, but was obliged to leave 
Genoa on account of a homicide, and after- 
wards led a dissipated life in Milan. Dec- 
orated chapel of S. Girolamo in S. Angelo, 
Milan. Soprani, 57 ; Lanzi, iii. 243 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole genoise. 

school (1351-1400). The ablest Venetian 
artist of the 14th century (C. & C.). Earli- 
est picture, Coronation of the Virgin (1351), 
is in the Vienna Academy. His best effort 
is an Altai-piece (1367), in the library of the 

Duomo, Padua. Other works: Madonna 
with Saints, dated 1400, Correr Museum, 
Venice ; Coronation of the Virgin, Venice 
Academy. Possibly identical with Nicholas 
Paradisi, of Venice, whose works are but 
little inferior to those of Semitecolo. C. & 
C., Italy, ii. 266 ; Burckhardt, 522. 

SEMOLEI. See Franco Battista. 

at Loo, near Fumes, Sept. 12, 1758, died in 
Paris in 1829. Genre painter, pupil of Dun- 
kirk Academy, and continued his studies at 
St. Omer and Ypres. Went to Paris, where 
he came under Suvee's influence. Painted 
Flemish popular festivals in the style of 
Teniers. Honorary director of Ypres Acad- 
emy and honorary member of Ghent Acad- 
emy in 1822. Works : Rembrandt's Studio, 
Academy, Ypres ; Young Girl feeding Cow, 
Horse led forth by Boy, Basle Museum ; 
Fantastic pictures with Architecture in and 
around Paris (2), Gotha Museum ; Village 
Inn with Travellers and Peasants, Sarah 
leading Hagar to Abraham, Leipsic Mu- 
seum. Immerzeel, iii. 86 ; Nagler, xvi. 238. 

BODY, Karl von Piloly, New Pinakothek, 
Munich ; canvas, H. 10 ft. 1 in. X 12 ft. 2 in. 
The astrologer Seui, entering Wallenstein's 
room in the morning, finds his dead body 
extended on the floor. Painted in 1855. 

DE, born in Lisbon in 1768, died in Rome 
in 1837. History painter, pupil of Lisbon 
Academy, and in 1788 of Antonio Cavalluc- 
ci in Rome. On his return to Portugal in 
1796 worked for churches and palaces; in 
1823 visited Paris ; then went to Italy, and 
became devotional. At his death was presi- 
dent of Portuguese Academy. Works : 
Last Moments of Camoens; Descent from 
the Cross; Flight into Egypt; St. Bruno, 
Lisbon Academy. Nagler, xvi. 276 ; Bryan, 

SERAPION, painter, probably 1st century 
B. c. Pliny says (xxxv. 37 [113]) that he 
was successful in scene-painting, but was 
unable to depict the human form. 



lage, London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 10 in. X 10 ft. 
An Anglo-Saxon noble on his death-bed, 
surrounded by his family and friends, at 
right, giving freedom to his slaves, who are 
grouped at left. In foreground a scribe 
writes down the names of the liberated. 
Eoyal Academy, 1877. 

rain. See Tabor, Mount. 

JACQUES, born at Tarragona, Spain, Jan. 
10, 1658, died at Marseilles, Oct. 9, 1733. 
He fled from home when only eight years 
old, went to Marseilles, was received into 
the Chartreuse Convent and taught to paint ; 
in time he made his way to Rome, and after 
hard study returned to Marseilles in 1676 ; 
became a citizen in 1690, and a member of 
the Academy in 1704. During the plague 
at Marseilles in 1720 Serre performed in- 
valuable services and won the gratitude of 
everybody. The Museum of Marseilles pos- 
sesses two large pictures by him illustrative 
of the city during the plague, and many re- 
ligious paintings. Chennevieres, Artistes 
provinciaux, ii. 201. 

SERRES, DOMINIC, born at Auch, Gas- 
cony, in 1722, died in London, Nov. 6, 1793. 
Designed for the church, but ran away to 
sea, and became master of a vessel which 
was captured in 1752 by a British frigate. 
Released on parole in England, he turned 
his attention to art and became a successful 
marine painter. He was one of the founda- 
tion members of the Royal Academy (1768), 
of which he was appointed librarian in 1792, 
and was marine painter to George IH. 
Works : George HI. reviewing the Fleet at 
Portsmouth (4 pieces), and Sea-Piece (1789), 
Hampton Court. His son, John Thomas 
Serres (1759-1825), was also a marine 
painter. Redgrave ; Law, Hist. Cat. Hamp- 
ton Court ; Sandby, i. 104. 

SERVEST, AMfiDfiE E"LIE, born in 
Paris ; contemporary. Landscape and ani- 
mal painter, pupil of Drolling. Lives in 
VUliers-sur-Morin. Medals : 1867, 1869 ; 

2d class, 1872. Works : Picking Stones in 
a Field (1867); Locksmith (1868); Fright- 
ened Donkeys (1869); The Mill (1872), 
Marseilles Museum ; Chestnut Seller, Under 
the Willows (1874); Making Sausages ; My 
Neighbour ; Wine Taster ; Crossing the 
Brook, Cutting in the Woods of Penthievre 
(1879); Crotoy in the Evening, Little Baths 
of St. Valery (1880); Picardy (1881); A 
Mill, Saltmakers and Salters (1882); Stable 
in Villiers, High Tide at Crotoy (1883); Ma 
cour, Chemin du bac (1884). 

SESTO, CESARE DA. See Cesare da 

SETTEGAST, JOSEF, born at Coblentz, 
Feb. 8, 1813. History painter, pupil of 
Dusseldorf Academy, and of Veit in Frank- 
fort. Visited Italy in 1838-43. Works: 
Madonna and Child (1833); Finding of the 
Cross, Church of the Cross, Ehrenbreit- 
stein ; Crucifixion, St. Francis Church, Dus- 
seldorf. In fresco; subjects, Kastor Church, 
Coblentz ; Crucifixion, Max Church, Dtlssel- 
dorf ; cupola of Mentz Cathedral after de- 
signs by Veit (1861). Art Journal (1865), 
133 ; Nagler, xvi. 304 ; Mailer, Dusseldorf. 
K, 54. 

SEUTER (Saiter, Syder), DANIEL, born 
in Vienna in 1642, 1647, or 1649, died in 
Rome or Turin in 1705, 1721, or 1725. Ital- 
ian school ; history painter, pupil of Carlo 
Loth in Venice and of Carlo Maratti in Rome. 
Sometimes called Avouster or Cavaliere 
Danielle. Works : Venus on Clouds, Augs- 
burg Gallery ; Apollo and Daphne ; Dieda- 
lus and Icarus ; Death of Abel ; St. Jerome, 
Brunswick Gallery. Nagler, xviii. 64. 



porary. History and genre painter, pupil 
of Wappera Excellences and defects in his 
work, so that opinions differ concerning it. 
Several medals. Leopold and Ernestine 
House Orders. Works : 14 Stations, Church 
of Notre Dame, Narnur ; Battle of Grave- 



lingen (1855); Defence of Tournay in 1581 ; 
Visitation of Mary (1862) ; Ballot among 
the Gypsies ; Battle of Vucht, Palace of 
Justice, Ghent ; Cavalry Attack. Miiller, 

JUAN DE, born in Granada in 1627, died 
there, Aug. 23, 1695. Spanish school ; pu- 
pil of Pedro de Moya, from whom he 
learned the style of Van Dyck. Painted 
chiefly religious compositions, and had con- 
siderable local reputation. Work : Dead 
Christ and Saints, Dresden Gallery. Cean 
Bermudez ; Stirling, iii. 1134 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole espagnole. 

SEYBOLD, GEORG VON, born at Schro- 
benhausen, Bavaria, March 20, 1832. Genre 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Kaulbach, and of Couture in Paris. Works : 
Vedette in the Russian Campaign (1859) ; 
Prisoners escorted by Cossacks (1860) ; Sol- 
dier of 17th Century ; Hunter of 16th Cen- 
tury. In fresco : a picture in National Muse- 
um, Munich. Miiller, 489. 

SHADOW OF DEATH, William Holman 
Hunt, Manchester Art Gallery ; canvas. 
Christ, as the carpenter, engaged in Joseph's 
workshop, is standing upright, at the close 
of the day's labour, wearily stretching out 
his arms, which form the shadow of the 
cross on the wall behind him a prevision 
of the Crucifixion ; on the ground, at his 
feet, Mary, kneeling before a coffer in which 
are the gifts of the kings, is gazing intently 
on the ominous shadow. Finished in 1873, 
after three years' labour. Engraved by F. 
Stacpoole. Art Journal (1874), 15 ; Athe- 
nseum, Jan., 1873, 23 ; Nov. 1873, 702. 

PORARIES, John Faed, Corcoran Gallery, 
Washington ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 5 in. x 5 ft. 7 
in. Group of statesmen and authors of the 
time gathered around Shakespeare, the cen- 
tral figure, in the Mermaid Tavern, Friday 
Street, London. Engraved by James Faed. 
Photogravure in Art Treasures of America. 
Art Treasures of America, i. 7 ; Corcoran 
Gal. Cat. 

Boston, Mass., March 7, 1842. Landscape 
painter, pupil in Paris of Lambinet. Studio 
in Boston ; summer studio in Crawford 
Notch, White Mountains. Works : Venice, 
A. F. Hervey, Boston ; Yosemite Valley, H. 
C. Bacon, San Francisco ; Mirror Lake, Da- 
vid Dudley Field, New York ; The Northern 
Peaks, T. A. Chapman, Milwaukee ; The 
White Mountains, G. B. Prescott, New York ; 
Fort Marion St. Augustine, W. G. War- 
den, Philadelphia ; Fort at Matanzas Flor- 
ida, H. G. Lapham, New York ; Old Mill in 
Seabrook N. H., G. H. Wright, Boston. 

SHARPLES (Sharpless), JAMES, born in 
England in 1751, died in New York, Feb. 
26, 1811. Of a Roman Catholic family, he 
was educated in France for the priesthood ; 
studied art in London under George Rom- 
ney (?), married, and sailed for America in 
1794 with his wife and three children, but 
was taken by the French, carried into Brest, 
and imprisoned several months. On his 
liberation he again embarked, and reached 
New York in safety. Travelling in a four- 
wheeled carriage with one horse he visited 
the principal cities and towns of the United 
States to paint the portraits of notable per- 
sons, of which he made a large collection. 
Though he worked some in oils most of 
these were executed in pastels. A hundred 
and thirty-four of the latter are preserved in 
Independence Hall, Philadelphia, but few 
of his oil pictures are extant. Two portraits 
of Washington and one of Mrs. Washington, 
painted from life about 1796 and taken soon 
after to England, have lately been brought 
to this country for sale. Sharpies re- 
turned to New York in 1809. His wife 
and daughter Rolinda were both painters of 
portraits. Mrs. Sharpies exhibited pastels 
of Gen. Washington and Dr. Priestley (now 
in the National Portrait Gallery) at the Roy- 
al Academy in 1807. She worked at Bath 
and Bristol, England, and left all her prop- 
erty to found an art institution in the latter 
city, where she died in March, 1849. Ro- 
linda, who exhibited at the Academy in 


134 ; f i. 

in Lone 


1820-23 and in 1832, lived at Bristol, where 
she died, Feb. 10, 1838. Her brother James, 
who also painted portraits, died in Bristol in 
1839. Another brother, Felix, painted and 
died in North Carolina. Dunlap ; Walter, 
Memorials of Washington (New York, 1887). 

Francestown, N. H., March 9, 1832. Ani- 
mal painter, pupil in Boston of Alexander 
Ransom, portrait painter, and of the Nation- 
al Academy in 1852. First brought into 
prominent notice in 1855 by a study of 
Grasses and Flowers. Elected AN.A. in 
1856, N.A. in 1861. Studio in New York. 
Works : White Mountains in October (1868) ; 
Sunday Morning in New England (1873) ; 
Sheep and Cattle in Landscape (1874), J. H. 
Sherwood, New York ; Autumn near Stock- 
bridge (1876) ; Granbury Pastures (1877) ; 
Cows by the Meadow Brook (1881) ; Cattle 
(1 882) ; Landscape with Cattle Avon, Conn. 
(1883); Peaceful Days.Farm by the Sea (1884). 

West Troy, N. Y., Sept. 16, 1852. Land- 
scape and animal painter, pupil of H. C. 
Ford, Chicago. Associate of Chicago Acad- 
emy of Design, 1873 ; member, 1876 ; hon- 
orary member of Art Institute, Chicago, 
1886. Works : On the Calumet (1874), J. 
H. Dole, Chicago ; Willow Island (1876), C. 
L. Hutchinson, ib. ; Keene Valley N. Y. 
(1875), A. A. Munger, ib.; Ebb Tide on 
Coast of Maine (1876), William Butterfield, 
ib.; Head of Jersey Bull (1877), Mrs. Jenny 
F. Kempton, ib.; In the Rye Field (1880), 
Mrs. Larned, Providence, R. I ; Road to the 
Creek (1880), B. P. Hutchinson, Chicago; 
Close of a Summer Day (1882), Edwin B. 
Haskell, Boston; July Day (1883), J. H. 
Dole, Chicago ; In the Clearing (1883), Wal- 
ter C. Larned, ib.; Fall Ploughing (1884), 
George A. Brackett, Minneapolis, Minn.; 
Ashen Days (1884), Mrs. C. Brown, Chicago ; 
The Corn-Field (1884), do. ready to Harvest 
(1885), Charles E. Gifford, Jr., ib.; The Rus- 
set Year (1885). 

OF, Claude Lorrain, National Gallery, Lon- 

don ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 11 in. xfi ft. 7 in. 
signed, dated Rome, 1648. The Queen em- 
barking on the occasion of her visit to Sol- 
omon. One of Claude's best pictures. Paint- 
ed in Rome for the Due de Bouillon, whence 
called the Bouillon Claude. Liber Verita- 
tis, No. 114. From Angersteiu Collection. 
Companion to Marriage of Isaac and Rebek- 
ah. Engraved in Gallery Angerstein, by 
Varrall in National Gallery, and in L'Art. 
Replica, painted in 1677, Lord Cathcart 
! Waagen, Treasures, i. 340 ; Cat. Nat. GaL ; 
Pattison, Claude Lorrain, 228 ; Athen., 1876. 

Paolo Veronese, Turin Gallery ; canvas, H. 
11 ft. 3 in. x 17 ft. 10 in. Solomon, seated 
high on his throne, with two elders on each 
side beneath him, stoops forward as if to sup- 
port the Queen of Sheba, who, kneeling and 
nearly fainting, looks up to him with tears 
in her eyes ; beside her kneels a maid of 
honour, who looks back to encourage a ne- 
gro girl carrying presents ; a little dog in 
front barks furiously at an attendant who 
has set down a golden vase near him. A 
picture of ' ' inestimable value. " Painted for 
Charles, Duke of Savoy. Engraved by Hol- 
lar. Ruskin, Mod. Painters, v. 229 ; R'idolfi, 
Marav., ii. 57. 

Dublin, Dec. 20, 1769. 
died at Brighton, Aug. 
19, 1850. Pupil of 
Dublin School of De- 
sign, and won some 


repute in that city as 
a portrait painter; 
went to London in 
1788 and, through ad- 
vice of Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, became a pupil 
of the Royal Academy in 1790. He gradu- 
ally won his way and became a successful 
portrait painter of men, his earliest works 
being theatrical portraits. He also painted 
some subject works, but they did not add 
to his reputation. In 1798 he was elected 
A.R.A., in 1800 R.A, and in 1830 president 



of the Koyal Academy, receiving at the same 
time the honour of knighthood. He was 
also the author of several literary produc- 
tions, among them "Alasco," a tragedy 
(1823), and "Old Court," a novel (1829). 
Works : Infant Bacchus, Thomas Morton 
(dramatist), Thomas Lewis (comedian), 
National Gallery ; "William IV., Queen Ade- 
laide, Windsor Castle ; Queen Victoria, Roy- 

a woman is shearing. Painted in 1860 ; 
exhibited in Brussels, 1860 ; Salon, 1861 ; 
Bordeaux, 18G5 ; Lille, 1866 ; Exposition 
universelle, Paris, 1867. First sketch in 
Collection of Mile. Sensier. Gazette desB. 
Arts (1860), viii. 96; (1861), xi. 63; Sen- 
sier, vie, 216. 

SHEEP SHEAK1NG (Tonte des mou- 
tons), Jean Franyois Millet, William Schaus, 
New York. A farm-yard, with a 
house, farm buildings, and trees 
in background, and a man and 
woman shearing sheep ; in fore- 
ground, many sheep, some shorn 
and some unshorn (the latter sus- 
piciously smelling the former), and 
a man leading out a sheep to be 
sheared. Painted in 1861. From 
Collection of M. Fanien. Sensier, 
vie, 206. 

OF, Correggio. See Notte, La. 

By Domenico Ghirlancfajo, Flor- 
ence Academy ; wood, H. 4 ft. 6 in. 
X 4 ft. 8 in. ; dated 1485. The 
Child lies on the ground in front 
of a sarcophagus which serves as a 
feeding-trough for a cow and a 
mule ; at left, the Virgin kneeling, 
and Joseph gazing at the proces- 
sion of the Magi winding round a 
hill and passing through a triumph- 
al arch ; at right, three shepherds, 
one bearing a lamb. Vasari errs 
in saying that one of the figures is 
a portrait of Ghirlandajo. Paint- 
ed for the Sassetti Chapel in S. 
Trinita, Florence. Engraved by 
al Academy, London ; Portrait of Picton, Perfetti. Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 257 ; C. & C., 
National Portrait Gallery. Art Journal Italy, ii. 476 ; Gall. Accad. di Firenze, PL 

Adoration of Shepherds, Anton Raphael Mengs, Madrid Museum. 

(1849), 12 ; Redgrave ; Cunningham ; F. de 
Conches, 407 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole anglaise ; 
Sandby, ii. 136. 

SHEEP SHEARER (La tondeuse de 
moutous), Jean Frangois Millet, Quincy 
A. Shaw, Boston. Figures three-quarters 
length, life-size. A peasant man, seated on 
an overturned basket, holds a sheep which 



By Anton Raphael Mengs, Madrid Muse- 
wood, H. 8 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 3 in. The 

Virgin, with the Child in her lap, seated in 
the stable, with an ass and an ox in back- 
ground ; at left, St. Joseph sitting, and be- 
hind him the painter himself as a spectator ; 
at right, the shepherds in adoration, one of 



them followed by a dog ; above, a choir of 
angels. One of Mengs's best works. Col- , 
lection of Charles HL Engraved by Raph- 
ael Morghen. Reveil, xiii. 928. 

By Murillo, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft 5 in. x 4 ft. 10 in. On left, 
Jesus lying naked on a crib, the Virgin, at 
his feet, holding up the linen that covers him ; 
behind her, St. Joseph standing ; in front, 
a kneeling shepherd near a lamb ; beyond 
him, an old woman, and behind her, on 
right, two shepherds, one with a staff; above 
the Child, the heads of an ox and an ass. 
First manner. From Houghton Gallery ; 
appraised at 600. En- 
graved by V. Green. Sketch 
in Hermitage. Curtis, 
165 ; Houghton Gallery, i. 
PL 24 ; Hermitage, Cat., 

By Murillo, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 1 
in. x 7 ft. 6 in. The Vir- 
gin, kneeling on left behind 
the crib, holds the head of 
Jesus on her right arm, 
and raises with left the lin- 
en that covers him ; be- 
hind, St. Joseph leaning on 
his staff; in front, a shep- 
herd kneeling in adora- 
tion ; two fowls on ground 
before him ; at right, a 
woman with a basket of eggs, and a man 
leading a lamb by a rope ; in background, 
ruins of a temple. Second manner. Taken 
to Paris by French, returned in 1816 and 
placed in Academy of S. Fernando, whence 
transferred in 1829 to Museum. Engraved 
by Huvert ; lithographed by P. F. Feillet. 
Curtis, 165 ; Madrazo, 469. 

By Murillo, Seville Museum ; canvas, H. 
9 ft. x 6 ft. The Virgin, seated on right, 
holds the head of the Child, who lies on a 
box filled with straw ; she raises the linen 
and shows him to the kneeling shepherds ; 
behind them, on left, a young woman with 
a basket of eggs thrusts a child forward 

into the scene ; in centre, behind the crib, 
St. Joseph standing, leaning on his staff; 
above, two cherubs. Painted about 1676 
for Capuchin Church, Seville. Repetition, 
reversed, Vatican, Rome. Curtis, 164. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Munich Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 4 in. The Vir- 
gin seated in a stable, in which animals are 
feeding, holding in her lap the Infant, be- 
fore whom four shepherds are prostrating 
themselves ; beliind the group, St. Joseph, 
standing. Painted in 1653 for M. de Mau- 
croy, intendant of finances ; passed thence 
to M. Boisfranc and to the Manheim Gnl- 

Adoration of Shepherds, Nicolas Poussin, Munich Gallery. 

lery, from which it was procured by the 
King of Bavaria. Engraved by John Pesne ; 
lithographed (1818) by N. Miixel. Reveil, 
xiii. 888. 

By Rembrandt, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. 1 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. ; signed, 
dated 1646. Interior of a stable ; at right, 
the Virgin sitting near Jesus, who is lying 
in a cradle ; on her right, St. Joseph, stand- 
ing ; two shepherds, kneeling, and near 
them two women and a child, a man with a 
lantern, a boy with a dog ; in background, 
other figures and cattle. Collection of 
Mme. Bandeville (1786), 3,000 francs ; Col- 
lection of M. Tolozan (1801), 10,000 francs ; 



J. J. Angerstein (1824). Engraved by S. 
Bernard ; H. C. Shenton ; Sevier. Vosmaer, 
201, 472 ; Smith, vii. 23. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Eocco, Venice ; 
canvas, H. about 14 ft. x 10 ft. The Virgin 
with Christ, whom two women are adoring, 
seated on a kind of hammock floor of rope 
netting, covered with straw, which divides 
the picture into two stories ; in the lower 
division, the stable, are a cock, a cow, and 
a peacock, some shepherds with gifts, and a 
woman with a basket of eggs. A " tricky 
picture, hastily painted." Ruskiu, Stones 
of Venice, iii. 334. 

By Velasquez, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 7 ft. 7 in. x 5 ft. 6 in. The Vir- 
gin, kneeling at left, supports Jesus, who 
lies on a crib, while Joseph stands beyond, 
holding a staff ; three shepherds kneel be- 
fore the Child, and an old woman behind 
them bends forward ; on right, a girl, with 
a basket on her head, enters a door ; in fore- 
ground lie two sheep. Probably authentic, 
though genuineness has been doubted. 
Purchased about 1832 for Louis Philippe 
from Conde del Aguila, Seville, in whose 
house it had been since it was painted ; sold 
in 1853 to National Gallery for 2,050. 
Engraved by E. Liugee (outline). Curtis, 
4 ; Waagen, iii. 347. 

Subject treated also by Palma Vecchio, 
Louvre ; Francisco Bassano, Dresden Muse- 
um ; Jacopo Bassauo, Louvre, Paris ; Leau- 
dro Bassano, Venice Academy ; Ghirlandajo, 
Florence Academy ; Adriaan van der Werff, 
Uffizi, Florence; Titian, Ambrosiana, Milan ; 
Moretto, Berlin Museum ; Andrea Schia- 
vone, Vienna Museum ; Guido Reni, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Spagnoletto, 
Louvre, Paris ; Garofalo, Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg ; Domenico Feti, ib. ; Palma 
Vecchio, ib. Josef Anton Rhomberg, Frau- 
enkirche, Munich ; Bastien-Lepage (Salon, 

Edwin Landseer, South Kensington Muse- 
um ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. A shep- 
herd's coffin, partly covered by a plaid and 

a blanket, rests in a rude cottage ; on a 
three-legged stool lie a Bible and a pair of 
spectacles, and on the floor beside it a bon- 
net and crook, while by the coffin, with his 
head resting upon it, sits the old man's 
faithful dog his chief mourner. Royal 
Academy, 1837. 

SHEPHERD, LITTLE (Pastor Nino), 
Murillo, Comte Henri de Greffulhe, Paris ; 
H. 1 ft. 10 in. x 1 ft. 4 in. The young 
Saviour, walking front, with a crook in his 
left hand, rests the other on one of two 
sheep on his right ; on his left, another 
sheep running. Presented by Queen Isa- 
bella to M. Guizot in recognition of his 
services in bringing about the marriage of 
her sister to the Due de Montpensier. Sold 
in Paris, 1874, for 120,000 francs. Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1877), xv. 155 ; Curtis, 186. 

SHIPBUILDER, Rembrandt, Buckingham 
Palace ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 8 ft. 6 in. ; 
signed, dated 1633. A shipbuilder, seen to 
knees, making a drawing of a ship, is inter- 
rupted by his wife, who has entered the 
room with a letter. One of Rembrandt's 
most noted pictures. Gildemeester sale 
(1800), 8,050 florins ; Smeth Van Alpen sale 
(1810), 16,500 florins. Engraved by Hodges 
(1802); J. P. Quilley. Etched by De Frey. 
Waagen, Treasures, ii. 4 ; Vosmaer, 35, 
432 ; Smith, vii. 68. 

SHIPWRECK, Joseph M. W. Turner, Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 8 
in. x 7 ft. 11 in. The hulk of a large ship, 
still crowded with human beings, is labour- 
ing in a stormy sea ; three fishing-boats are 
endeavouring to approach her bows, where 
some of the passengers are dropping from 
the bowsprit into a boat. Painted in 1805 
for Sir John Fleming Leicester ; exchanged 
by him for Sun in the Mist. Engraved by 
W. Miller in Turner Gallery. 

SHIRLAW, WALTER, born in Paisley, 
Scotland, Aug. 6, 1838. Genre painter; 
taken to America in 1840. Pupil in Munich, 
in 1870-77, of Raab, Wagner, Ramberg, and 
Lindenschmidt. Exhibited first at National 
Academy in 1861 ; elected an AN. A. in 




1878 ; member of Society of American Ar- 
tists, of which he was the first president ; pro- 
fessor in Art Stu- 
dents' League, New 
York ; member of 
Chicago Academy. 
Studio in New York. 
Works: Eager for 
the Fray (1861) ; 
Toning the Bell 
(1874); Sheep Shear- 
ing Bavarian High- 
lands (1876); Good 
Morning (1878); Gretchen, Burgomaster, 
Task (1879) ; Capellmeister, Marble Quarry, 
Indian Girl, Very Old, Autumn (1880); Tom- 
Boy (1881); Gossip, Tuning Up (1844); Sor- 
ry for the Gorse, Under the Cornstack (1885); 
Jealousy (1886). Am. Art Rev. (1881), 97, 
145 ; Sheldon, 96. 

SHORE, JANE, Joseph Nicolas Robert- 
Fleury, Luxembourg Museum ; canvas, H. 
6 ft. 8 in. x 5 ft. Condemned as a sorceress 
and adulteress, she is pursued through the 
streets of London and insulted by the popu- 
lace. Salon, 1850. 

SHRIMP GIRL, Hoyarth, National Gal- 
lery, London ; canvas, H. 2 ft 1 in. x 1 ft. 
8 in. Half-length, face nearly full, with 
mouth half-open. She wears a white cap 
with a dark cloth over her head, on which 
she bears a tray containing shrimps and a 
small metal measure. Leigh Court sale 
(1884), 256 guineas. Art Journal (1885), 8. 

SHULAMITE, Alexandre Gabanel, Miss C. 
L. Wolfe, New York ; canvas, signed, dated 
1875. Life-size, sitting on the floor of a 
highly decorated apartment, with a column 
and rich stuffs in background. One hand 
is raised to her head ; the other is partly 
veiling her bosom, from which the gauze has 
fallen. Photogravure in Art Treasures of 
America, i. 120. 

Middletown, Conn., July 4, 1807, died in 
New York, May 6, 1884. Portrait and min- 
iature painter, pupil of the National Acad- 
emy, and one of its earliest members, hav- 

ing been elected in 1832. For many years 
a successful miniature portrait painter in 
New York and in other American cities, and 
a regular exhibitor at the Academy. Ho 
went to Washington, D. C., in 1838 to paint 
Henry Clay, and had many other distin- 
guished sitters. 

at Rindge, N. H., June 14, 1841. Land- 
scape and animal painter, pupil of the Lowell 
Institute, Boston, and of the National Acad- 
emy, New York, where he first exhibited in 
1872. Studio in New York. Elected an 
A.N.A. in 1881. Works : American Panther 
(1876); Race for Life (1877); The Still- 
Hunter ; On the Alert (1879); Autumn Gold, 
Pedro (1880); Blue Heron (1881); October 
Hunting, Under the Beeches (1882); Foot 
of the Mountain, Ray of Light, In the Wild- 
Wood (1883); Mt. Porter Adirondacks, By 
Still Water (1884); October, Road to the 
Mill (1885); Song of Summer Woods, Morn- 
ing in the Forest (1886). Sheldon, 211. 

SIBERECHTS, JAN, born in Antwerp, 
baptized Jan. 29, 1627, died in London in 
1703. Flemish school ; landscape painter, 
admitted to the guild in 1648. Painted 
many English landscapes for the Duke of 
Buckingham, who took him to England, 
where he was employed four years in tho 
decoration of Cliefdeu House, and after- 
wards at Newstead and Chatsworth. Was 
distinguished for his water-colours. En- 
deavoured successfully to imitate Berchem 
and Karel du Jardin. Works : Miracle of 
St. Francis of Assisi (1666), Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; Farm Yard (1660), Brussels Museum ; 
Leasehold Farm, Valenciennes Museum ; 
Landscapes with Figures and Cattle (2, 1663, 
1670), Lille Museum ; do. (1), Bordeaux Mu- 

scum ; do., Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; 
Mother sewing by the Cradle (1671), Copen- 



hagen Gallery ; Cattle Pasture, Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich. Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1872), vi. 497 ; Kooses 
(Reber), 412 ; Van den Branden, 1064. 

SIBYL, the name applied to reputed 
prophetesses of the mythical period, some 
of whom are said to have foretold the com- 
ing of Christ to the Gentiles. There are 
ten or more of them, and they are generally 
named from their habitations; as, Cimmerian, 
from the Black Sea ; Cumsean, from Cumse 
in Campania ; Delphian, from Delphi ; Ery- 
thraean, from Erythraea in Asia Minor ; Hel- 
lespontian (sometimes called Trojan), from 
the Hellespont ; Libyan, from Libya ; Per- 
sian, from Persia ; Phrygian, from Phrygia ; 
Samian, from Samos ; Tiburtine, from Tibur 
(Tivoli). They do not appear in art earlier 
than the fourteenth century. 

SIBYL, CUMJEAN, Domenichino, Palazzo 
Borghese, Rome. Wears an immense tur- 
ban, eyes raised and mouth open. Head 
and draperies well drawn and coloured. In 
respect to accessories superior to the repeti- 
tions at the Capitol and in the Modena Mu- 
seum. Engraved by P. Fontana. Lavice, 
335, 354 ; Viardot, 239. 

By Guido Reni, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, 
half-figure. Eyes raised, and resting her 
chin on one hand ; she holds in the other a 
paper, on which is written her prediction of 
Christ's advent "Nascetur cle Virgine." 
Other Cumsean Sibyls by Guido are in the 
Brussels and Vienna Museums, the Palazzo 
Strozzi, Florence, and the Palazzo Brignole 
Sale, Genoa. Soc. Ed. et Paris, PI. 177 ; 
Lavice, 47. 

By Elihu Vedder, Wellesley College, Wel- 
lesley, Mass. She is hurrying along, her 
garments blown by the wind swinging be- 
fore her, in the centre of a landscape with a 
range of mountains resembling the Abruzzi 
in the distance. 

SIBYL, PERSIAN, Guercino, Capitol Gal- 
lery, Rome ; half-figure. She leans her heat 
on the back of one hand and holds a pen in 
the other. An open book lies before her 
Colour, drapery, and effect of light excellent 

one of the master's best pictures. Engraved 
ay Ant. Perf etti ; A. Cunego ; J. V. Kauperz ; 
P. Fontana; Gio. Berselli. Lavice, 331. 

SIBYL, SAMIAN, Guercino, Uffizi, Flor- 

ince ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 7 in. x 2 ft. 11 in. 

Standing, half-length, with her hands on an 

open book. She wears a picturesque turban 

,nd bands of pearls in her hair. Painted in 

1651 for Mattia de' Medici ; bought in 1777 

'or Gallery. Engraved by Ant. Perfetti; 

Lievillain ; J. Rivera. Molini, Gal. di Fireuze, 

i. 125 ; Soc. Ed., Gal. di Firenze, PI. 133 ; 

Wicar, i., Part 3 ; Lavice, 33. 

SIBYL, TIBURTINE, Garofalo, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; wood, H. 2 f t. x 1 ft. 3 in. 
The Sibyl revealing to the Emperor Augus- 
ius the Mystery of the Incarnation. She is 
standing pointing with one hand to the Vir- 
gin and Child, who, with two angels, are 
seen above ; Augustus is kneeling, with his 
Town on the earth beside him. 

Subject treated also by Paris Bordone, 
Venice Academy. 

SIBYL, ZAMBETHA (Sambetha), Hans 
Memling, Hospital of St. John, Bruges ; 
wood, H. 1 ft. 3 in. x 10 in. A bust portrait 
of a Flemish damsel, in the high peaked cap 
of the close of the 15th century. Supposed 
to be the portrait of one of the daughters 
of William Moreel, a patrician of Bruges, 
whose portrait and that of his wife, now 
in the Brussels Museum, were painted by 
Memling in the same year, 1480. C. & C., 
Flemish Painters, 276 ; Beffroi, ii. 182. 

SIBYLLA PALMIFERA (Sibyl with the 
Palm), Dante Gabriel Rossetti, George 
Rae, Birkenhead, England ; canvas, life-size, 
three-quarter length. Illustrative of Ros- 
setti's sonnet of same title. Seated figure 
of a virgin, in crimson dress, with green 
scarf over her hair, holding a palm before 
the shrine of worship ; beside her burns a 
lamp, its flame rising toward a rose garland 
hanging near the sculptured head of a cher- 
ub ; on the other side smoke ascends from 
a thurible in circles towards a death's head, 
over which is a wreath of poppies ; above, 
a festoon of olive boughs and a sphinx in 



a niche. Painted in 1866 ; chalk drawing, 
Alexander Stevenson, Tynernouth. Athe- 
naeum, Sept., 1873, 407 ; Oct., 1875, 444. 

SIBYLS, Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, 
Vatican, Rome ; frescos on ceiling. Painted 
on five of the twelve pendentives, the other 
seven being filled with as many prophets, 
viz. : Zachariah, Joel, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, 
Jonah, Daniel, and Isaiah. 

1. Erythraean Sibyl, full-length, seated, 
looking into an open book at right. Behind, 
two children, one lighting a lamp. 

2. Persian Sibyl, full-length, seated, writ- 
ing in an open book at left. In front of 
her, two children. 

holding up a scroll, half-opened by a flying 
angel, inscribed "The Resurrection of the 
Dead ; " nest the Persian Sibyl, writing on 
a tablet held by an angel, " He will have the 
Lot of Death " ; on the key-stone, a little 
angel holding a torch, and another, seated 
near, points to a tablet in his hand inscribed, 
"The Heavens surround the Sphere of the 
Earth " ; next, the Phrygian Sibyl, and be- 
low her, the Tiburtine Sibyl ; between them, 
a little angel with a tablet inscribed, " I will 
open and arise," and above them another 
floating, with an open scroll inscribed, "An- 
other Generation already." Painted by or- 
der of Agostiuo Chigi in 1514 ; entirely by 

Sibyls, Raphael, S. M. della Pace, Rome. 

3. Libyan Sibyl, full-length, seated, hold- 
ing an open volume on a pedestal at her 
right and looking left at two children seated 
in front of her. 

4. Cumaean Sibyl, full-length, seated front, 
looking to her right into an open book, be- 
hind which are two children. 

5. Delphian Sibyl, full-length, seated, 
looking nearly front. Behind, two children, 
one looking into an open book. 

Engraved by Cherubino Alberti. Vasari, 
ed. Mil., vii. 182 ; Pistolesi, Vaticano desc., 
viii. PL 98, 105, 112, 123, 129 ; Landou, (Eu- 
vre de Michel- Ange, PI. vi., viii., x., xii., xiv. 

SIBYLS, Raphael, S. M. della Pace, Rome ; 
fresco. At left, the Cuniaoan Sibyl, seated, 

Raphael. Shows wonderful execution. Va- 
sari calls it Raphael's masterpiece. This 
fresco is beneath that of the Prophets, and in 
the picture which Michelangelo was called 
in to value, estimating each head to be worth 
a hundred ducats. Restored in 155G-15C1 
by Foutana and in the present century by 
Palraaroli. Engraved by a pupil of Marc 
Antonio ; J. Volpato (1772) ; Ferd. Rusch- 
weyh ; M. F. Dien (1838). Original designs 
in Abertina Collection, Vienna, and at Ox- 
ford. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 340 ; Passavant, 
ii. 138 ; Mttntz, 491, 493 ; Springer, 256 ; 
Reveil, xiv. 967. 

SICHEL, NATHANAEL, born in Mentz, 
Jan. 8, 1844. History and portrait painter, 



pupil of Berlin Academy tinder Julius Schra- 
der ; won a prize in 1864, and studied in 
Rome two years, and in Paris one year. 
Studio in Berlin. Works : Philip the Gen- 
erous at his "Wife's Tomb (1864), Darmstadt 
Gallery; Joseph interpreting Pharaoh's 
Dreams (1864) ; Arrest of Don Carlos by 
Philip II.; Scene from Life of Mary Stuart ; 
Francesca da Rimini (187G) ; Cardinal de 
Guise in Rome. Miiller, 489. 

SICIOLANTE. See Girolamo da Ser- 

SIDDONS, MRS., portrait, Thomas Gains- 
borough, National Gallery, London ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. 1 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. Half-length, 
seated ; in a striped blue and white dress 
and buff shawl, with black hat and feathers, 
and holding in her left hand a brown muff. 
Painted iu 1784 ; purchased in 1862 from 
Major Mair, husband of the actress's grand- 
daughter. Cat. Nat. Gal. ; Eng. Painters of 
Georgian Era, 14. 

By Sir Thomas Lawrence, National Gal- 
lery, London ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 2 in. x by 4 
ft. 8^ in. Full-length, turning over with 
her left hand a leaf of an open volume of 
"Paradise Lost," on a table beside her. 
Presented by Mrs. Fitz-Hugh in 1843. En- 
graved by W. Say (1810). 

Joshua Reynolds, Grosvenor House, Lon- 
don ; canvas, life-size. The Queen of Trag- 
edy, full-length, sitting upon a throne rest- 
ing on clouds, apparently brooding over 
deeds of horror ; behind her stand two fig- 
ures, one with a bowl, the other with a dag- 
ger types of secret and open violence. 
Painted in 1784 ; bought by M. de Caloune 
for 800 guineas ; at his sale (1795) passed to 
W. Smith, M.P., for 700 ; sold to Watson 
Taylor for 900, and bought at his sale 
(1822) by first Marquis of Westminster for 
1,760 guineas. Replica at Langley Park, 
Stowe ; another in Dulwich Gallery, painted, 
according to Northcote, by Score, one of Sir 
Joshua's journeymen ; others in Lord Nor- 
manton's gallery and in possession of Mrs. 
Combe, Edinburgh. Engraved by Hay ward 

(1787). Leslie and Taylor, Life, ii. 420 ; 
Art Journal (1860), 358 ; Waagen, Art Treas- 
ures, ii. 172. 

SIEBERT, ADOLF, born at Halberstadt 
in 1806, died in Rome in 1832. History 
painter, pupil of Wach in Berlin, where he 
won the Academy prize in 1830, and went to 
Rome. He was a deaf mute. Works : Ju- 
piter and Mercury with Philemon and Bau- 
cis (1830) ; St. Luke painting the Madonna 

Siddons as the Tragic Muse, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Grosvenor 
House, London. 

(1831), Schloss Bellevue, Berlin ; Dredalua 
and Icarus; Farewell of Tobias. Cotta's 
Kunstbl. 1829-34 ; Raczynski, i. 59 ; iii. 68. 
SIEGERT, AUGUST, born at Neuwied, 
March 5, 1820, died in Diisseldorf, Oct. 13, 
1883. Genre painter, pupil of Diisseldorf 
Academy under Hildebrandt and Schadow 
in 1835-46. Visited Antwerp, Paris, Hol- 
land, and Munich ; settled in Diisseldorf in 
1851, where he became teacher at the Acad- 
emy, and in 1872 professor. Medal in Vi- 
enna. Member of Amsterdam Academy. 
Works: Luther at Assembly of Worms 



(1844) ; David and Abishai in Saul's Tent 
(1845); Emperor Maximilian and Albrecht 
Dttrer (1848); The Welcome (1851); Trum- 
peter's Children (1851); Holiday (1852); 
Reading the Bible, David finding Saul 
asleep, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Sun- 
day Morning, Museum Fodor, Amsterdam ; 
Poor Family fed in Rich House ; Soldiers 
playing Dice ; Children in Studio, Stettin 
Museum ; Convent Gate ; Patrician In- 
terior ; Meal-Time ; Welcome Pause (1866) ; 
Service of Love (1870), Hamburg Gallery ; 
Fruit Painter (1876), DUsseldorf Gallery ; 
Birth Day ; Forest House ; Good Treatment 
Bad Payment (1883). Kunst-Chronik, 
xix. 24; W. Mttller, DUsseldorf K, 160; 
Wiegmaun, 225 ; Zeitsch. f. b. K, vi. 149. 

bom near Esrom in North Zealand, Sept. 
18, 1833. Portrait and genre painter, pupil 
of Copenhagen Academy in 1844, and after- 
wards of Simonsen ; won the small silver 
medal in 1850, a money prize in 1856, and 
the travelling prize in 1859 ; broke his arm 
in Sweden in 1860, which seriously crippled 
him ; visited in 1863 Brussels, Paris, and 
Rome. Works : Apple Woman, School Girl 
with Books (1856) ; Fishermen from North 
Zealand, Fishermen on the Strand at Even- 
ing (1857) ; Husbandmen from the Heaths, 
From the Country (1860) ; Sad Tale from 
the Sea (1862); Woman and Children (1865); 
Roman Peasants in Church (1866) ; many 
portraits (1878-84). He is a portrait paint- 
er of high rank. Sigurd Mttller, 317 ; Weil- 
bach, 633. 

government of Grodno, Nov. 15, 1843. His- 
tory painter, pupil of St. Petersburg Acad- 
emy and of Piloty in Munich. Visited France 
and Germany in 1870, and settled in Rome 
in 1872. Medals : Vienna, 1873 ; Philadel- 
phia, 1876 ; of honour, Paris, 1878 ; Berlin, 
1879 ; Melbourne, 1882 ; L. of Honour, 1878. 
Member of St. Petersburg, Berlin, Stock- 
holm, and Rome Academies. Works : Alex- 
ander's Confidence in Philip (1870); Figure 
Painting after Poem by Tolstoi (1871) ; Ro- 

man Orgies (1872) ; Christ and the Sinner 
(1873); Nero's Torches (1876); Sword Dance ; 
Woman or Cup (1879) ; Shipwrecked Man 
Begging ; Pirate's Cave (1881); Nubian For- 
tune-Teller (1882) ; Cremation of Russian 
Captain in 10th Century (1883), Moscow 
Museum ; Summer Night in Pompeii (1884); 
Nero by the Body of a Christian Martyr, 
Christ with Martha and Mary (1885) ; fres- 
cos in Church of Our Saviour, Moscow. 
Miiller, 490 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 401 ; 
xix. 352, 382 ; Kunst f. Alle, i. 150. 

SIENA, GUIDO DA. See Guido. 

SIENA, MATTEO DA. See Matteo di 

SIGALON, XAVIER, born at Uzi-s (Gard), 
in 1788 (1790?), 
died in Rome, Aug. 
18, 1837. French 
school; genre 
painter, pupil of 
Monrose at Nimes, 
later of Souchon 
and Guorin in 
Paris. Sent to 
Rome, when M. 
Thiers was minis- 
ter, to copy Michelangelo's Last Judgment, 
now in the l5cole des Beaux Arts, which 
cost three and a half years' labour, for 
which he received 58,000 francs, an indem- 
nity of 20,000 francs, and a travelling pen- 
sion of 3,000 francs. Returned to copy 
other works in Sistiue Chapel, and died of 
cholera. Medal, 1824 ; L. of Honour, 1831. 
Works : Death of St. Louis (1815), Baptism 
of Christ, Cathedral of Nimes ; Holy Ghost 
descending upon theApostles(1817), Church 
of Aigues-Mortes ; Young Courtesan (1821), 
Louvre ; Locusta experimenting with Poi- 
sons (1824), Portrait of Louis Philippe, 

Nimes Museum ; Athalie having all the 
Children of the Blood Royal killed (1827), 


Nantes Museum ; Vision of St. Jerome (1829), 
Louvre ; Christ on the Cross (1829), Church 
at Issingeaux ; Anacreon (1833). Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole fraujaise ; Eloge historique de X. S. 
(1848) ; Bellier, ii. 502. 

SIGISMONDA, William Hogarth, Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 3 
in. x 4 ft. 1 in. Mourning over the heart 
of Guiscardo. Sigismonda or Ghismonda, 
daughter of Tancred, Prince of Salerno, 
loved and secretly married Guiscardo, a 
poor but noble page. Tancred, having dis- 
covered the union, caused Guiscardo to be 
strangled and sent his heart in a golden 
cup to Sigismonda, who escaped from life 
by a poisoned draft which she had pre- 
pared in expectation of her husband's doom. 
Painted in 1759 for Sir Kichard Grosvenor, 
who declined it ; sold at Mrs. Hogarth's 
sale for 56 guineas ; sold in 1807 for 400 
guineas ; bequeathed in 1879 by J. H. An- 
derdon. Engraved (1792) by B. Smith. 

SIGMUND in., King of Poland, born in 
Stockholm, June 20, 1566, died in Warsaw, 
April 30, 1632. History painter. One of his 
pictures was taken for a Tintoretto. Works : 
Allegory of Foundation of Jesuit Convent, 
Schleissheim Gallery; Mater Dolorosa, Augs- 
burg Gallery. 

SIGNOL, SMILE, born in Paris, March 
11 (May 8, Bellier), 1804. History, genre, 
and portrait painter, pupil of Blondel and 
Gros ; won the 2d grand prix de Rome in 
1829, and the grand prix in 1830. Medals : 
2d class, 1834 ; 1st class, 1835 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1841 ; Officer, 1865 ; Member of Insti- 
tute, 1860. Works : Joseph telling his 
Dream to his Brothers (1824) ; Meleager 
taking up Arms (1830) ; Death of Virginia, 
Roman Peasants (1833) ; Noah cursing his 
Son (1834), Aix Museum ; Christ at the 
Tomb (1835), Comtesse Potowska ; Chris- 
tian Religion coming to the Aid of the Af- 
flicted (1837) ; Louis XV. consecrated in 
Rheims (1838), Versailles Museum ; Preach- 
ing the Second Crusade (1839), ib.; Woman 
taken in Adultery (1840), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Magdalen, Mystic Virgin (1842) ; 

Portrait of Louis VH. (1842), Versailles 
Museum ; do. of Godfrey de Bouillon (1844), 
ib. ; do. of Saint Louis (1844), ib. ; Capture 
of Jerusalem in 1099 (1848), ib.; Bride of 
Lammermoor, Fairy and Peri (1850) ; Legis- 
lators under Evangelical Inspiration (1853), 
Palais du Scnat ; Descent from the Cross 
(1853) ; Pieta, Magdalen (1855) ; Crusad- 
ers passing the Bosphorus (1855), Capt- 
ure of Jerusalem (1855), Versailles Muse- 
um ; Holy Family (1859); Wise and Foolish 
Virgins (1863) ; Punishment of a Vestal 
(1863), Arras Museum ; Rhadamistus and 
Zenobia (1863) ; Soldier of Marathon, Ex- 
posure of Moses, Joseph sold by his Breth- 
ren (1878) ; Crusaders coming in Sight of 
Jerusalem in First Crusade (1880), Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Tancred on the Mount of 
Olives (1880), ib.; Portraits of Dagobert L, 
Clovis H, Childeric II., Thierry I, Dago- 
bert H., Thierry II, Childeric HI., ib. He 
has also executed works for churches : 
Death of the Magdalen (1838), Madeleine ; 
Decorations in St. Joseph's Chapel, Saint- 
Severin (1845) ; do. in Chapelle des Catu- 
chismes, Saint-Eustache (1851); do. in Saint- 
Eustache (1856) ; do. in Saint-Augustin 
(1862) ; Betrayal of Jesus and Crucifixion, 
Resurrection and Ascension (1876), Saint- 
Sulpice. Bellier, ii. 502 ; Vapereau ; La- 

born in Cortona in 
1441, died there in 
1523. Tuscan 
school; pupil in 
Arezzo of his uncle, 
Lazzaro Vasari, and 
of Pietro della Fran- 
^ cesca, with whom he 
remained until 
1460. The evident 
influence of Antonio Pollajuolo and Andrea 
Verrocchio upon Signorelli makes it prob- 
able that he spent a portion of his time at 
Florence before 1472, and from 1474 to 1476 
years of which no record is preserved in 



association with these masters. According 
to Vasari, his first work (1472) was the dec- 
oration of the chapel of S. Barbara, in S. 
Lorenzo at Arezzo, no longer extant. The 
first certain notice of him is at Citta di Cas- 
tello, in November, 1474, as occupied in 
painting the now destroyed colossal figures 
of SS. Jerome and Paul on the exterior of 
the tower of the City HalL Of the next 
four years we know nothing. Vasari tells us 
that he painted at Siena, and after finishing 
a work at S. Agostino went to Florence to 
study dead and living masters, and was em- 
ployed by Lorenzo de' Medici ; but the al- 
tarpiece at S. Agostino was not painted un- 
til 1498, six years after Lorenzo's death. 
During an earlier visit to Florence, he per- 
haps painted the School of Pan for Lorenzo, 
now in the possession of the Marchese Corsi. 
His first great works still extant are sup- 
posed to be the frescos in the S. Casa at 
Loreto, which betray Florentine influence 
and the assistance of Don Bartolommeo 
della Gatta, whom Signorelli probably knew 
at Arezzo in 1472, and by whom he was 
called to Loreto between 147C and 1471). 
Here Signorelli reveals his identity in the 
Apostles, Church Fathers, and Evangelists, 
the Conversion of St. Paul, and the Unbeliev- 
ing Thomas. About the beginning of Sep- 
tember, 1479, he returned to Cortona, where 
he was elected one of the priors in the fol- 
lowing February. The date of Signorelli's 
fresco of the History of Moses, in the Sis- 
tine Chapel, is unknown ; but as he was 
commissioned to paint it by Sixtus IV., who 
died in 1484, it must have been executed 
before that year. To this time also belongs 
an altarpiece of the Virgin and Saints, paint- 
ed for the Vauuucci Chapel, in the Cathe- 
dral at Perugia. In the year 1491 he paint- 
ed an Annunciation for the Chapel of S. 
Carlo, in the Cathedral at Volterra, and a 
picture of the Madonna and Saints, now in 
the Public Gallery of that city. Being high- 
ly esteemed as an artist at Florence, Signo- 
relli was made a member of the committee 
of artists appointed in 1491 to sit in judg- 

ment on designs sent in for the construc- 
tion of the facade of the Cathedral. In 
1493 and 1494 he painted an Adoration of 
the Magi and a Nativity for the Church of 
S. Agostino at Citta di Castello, where his 
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, of the year 
149(5, is to be seen in the Church of S. Do- 
menico. To the latter year also belong the 
Descent of the Holy Ghost and the Cruci- 
fixion, painted for a standard, but now di- 
vided in the Church of S. Spirito at Urbino. 
In 1497 Signorelli began to paint eight fres- 
cos from the life of St. Benedict, in the clois- 
ter of the Convent of Monte Riveto Maggi- 
ore, near Siena, still extant, though much 
injured. In 1498 he completed an altar- 
piece for the Bicchi Chapel, in S. Agostino 
at Siena, the wings of which, decorated with 
figures of saints, are in the Museum at Ber- 
lin. He was at Siena later, in 1506 and 
1509, but whether his frescos in the Palazzo 
Petrucci were painted then, or at an earlier 
period, is uncertain. They represent the 
Calumny of Apelles, a Bacchanal, the Chain- 
ing and Triumph of Love, Coriolanus, the 
Flight of .iEneas and Penelope. Called to 
Orvieto to complete the frescos of the Cap- 
pella di San Brizio begun by Fra Angelico, 
Signorelli employed the greater part of the 
years 1500 and 1501 in painting his cele- 
brated Last Judgment cycle, upon which 
he was more or less occupied up to the year 
1504. To 1502 belongs the great altarpiece 
of the Virgin and Apostles with the Dead 
Christ, in the choir of the Cathedral at Cor- 
tona. The altarpiece in S. Medordo at An- 
cevia, near Fabriano, was painted in 1507. 
In 1513 Signorelli was sent to Rome with a 
deputation from Cortona to congratulate Leo 
X. on his elevation to the papacy, and it was 
at this time that he visited and borrowed 
money from Michelangelo, as recorded in 
the great artist's well-known letter to the 
Capitano di Cortona. This was Signorelli's 
last visit to Rome. The remainder of his 
life was spent at Cortona, or in its neigh- 
bourhood. In 1514 he painted the Madon- 
na which still adorns the altar of S. Vin- 



cenzo in the Church of S. Domenico at 
Cortona, and in 1517 the Crucifixion, in the 
Church of the Fraternity of the Holy Cross 
at La Tratta. Two years later he was com- 
missioned to paint a picture for the high 
altar of the confraternity of S. Girolamo 
Arezzo, now in the Church of the Nuns of 
S. Spirito, which, when finished, was brought 
there from Cortona (says Vasari) on men's 
shoulders. Signorelli visited Arezzo in 1520, 
to place the picture ; and Vasari, then eight 
years old, saw him and spoke with him, as 
he relates. After his return to Cortona, 

Triumph of Silenus, Rubens, National Gallery, London. 

where he was repeatedly elected to the 
magistracy, Signorelli painted a Virgin and 
Saints for the Collegiata at Fojano (1523), 
and in the next year commenced his last 
work, never finished, in the so-called Palaz- 
zone a building erected by the Cardinal 
of Cortona about a half mile from the city. 
The fresco which represents the Baptism of 
Christ is still extant, though much over- 
painted. Works : Flagellation, Brera, Mil- 
an ; Madonna and Two Prophets, Holy Fam- 
ily, Uffizi, Florence ; Virgin, Palazzo Pitti, 
ib.; Holy Family, Dresden Gallery; do., ! 
Palazzo Corsini, Florence ; Circumcision, ' 
National Gallery, London ; Dead Christ be- 
wailed by the Marys and Apostles, choir of 

the Cathedral, Cortona ; Communion of the 
Apostles (1512), ib.; Altarpiece, Citta di 
Castello ; High Altar, Compagnia di S. Nic- 
colo, Cortona ; Conception of the Virgin, 
Church of the Gesu, ib. ; Virgin and Saints, 
Church of S. Cecilia, Citta di Castello ; do., 
Academy, Florence ; A Predella, ib. ; Male 
Portrait, Torrigiani Gallery, Florence ; Ad- 
oration of the Magi, Predella, Virgin Bead- 
ing, Louvre, Paris ; Pieta, Keir, Scotland ; 
Nativity, Leuchtenberg Gallery, St. Peters- 
burg. R. Vischer, Luca Signorelli (Leip- 
sic, 1879) ; C. & C., Italy, iii. 1 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil., iii. 683 ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1875), xi. 105. 

RACHE. See Jesus, Sleep 

Madonna with Diadem. 

TYRS, Rubens, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; wood, H. 
2 ft. 11 in. x 3 ft. 6 in. 
Silenus, drunk, with a jug 
in his hand, is supported 
on one side by a female 
satyr, and on the other by 
a negress ; in front, two fe- 
male satyrs lying on the 
ground, one of whom is 
1 suckling two young satyrs. Formerly in 
Houghton Collection. Engraved by Sout- 
man ; Earlom ; Panneels. Smith, ii. 158 ; 
ix. 303. 

By Rubens, Munich Gallery ; wood, 6 ft. 
6 in. square. Twelve figures, besides two 
goats and a tiger. Silenus, supported on 
left by a negro and on right by a satyr, near 
whom is an old woman carrying a jug ; a 
faun, playing a pipe, precedes, and a young 
bacchante, an old woman, and two fauns 
follow him ; in foreground, right, a female 
satyr, seated, suckles her twins. Engraved 
by Bolswert ; Panneels ; Van Orley. Sim- 
ilar subject, Berlin Museum and Cassel Gal- 
lery. Smith, ii. 63 ; ix. 264. 



heim Palace ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 8 in. x 9 ft. 6 
in. Silenus, staggering between a negro 
and a satyr, with three boys with fruit anil 
a tiger at his feet, is preceded by a faun 
playing a pipe, and followed by two 
nymphs, a young satyr, and a nude boy ; 
background, a woody landscape. Engraved 
by Hodges. Sketch in Louvre. Waagen, 
Treasures, iii. 131 ; Smith, ii. 244. 

By Rubens, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. C in. x 6 ft 5 in. The 
drunken demi-god is led along, supported 
and accompanied by satyrs, fauns, nymphs, 
and children bearing grapes. Nine life-size 
figures, three-quarters length. In Rubens's 
possession till his death ; in 1640-42 to 
Cardinal Richelieu ; then to Regent Due 
d'Orleans ; afterwards in Collection of M. 
De Tartre, Collection of Lucien Bonaparte 
(1816); Collection of Chevalier Bonnemaisou 
(1827) ; purchased by Sir R. Peel, 1,100; 
to National Gallery in 1871. Engraved by 
N. Delaunay. Cat. Nat. Gal; Art Journal 
(1871), 121 ; Smith, ii. 161 ; ix. 305 ; Klas. 
der Malerei, PI. 3 ; Reveil, i. 8. 

SILLAX, painter, of Rhegium, about 500 
B.C. He decorated the Stoa at Phlius with 
paintings. Sillig, 419. 

SILO, ADAM, born at Amsterdam in 
1670, died there in or after 1760. Dutch 
school ; marine painter, pupil of Theodoras 
van Pee, having first been a ship builder 
and sea captain. His naval battles and 
storms were especially prized by Peter the 
Great. Works : Calm Sea with Vessels, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Agitated Sea 
with do., Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 
Immerzeel, iii. 88 ; Krarnin, v. 1520. 

SILVA, FRANCIS A., born in New York 
in 1835, died there, March 31, 1886. Marino 
painter, self-taught. After serving through 
the Civil War he settled in 1866 in New 
York, where he exhibited first at the Nation- 
al Academy in 1867. Works : Sunrise in 
Boston Harbour ; Gray Day at Cape Ann ; 
Bass Rocks ; Sunset on the Coast ; Moon- 
rise Hudson River ; Twilight Hour ; Hud- 

son River ; Yacht Magic ; Moonlight on the 
Chesapeake ; On the Hudson, Dr. Judson, 
St. Petersburg ; Moonrise, E. Van Reussel- 
laer, New York ; New London Light, Court- 
land Palmer, ib.; Along the Jersey Coast, 
T. B. Clarke, ib. ; September Day on the 
Coast (1879); Old Town by the Sea (1880); 
Midsummer Twilight (1881); Old Connecti- 
cut Port (1882); By the Sea-Side (1883); 
Monniouth Beach New Jersey (1884); Pas- 
sing Showers, Midsummer Twilight (1885); 
Sunrise, Near Atlantic City (1886). 

ished in the second half of the 17th century, 
died in 1708. Portuguese school ; history 
painter of great renown in Portugal. His 
principal work, a Judith and Holofernes, 
was compared to the works of Van Dyck ; 
others are to be seen in the Sacristy da 
Penha, in S. Jorge, S. Bento, Madre de 
Deo, the Franciscans, etc., Lisbon. His 
last work was the Finding of the Cross 
(1702), Sacristy of S. Pedro. Nagler, xvi. 

SILVESTRE, LOUIS DE, born in Paris, 
June 23, 1675, died there, April 12, 17CO. 
History and portrait painter, brother of 
Louis Silvestre, the elder (1669-1740), 
painter, sou of Israel Silvestre (1621-1691), 

I engraver to the king, and grandson of 

jGilles Silvestre (born 1590), painter, who 
was of a Scottish family named Silvester, 

j settled in Lorraine since the beginning of 
the 16th century. Louis was the pupil of 
his father, of Charles Le Bruu, and of Bon 
Boullonge. He became a member of the 
Academy in 1702, adjunct professor in 1704, 

j and professor iu 1706. In 1716 he was 
called to the court of Saxony by Augustus 
II., who made him his first painter ; in 1726 
he became director of the Dresden Academy, 
and in 1742 he was ennobled by Augustus 
HL of Poland. Having returned to France, 
he was chosen rector of the French Acad- 
emy in 1748 and director in 1752. Works : 
Formation of Man by Prometheus, Minerva 
giving life to Man, Montpellier Museum ; 
Interview of Empress Amelie with Augustus 



III. of Poland and his Family, Hercules pur- 
suing Nessus (1732), Augustus the Strong 
and Frederick William I., Portraits of Au- 
gustus n. and Augustus III. of Poland, of 
the latter's Consort, and of Louis XV. of 
France, Dresden Gallery ; Augustus III. as 
Electoral Prince, Leipsic Museum ; Louis 
XIV. receiving at Fontaiuebleau the Elector 
of Saxony, Last Supper, Portraits of Fred- 
erick Augustus II. of Poland, Marie Joseph 
of Austria Queen of Poland, and the Du- 
chesse de Berry, Versailles Museum ; Fall of 
Phaoton, Schweriu Gallery ; St. Peter heal- 
ing the Sick, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Mariette, Abeccdario, v. 217 ; Bellier, ii. 
504; Jal, 1133. 

born in Munich, early part of 17th cen- 
tury, died in Prague in 1680. German 
school ; imitated the style of Raphael, whom 
he studied in Italy. His colouring is warm 
and powerful. Works : Altarpiece, and S. 
Rosalia, St. Stephen's Church ; Joachim and 
Anna, and Visitation, Gallery of the Estates, 
Prague. Kugler (Crowe), ii. 527. 



May 4, 1801, died at Aschaffenburg, Nov. 
2, 1872. Animal, landscape, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Langer and W. Kobell, much influenced by 
Wagenbaur, then pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy (1824) ; returned home and went again 
to Vienna in 182G ; painted portraits and 
went to Italy in 1827, and after his return 
painted portraits in Hanover ; then took up 
almost exclusively animal painting (1829- 
30) at Munich, and from 1832 at Dusseldorf, 
whence he returned to Geisenheim in 1835 ; 
moved to Aschaffeuburg in 1862 ; often 
painted animals in the landscapes of Bock- 
ing, Grichen, and Schulten, while Achen- 1 
bach and Scheuren supplied the landscape 
for his cattle-pieces. Works : Midday Rest 
in Pasture (1830), KiJnigsberg Museum ; 
Noonday Rest on Lake Starnberg (1833) ; 

Wild Bull (1835), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Bull and Sheep (1834), Raczyuski Gallery, 
ib. ; Great Dutch Landscape ; Bull with 
Two Cows (1835), Potsdam Art Union; 
Sheep and Goats, Provinzial Museum, Han- 
over ; Bull with Cows Drinking (1835), Stet- 
tin Art Union ; Animal-Piece, Wiesbaden 
Gallery ; Cows at Pasture in Approaching 
Storm (1835). His son, Wilhelm (born at 
Geisenheim, Sept. C, 1840), genre painter, 
pupil of Dusseldorf Academy, has made a 
good reputation with attractive scenes from 
huntsmen's life. Works : Sunday Hunters 
(1862) ; On the Way Home (1868) ; Going 
to Hunt (1869); Dead Poacher and his Chil- 
dren ; Game's Crossing-Place (1880). An- 
dresen, i. 131 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 218 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, viii. 90 ; Land und Meer 
(1873), ii. 752. 

SIMMLER, JOSEF, born at Warsaw, 
March 14, 1823, died there, March 1, 1868. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Dres- 
den Academy, and of Bendemann, then in 
Munich of Geuelli, and in Paris of Paul De- 
laroche ; on his return to his native land in 
1848 he at once came into prominence, but 
soon left for Italy, where he studied espe- 
cially Raphael in Rome, and Fra Angelico 
in Florence. After his return he painted 
many stirring scenes from the history of Po- 
land, which increased his reputation. Hon- 
orary member of St. Petersburg Academy, 
1866. Works : Maria Immaculata ; The 
Three Marys ; Stoning of St. Matthew ; 
Martyrdom of St. Josaphat ; David Singing 
Psalms ; Entombment ; Christ on the Cross ; 
Wedding of Cupid and Psyche (ceiling in 
a palace at Warsaw) ; Painting, Sculpture, 
and Architecture ; Death of Queen Barbara ; 
Education of King Sigismund ; Captivity 
of John of Finland and his Wife ; Oath of 
Queen Hedwig. L'Art (1883), i. 101. 

at Concord, Mass.; contemporary. Genre 
painter, pupil in Paris of Jules Lefebvre 
and of Boulanger. Honourable mention, 
Paris Salon, 1883 ; prize of $2,000, 2d Prize 
Fund Exhibition, New York, 1886. Works : 



Study at Concarneau (1882) ; The Winnow- 
ers, Corner of the Market (1883) ; Bout de 
la cour, Summer (1884); Mother and Child, 
Number Two, Low Tide (1885) ; Number 
Two, Mother and Child, Number Three, Un 
dejeuner Spain (1886). 

SIMON, FRIEDRICH, born at Heidel- 
berg iu 1809. Genre painter, pupil of Mu- 
nich Academy, and also studied after the mas- 
terpieces iu the Pinakothek ; cultivated very 
successfully comical genre, and was particu- 
larly effective in his popular scenes by lamp 
or candle light. Many of them are in pri- 
vate collections in Munich. Works : Shoe- 
maker's Apprentice in financial Embarrass- 
ment (1837) ; Vegetable Vender with Mul- 
tiplication Table (1838) ; Two Poachers 
(1839) ; Girl at the Window, Miser by Cau- 
dle-light, Old Man with Dog performing 
(1840) ; Return from Christmas Market ; 
Girl feeding Cat ; Poet in the Garret ; 
Peasant Girl expecting her Lover (1841) ; 
Host examining Glass ; Niglit Watchman 
and Drunken Man (1842) ; Journeyman 
Travelling ; Poacher iu Alpine Hut (1843) ; 
Music Lesson (1844); Priest on his Way to 
a Dying Man (by torchlight) ; Poet trying 
to chase Cats from the Roof (1845); Appren- 
tice with Journeyman's Bundle before Mir- 
ror (1851). 

SIMONE DI MARTINO (Martini) born 
in 1285 (?), died at Avignon, July, 1344. 
Sienese school ; son of one Martino and 
brother-in-law to Lippo Memmi, whence 
Vasari's error in calling him Simone Mem- 
mi. Sometimes called also Simone da Siena. 
Vasari probably errs in making him the pu- 
pil of Giotto, he being obviously a follower 
of the purely Sienese manner improved by 
Duccio. This is clear from the earliest of 
his frescos in the Sala del Consiglio of the 
Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, dated 1315. In 
1320 he painted for S. Caterina of Pisa an 
altarpiece in seven compartments, now dis- 
membered, six of the panels being in the 
Seminario Vescovile of old S. Caterina, and 
the seventh in the Academy. This picture 
is in Simoue's best mauuer, the tones being 

both powerful and clear, yet it shows how 
imperfectly he could express the idea of re- 
lief. Another altarpiece, dated 1320, painted 
for S. Domenico of Orvieto, is now in the 
Fabbricieria of the Duomo, where is also 
another equally fine Madonna of the same 
period. In Assisi Simone decorated the 
whole Chapel of St. Martin with frescos 
from the legend of that saint. In 1328 ho 
painted iu the Sala del Consiglio in the Pa- 
lazzo Pubblico, Siena, a fresco representing 
Guidoriccio Fogliani do' Ricci on horseback, 
and in 1333, with the aid of Lippo Memmi, 
completed the Annunciation now in the 
Uffizi, Florence. There is nothing to con- 
firm the assertion of Vasari that Simone 
painted in Rome and in Florence, and the 
frescos in the Campo Santo ascribed to him 
are obviously by another hand. In 1338- 
39 Simone went to Avignon, where he met 
Petrarch, who immortalized him in two of 
his sonnets (xlix. and 1. or Ivi. and Ivii.), 
and Laura, whose portrait he painted. This 
picture is now lost Simono adorned the 
portico of the Cathedral at Avignon with 
frescos, and the Hall of the Consistory and 
two chapels in the Papal Palace, but most 
of his work is nearly obliterated. A Christ 
among the Doctors, painted at Avignon and 
dated 1342, is in the Royal Institution, Liv- 
erpool. An altarpiece, once dismembered 
and placed in different churches, is now in 
the Pisa Gallery. The works of his son Do- 
nato, who accompanied him to France, have 
perished. Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ii. 80, 91 ; 
ed. Mil., i. 545 ; C. & C., Italy, ii. GO ; Burck- 
hardt, 95, 97, 498, 514; W. <t W., i. 463 ; 
Dohme, 2i. ; Sienesische Malerschule ; Liib- 
ke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 169 ; Kuust-Chronik, 
xix. 219 ; Zeitsch. f. b. K, x. 65. 

SIMONE DA PESARO. See Cantarini, 

SIMONE DA SIENA. See Simone di 

cdli, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; canvas, H 2 
ft. x 1 ft 4 in. Profile, in a cap and simple 
attire. Portrait of Siinonetta de' Vespucci, 



called by Vasari the mistress of Giuliano de' 
Medici ; but it is uncertain whether this be 
the portrait of La Simonetta or of another 
mistress of humbler origin who became the 
mother of Clement VII. It has been en- 
graved by Calamatta. Another portrait, for- 
merly in the Reiset Collection, Paris, but 
now said to be in possession of the Due 
d'Aumale, Chautilly, inscribed " Simonetta 
Januensis Vespuccia," is more probably the 
true Simonetta. A striped scarf is loosely 
draped around her nude shoulders, her hair 
is braided with pearls, and a serpent-shaped 
jewel glitters on her neck. This picture is 
ascribed by some to Antonio Pollajuolo. A 
third, by Botticelli, belonging to Colonel 
Sterling, London, was in the Eoyal Acad- 
emy's winter exhibition, 1886. She wears 
a brown robe thickly sown witli pearls, a 
many-coloured scarf, and a head-dress dec- 
orated with pearls and a plume. A fourth, 
ascribed to Piero della Francesca, was sold 
in London, 188C,in the collection of William 
Graham. Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 332 ; C. & 
C., Italy, ii. 424, 428 ; Gal. du Pal. Pitti, i. 
PI. 11 ; Mag. of Art (188G), ix. 4G6. 

SIMONETTI, ATTILIO, Cavaliere, born 
in Home ; contemporary. Genre painter, 
pupil of Fortuny. Professor in Naples. 
Works: First Fable (1875); After the Ball 
(1876); Via Giuseppe Mancinelli in Palaz- 
zolo (1878); Proclamation before the Pan- 
theon, E. B. Warren, Philadelphia (John- 
ston sale, 1876, $2,725). Mailer, 492. 

SIMONIDES, Greek painter, date un- 
known. Pliny says (xxxv. 40 [141]), that he 
painted an Agatharcus and a Mnemosyne. 

SIMONSEN, NIELS, born in Copenha- 
gen, Dec. 10, 1807, died there, Dec. 12, 
1885. History painter, pupil of Copenha- 
gen Academy, where he first took up paint- 
ing, then sculpture, and, on failing to ob- 
tain the large gold medal, returned to 
painting. Studied in Munich in 1833 ; vis- 
ited Tyrol and Italy, and in 1839 Algiers ; 
settled in Copenhagen in 1845 ; took part 
in the Schleswig wars of 1848 and 1864 ; 
travelled in Sweden in 1857, and visited 

Rome in 1870. Professor at Copenhagen 
Academy in 1854. Member of Munich, Co- 
penhagen, and Stockholm Academies. Dane- 
brog Order, 1852. Works : Miser ; Corsairs 
resting after Combat ; Captured Pirates ; 
Death of an African Chief ; Tordenskjold 
fighting a Swedish Frigate ; Bivouac after 
Battle of Schleswig (1849), Copenhagen Gal- 
lery; Battle of Fredericia ; Storming of Fred- 
erikstad ; Battle of Idsted ; Swedish Be- 
trothal (1862), Copenhagen Gallery ; Scenes 
in the Trenches of DybbOl ; Battle of Sand- 

Simplicity, Sir Joshua Reynolds, E. F. Watson, England. 

elmark ; Naval Fight batween Turks and 
Greeks, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Caravan over- 
taken by Storm (1855), Christiania Gallery ; 
Sailor Smoking seated on a Cannon, New 
Pinakothek, Munich. Weilbach, 634. 

SIMPLICITY, Sir Joshua Reynolds, E. F. 
Watson, England. Portrait, half-length, of 
Sir Joshua's grand-niece, Offy Gwatkin. 
Seated under a tree, with her hands in her 
lap full of wild flowers. One of the most 
charming of Reynolds's child pictures. 
Pulling, Reynolds, 88 ; Stephens, English 
Children, by Sir J. R. 



SIMPSON, JOHN, born in London in 
1782, died there in 1847. Portrait painter, 
pupil of Royal Academy, where he exhibited 
in 1807. Was assistant, for many years, to 
Sir Thomas Lawrence. In 1884 he went to 
Lisbon, where he was appointed painter to 
the Queen of Portugal. He painted por- 
traits of William IV. and of other distin- 
guished persons. His son Philip was a por- 
trait and subject painter. Redgrave. 

SIMUS, second-rate painter, date and 
place unknown. Among his works were a 
Youth Reposing, a Fuller's Shop, and a 
Nemesis. Pliny, xxxv. 40 [143] ; Sillig, 421. 

SINCERITY, Carlo Dolci, Vienna Muse- 
um ; canvas, H. 3 f i 2 in. x 2 ft. 8 in. 
Three-fourths length, crowned with a lily, 
emblem of purity, and bearing in right 
hand a golden heart, from which rays of 
light proceed. Gal. de Vienne, i. PI. 59. 

SENDING, OTTO, born at Kongsberg, 
Norway, in 1842. Landscape and marine 
painter, pupil in Christiania of Eckersberg, 
then in Carlsruhe of Gude and of Riefstahl, 
and in 1872-76 at Munich of Piloty ; re- 
turned to Norway, visited Italy in 1880, and 
settled in Munich ; now at Bodii, Norway. 
Honorary member of Munich Academy. 
Medals : Philadelphia, 1876 ; Munich, 1883 ; 
Berlin, 1886. Works : Autumnal Storm on 
Norwegian Coast ; Funeral in the Lofoden ; 
Bathing Place in Capri ; Spring in the Lo- 
foden (1882), Copenhagen Gallery ; Winter 
Evening, Fishermen's Harbour, Summer 
Evening in the Lofoden (1882) ; Tarantella 
of Italian Fishermen (1883), National Muse- 
um, Buda-Pesth ; From Svolvaer in the Lofo- 
den (1883), Christiania Gallery ; Burial in 
the Lofoden, Sunrise in Lapland, Scene 
from Yngliuga Saga (1884). Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xxi. 822 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 306 ; 
xviiL 109, 497 ; xix. 645, 661 ; xx. 352 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, xix. 263. 

SINGLETON, HENRY, born in London, 
Oct. 19, 1766, died there, Sept. 15, 1839. 
Pupil of his uncle, William Singleton, min- 
iature painter and student at Royal Acad- 
emy. Painted portraits and history, and 

largely employed as a book illustrator. His 
portrait group of the Royal Academicians 
(1793) is in the Academy, and his Ariel on a 
Bat's Back, and Manto and Tiresias, in the 
National Gallery. Redgrave. 

school (1507-1528). Real name Sinibaldo 
Ibi. One of the feeblest of Perugino's fol- 
lowers. Painted Madonna with Saints, dated 
1507, in Cathedral of Gubbio ; Madonna en- 
throned and Saints, dated 1524, in S. Fran- 
cesco Romana, Rome ; and Annunciation, 
dated 1528, in Perugia Gallery, where other 
pictures are attributed to him. C. & C., 
Italy, iii. 344 ; Ch. Blanc, I^cole oinbrienne ; 
Lanzi, i. 349. 

at Almelo, Netherlands, in 1835. History 
and portrait painter, pupil of Dflsseldorf 
Academy under Karl Milller, in whose spirit 
he paints religious pictures in the style of 
the Nazarites, with deep feeling and careful 
execution. He has travelled in Germany, 
the Netherlands, and in 1867 visited Italy. 
Medal in Dilsseldorf. Among his portraits 
those of the Count and Countess of Spee 
(1880), and of the Baroness von Ketteler 
(1886) are especially truthful. Muller, 492. 

SIRANI, ELISABETTA, born in Bologna, 
Jan. 8, 1638, died there Aug. 28, 1665. Bo- 
lognese school ; daughter and pupil of An- 
drea Sirani, but became an imitator of Gui- 
de's best style. When only seventeen years 
old she had acquired such a reputation that 
she received orders from many Italian 
princes and from foreign sovereigns. Her 
brilliant career was cut short, it was sus- 
pected by poison, in her twenty -sixth 
year. She left more than a hundred and 
fifty works, many of them large, and all 
carefully executed. Most of them are in 
Bologna, in the Gallery and in churches. 
Among the best are : Death of Abel, Tu- 
rin Gallery ; St. Anthony of Padua, Bo- 
logna Gallery ; Charity, Palazzo Sciarra, 
Rome. Malvasia gives a full list of them. 
Malvasia, ii. 385 ; Lanzi, iii. 99 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole bolonaise ; Burckhardt, 790, 796. 



Bologna, Sept. 4, 1G10, died there, May 21, 
1670. Bolognese 
school ; pupil of Ca- 
vedone, then of Gui- 
do, with whom he 
remained until his 
master's death 
(1642). Sirani'ssuc- 
-^ ,, \cess in finishing 

^W~ " some of Guide's 
r works brought him 

numerous commis- 

sions. His early pictures are in Guide's sec- 
ond manner, but he afterwards adopted a 
stronger style, somewhat like that of Cara- 
vaggio. Works chiefly in Bologna, in the 
Gallery and in churches. Among them are : 
Crucifixion, S. Benedetto, Bologna ; Concep- 
tion of Virgin, Bologna Gallery ; Magdalen, 
Supper at the House of the Pharisee (1652), 
Church of the Cemetery, Bologna. His 
three daughters, Anna, Barbara, and Elisa- 
betta, were all painters, but only Elisabetta 

acquired reputation. Malvasia, ii. 386, 408; 
Lanzi, iii. 99 ; Ch. Blanc, lOcole bolonaise. 

SKARBINA, FRANZ ; contemporary. 
Genre painter. Settled in Berlin, where he 
is instructor at the Academy. Adherent of 
naturalism, which is too often marked by a 
lack of artistic feeling. Works : Ceremonial 
Visit ; Citizen Card-Players ; Before the 
Hotel ; Studies in Strategy ; Frederick the 
Great taking a Walk (1878) ; Awakening in 
a Dissecting-Room (1878) ; Exchange of 
Soul ; Sunset. Miiller, 493 ; Leixuer, Mod. 
K, ii. 2 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 282 ; 
D. Rundschau, ix. 476 ; xiii. 337 ; xvii. 312. 

at Hammerhus, near Ringsted, Zealand, 
April 4, 1817, died in Copenhagen, April 13, 
1875. Landscape painter, pupil of Copen- 
hagen Academy in 1831 ; was at first a house 
painter, devoting his leisure to landscape. 
Visited Rome and Naples in 1854 and in 

1869. Member of Copenhagen Academy in 
1864, and professor. Medals : Copenha- 
, :;- ^,, gen, 1845 and 1846. 

Works : Moonlight 
(1836); Summer 
Afternoon on Inland 
Lake ; Twilight in 
a Wood ; Forest 
Lake ; View of Fred- 
eriksvaerk (1839), 
Oak Tree near Jae- 
gerspriis (1843), 
Creek near Dron- 
ningemollen (1844), View of Skarrit Lake, 
Sunny Day in Deer Park (1848), Highway 
by Castle Vognserup (1849), Summer Day 
in Deer Park (1875), Pond of Molledammen, 
Northern Coast of Zealand (1860), Female 
Portrait (1860), Copenhagen Gallery. His 
sons, Joachim (born Nov. 18, 1856) and 
Niels (born Nov. 2, 1858), are promising 
landscape and animal painters. Weilbach, 
637 ; Kunst-Chronik, x. 457 ; Sigurd Miil- 
ler, 321. 

SLAVE SHIP, Joseph M. W. Turner, 
Thornton K. Lothrop, Boston, Mass.; can- 
vas. A slave ship driven ashore in a storm ; 
the slaves have been thrown overboard, and 
some of them are struggling, with their 
manacles on, in the surf. Long owned by 
John Ruskin, from whom bought by J. Tay- 
lor Johnston, New York, at whose sale 
(1876) sold for $10,000 to Miss Alice 
Hooper, who left it to the son of Thornton 
Lothrop, Boston. Ruskin, Mod. Painters. 

SLEEP OF JESUS. See Madonna with 

VAN, born at Leyden, Oct. 20, 1640, died 
there, Nov. 7, 1691. Dutch school; genre 
painter, pupil of Gerard Dou, of whom he 
was the most conscientious and patient im- 
itator. Works : Family Group, National 
Gallery, London ; Domestic Scene, Woman 
Sewing and Child in Cradle, Bucking- 
ham Palace, ib.; Kitchen with Man offer- 
ing Partridges to the Cook, Bridgewater 
Gallery, ib. ; Mother reproving Girl, Mr. 



Baring's Collection, ib. ; Meerman Family, 
Male Portrait (1656), Kitchen Utensils, 
Louvre; Musical Par- 
ty in a Kitchen, Male 
Portrait, Amsterdam 
Museum ; Male Por- 
trait (1671), Rotter- 
dam Museum ; The 
Cook, Portrait of a 
Young Man, Berlin 
Museum ; Dutch In- 
teriors (2, one dated 

1683), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Interior of El- 
egant Dutch House (1668), Young Woman 
teasing Parrot, Copenhagen Gallery ; Inter- 
rupted Music Lesson (1672), Poultry Vend- 
er (1673), Songstress, Dresden Museum ; 
Interior of Slaughter-House, Portrait of a 
Lady, Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; Sailor 
Drinking, Leipsic Museum ; Tailor's Shop, 
Woman sewing at Window, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Shoemaker's Shop (1670), Violin 
Player, Old Beggar, Schwerin Gallery ; Man 
with Glass of Beer, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg; Family Group, Czernin Gal- 
lery, Vienna; Money-Chauger and 
Wife, Liechtenstein 
Gallery, ib.; others 

* wick, and Stock- 
holm Galleries. 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 410 ; Ch. Blanc, cole 
hollandaise ; Immerzeel, iii. 92 ; Kramm, v. 

christy, near Ghent, May 29, 1823. Histo- 
ry painter, pupil of Wappers. Member of 
Brussels Academy. Commander of Leopold 
Order. Works : Sinking of the Vengeur 
(1845), Cologne Museum ; Triumph of 
Chlodio ; Death of Captain Jacobsen (1845) ; 
Death of Nelson (1850); Philip the Good in 
the Battle of Brouwershaven (1852) ; Chris- 
tian Martyr (1860) ; Sea Fight ; Battle of 
Lepanto, Vesalius the Physician in Army 
of Charles V., Brussels Museum ; Camoens ; 
Italian genre pictures. In fresco : 12 sub- 
jects from Belgian history, Palais des Aca- 

demies, Brussels. Immerzeel, Hi. 93 ; Mttl- 
ler, 493. 

Leydeu in 1660, died there in 1736. Dutch 
school ; genre and portrait painter, pupil of 
Arie de Vois, and of Slingelandt, in whose 
style he painted assemblies and festivals, 
full of merry figures of excellent execution 
and brilliant colouring. Works : Young 
People hanging Nets between Trees, Alle- 
gories (2, one dated 1684), Lady and Gen- 
tleman in Garden Pavilion (1699), Leyden 


SMEDLEY, W. T., born in Chester 
County, Pa., in 1858. Genre painter, self- 
taught. First exhibited at National Acad- 
emy in 1881. Member of Society of Amer- 
ican Artists. Studio in New York. Works : 
Weekly Mail, Embarrassment (T. B. Clarke, 
New York), Tired Out (1881); Dorothy, 
Golden Rod (1883). 

SMEYERS, GILLES, born at Mechlin in 
1635, died there in 1710. Flemish school ; 
history painter, pupil of Jan Verhoeven ; 
master of the guild in 1657, its treasurer 
in 1682. Works : St. Norbert consecrating 
Deacons, Death of St. Norbert, Brussels 
Museum ; Group Portrait of Corporation 
(1695), Museum, Mechlin ; Benefits of Holy 
Trinity, The Three Modes of Slavery, St. 
John's, ib. ; Raising of Lazarus, Disciples at 
Emrnaus, Seminary, ib. His son and pupil 
Jacques (1657-1732), master in 1688, paint- 
ed history, portrait, and genre. Michiels, 
x. 473 ; Siret (1883), ii. 278. 

SMIBERT, JOHN, born in Edinburgh in 
1684, died in Boston in 1751. Portrait 
painter ; obtained some elementary instruc- 
tion at Edinburgh, where he brought him- 
self into notice by the portrait of a young 
negro from Martinique. Then followed a 
short residence in London, where he studied 
in Sir James ThornhiU's Academy, and three 
years' work in Italy, where the Grand Duke 
of Tuscany employed him to paint the por- 
traits of some Siberian Tartars to be sent 



as a present to the Czar. On his return to 
London he was patronized by the Earl of 
Bristol, and, having renewed his acquaint- 
ance with Bishop Berkeley, whom he had 
met in Italy, was engaged by him as pro- 
fessor of fine arts in the projected college at 
Bermuda. He accordingly accompanied the 
Bishop and his party to America, and landed 
at Newport in January, 1729. Smibert then 
went to Boston, established himself as a 
portrait painter, and on July 30, 1730, mar- 
ried Mary Williams, by whom he had sev- 
eral children. After the collapse of the 
Bermuda project, when Bishop Berkeley 
went to Boston to sail for England in the 
autumn of 1731, Smibert painted him and 
his family. The picture was presented to 
Yale College in 1808. Copley is said to 
have been Smibert's pupil, but this is un- 
certain. Portraits : Mrs. M. S. Alford (E. 
Winslow, Boston); R. Ball (H. H. Edes, 
Charlestown) ; Cardinal Bentivoglio, copy 
from Van Dyck, Harvard College ; Mrs. F. 
Briuley and child (1729-30), E. L. Brinley, 
Philadelphia ; Th. Bulfinch (Mrs. T. Swett, 
Boston) ; Mr. and Mrs. Chandler (Mrs. F. 
Dexter, Boston) ; Benj. Codman (1734), Har- 
vard College ; Governor Endicott, Peter 
Faueuil, Rev. J. and Mrs. Gee, Massachu- 
setts Historical Society ; Judge I. Gerrish 
(Miss S. D. Barrett, Boston) ; S. and Mrs. 
Greenleaf (R. E. Ap thorp, Boston) ; Two 
Children of Loring family, F. C. Loring, 
Boston ; Hon. B. Lynde and wife (1738), 
Dr. F. E. Oliver, Boston ; J. McSparran 
and wife, Mrs. Dr. Elton, Dorchester ; Hon. 
D. and Mrs. Oliver, portraits of their three 
sons, David, Andrew, and Peter, and of 
Mrs. Andrews (Dr. F. E. Oliver, Boston); 
A. Pepperell (E. Winslow, Boston); Judge 
Ed. Quincy, two portraits (one in Art Mu- 
seum, Boston, and the other in Quincy 
family); J. Sewell (Salisbury family, Bos- 
ton); Chief-Justice Sewell (Messrs. Ridg- 
way, Boston) ; Mrs. J. Smibert, artist's wife, 
Massachusetts Historical Society ; W. Ty- 
ler, New England Historical and Genealog- 
ical Society ; Captain Th. and Mrs. Ship- 

pard (1750); Patrick (17GO) and Mrs. Tracy 
(1754), Colonel H. Lee, Boston. Bishop 
Berkeley's Works, iv. 189; W. H. Whit- 
more, Notes concerning Peter Pelham (Cam- 
bridge, 1867), 17 ; A. T. Perkins, Sketches 
of Blackburn and Smibert, Proceedings of 
Mass. Hist. Soc., viii. 385. 

ton, Jan. 20, 1734, died there, Nov. 8, 1756. 
Portrait painter, son and pupil of John Smi- 
bert. Mentioned by Judge Cranch in a 
letter to Dr. John Eliot as " one of the most 
amiable youths I was ever acquainted with," 
to which he adds : " Had his life been 
spared he would probably have been in his 
day what Copley and West have since been, 
the honour of America in imitative art." 
Portraits : John Lovell, Harvard College ; 
Dorothy Wendell (Dr. J. L. Hale, Boston). 
AV. H. Whitmore, Notes concerning Pe- 
ter Pelham, 17 ; Duulap, i. 31 ; A. T. 
Perkins, Proceedings of Mass. Hist. Soc. 


New York, Dec. 
29, 1840. Land- 
scape painter, 
son of James 
Smillie the en- 
graver, and pu- 
pil of James M. 
Hart. In 1871 
sketched in the 
Rocky Moun- 
tains and Yo- 
semite Valley; 
visited Florida in 1874. First exhibited in 
the National Academy in 1863 ; elected an 
A. N. A. in 1864, and N. A. in 1882. Mem- 
ber of Society of American Artists. Studio 
in New York. Works in oil : Lake in the 
Woods (1872) ; Goat Pasture (1879) ; Flor- 
ida Lagoon (1875) ; Merrimac River (1882) ; 
At Marblehead Neck Mass. (Henry Ir- 
ving), On the Massachusetts Coast (1883); 
Summer Morning on Long Island, Over the 
Hill to the Poor-House Salisbury, Mass. 
(1884). Water-colours : Sentinel Rock 



Yosemite Valley (1872); Near Portland- 
Maine (1881) ; Pigeon Cove (1882) ; Willows 
at Newburyport (1883) ; Morning along 
Shore (1884) ; Normandy Farm, Showery 
Day on Massachusetts Coast, Song of Sum- 
mer (1885) ; Near Kennebunk, Long Island 
Farm (188G). 

York, Jan. 16, 1833. 
Landscape painter, 
son of James Smil- 
lie, by whom he 
was educated as an 
engraver ; but in 
1864 he turned his 
attention to paint- 
ing, which he 
studied without a 
master. Sketched 
at different times 
among the great mountain ranges of the 
United States ; in 1862 made a short trip 
abroad. A fellow of the Painter-Etchers 
Society of London, member of the Society 
of American Artists and of the Society of 
Painters in Water-Colours, of which he was 
president in 1873-78. Elected an A.N.A. 
in 1866, and N.A. in 1876. Studio in 
New York. Works in oil : Up the Hill- 
side ; Evening among the Sierras of Cali- 
fornia ; Lifting of the Clouds White Moun- 
tains ; Adirondacks (1879) ; Cedar Meadow 
Poughkeepsie (1880) ; Evening Shadows 
(1881); Old Orchard, Cathedral Rocks 
Yosemite (1883) ; Near Morblehead Mass., 
Pond's Outlet (1884). Water-colours; Scrub- 
Race on the Western Prairies ; Study from 
Nature Au Sable River (1876); Track of the 
Torrent Adirondacks; Stray Lambs near 
Montrose Pa. (1884) ; Fallow Field, Cliffs 
of Normandy (1885); Harbour Island Lake 
George, Summer Sea on Coast of France 
(1886). Am. Art Rev. (1880), 524. 

SMIRKE, ROBERT, born at Wigton, 
near Carlisle, in 1752, died in London, Jan. 
5, 1845. Apprenticed to a heraldry painter 
in 1766 ; entered Royal Academy schools in 
1772, and exhibited first in 1786; A.R.A. 

in 1791, and R.A. in 1793. Was the princi- 
pal of the early English genre painters, tak- 
ing his subjects mostly 
from the English poets 
and from Cervantes, 
but was chiefly em- 
ployed as a book illus- 
trator. Works : Maw- 
worm, Dr. Cantwell 
and Old Lady Lambert 
(Bickerstaffe's "Hyp- 
ocrite ") ; Scenes from 
"Don Quixote" (15), 
National Gallery, London. Redgrave ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole anglaise ; Sandby, i. 299. 

SMIT, A. (Andries, Arnout?), nourished 
second half of 17th century. Dutch school. 
Marine painter in the stylo of Bakhuyzen ; 
perhaps identical with Andries Smit, who 
became a citizen of Amsterdam in 1699. 
Works: Agitated Sea with Vesesls (1678), 
Copenhagen Gallery ; do. (2), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Storm at Sea, Mannheim Gallery; 
do., on Rocky Coast, four others, Schwerin 
Gallery. Schlie, 585. 

New York, Sept. 4, 1837. Marine painter ; 
pupil of M. F. H. Do Haas. Exhibits at the 
National Academy. Studio in New York. 
Works : Yacht Eva (1869), L. L. Lorillard, 
New York; Windy Day (1876); Yacht 
Dauntless (1877), Philip Schuyler, New 
York ; Perils of the Sea (1878) ; Marino 
(1879); Stiff Breeze (1880) ; Off Cuttyhunk 
(1881) ; Yacht Columbia, Lester Wallack, 
New York ; Yacht Sappho, William P. 
Douglass, ib. ; Yacht Wanderer, James 
Stilhnan, ib. ; and others. Mr. Smith is 
well known also as a yacht designer. 

SMITH, CALVIN RAE, bom in New 
York in 1850. Genre painter, pupil of the 
National Academy, New York, and in Paris 
of the ficole des Beaux Arts, Carolus-Duran, 
Diogone Maillart, and Adolph Yvon. Was in 
France and Italy in 1874-79. First exhib- 
ited in the Paris Salon in 1878. Is assistant 
professor in the antique school of the National 
Academy. Works : Little Italian (1878) ; A 



Good Joke (1880) ; Little Marauders (1881) ; 
Little Bookworm, Peggy (1882); Clear the 
Way ! (1883) ; Workers and Idlers (1884). 

in Baltimore, Md., Oct. 23, 1838. Land- 
scape painter ; self-educated. Paints in oil, 
but works cliiefly in water-colour and char- 
coal. Member of the Water Colour Society, 
New York. Studio in New York. Works 
in oil : Old Cedars Franconia Mountains, 
Darkling Wood (1876) ; Galilee by the Sea 
(1880). Water-colours : Summer in the 
Woods (1871) ; Old Man of the Mountains 
(1874) ; Overlook Falls (1875) ; Under the 
Leaves (1877) ; Deserted, Charles F. Have- 
meyer, New York ; Cool Spot, J. J. Astor, 
ib. ; Looking Seaward, Old Smithy (1878) ; 
Grand Canal Venice, Market Place Sev- 
ille (1884). Published (1887) a volume of 
sketches entitled "Well- Worn Roads." 

SMITH, FRANK HILL, born in Boston 
in 1841. Portrait, figure, and landscape 
painter and decorator ; pupil in architecture 
of Haminatt Billings, Boston ; studied in 
the Atelier Suisse and under Bonnat in 
Paris, where he spent six years ; and painted 
in Belgium, Holland, and Italy. Studio in 
Boston. Works : Venice, Hon. William 
Claflin, Mass. ; Venice, Somerset Club, Bos- 
ton ; Portrait of Two Children (1873). Has 
devoted himself largely to architecture 
painting, and has decorated buildings in 
Holyoke, Boston, and Cambridge. 

SMITH, GEORGE, born in Chichester, 
England, in 1714, died there, Sept. 17, 1776. 
Painted landscapes and rural subjects after 
the manner of Claude and Poussin, which 
were lauded beyond their merits ; fashion 
placed him in the first rank, poets apostro- 
phized him, and Woollet, Elliot, Peak, and 
Vivares engraved his works. He and his 
brothers, William (1707-1764), who painted 
portraits, landscapes, and fruits and flowers ; 
and John (1717-1764), who painted land- 
scapes, were known as the Smiths of Chi- 
chester. Redgrave. 

Waterford, Conn., Feb. 20, 1854. Marine 

painter; self-taught. Professional life passed 
in New York. Exhibits at the National 
Academy and at the American Water Colour 
Society. Studio in New York. Works : 
Approaching Storm on French Coast (1879) ; 
Off the Bishops Coast of Wales (1880) ; 
Moor in Cornwall England, W'recked on a 
Rocky Shore (1881) ; Summer Afternoon in 
Normandy, Hurricane at Sea (1882) ; Early 
Moonrise on English Coast (1883) ; In the 
Gulf Stream off Newfoundland, Summer in 
France (1884). Water-colours : Mid Ocean 
(T. B. Clarke, New York), Sunset at Sea 
(1884) ; Old Oaks (1885) ; Last Gleam, 
Morning in Northern Italy (1886). 

Glasgow, Scotland, Dec. 2, 1835, died in 
New York, Dec. 5, 1884. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of George H. Boughton in Albany 
in 1850. Painted chiefly winter scenes ; re- 
moved in 1862 to New York, where he was 
elected an A.N.A. in 1870. Works : Home- 
stead in Winter (1871) ; Grove in Winter 
(1872) ; Deserted House, Eve of St. Agnes 
(Saville Collection, Boston), Woods in Au- 
tumn, do. in Winter (1873), J. H. White, 
ib. ; Gloaming (1879); Evening Service 
Winter Time (1880); Woodland Farm 
(1881) ; Winter Night in Markham Hollow 
(1883) ; Over the Snowy Fields, Old Saw- 
Mill in Winter (1884). 

Scotland ; contemporary. He was taken in 
youth to America, where his family settled 
in Pittsburg, Pa. ; studied landscape paint- 
ing under Lambdin in Philadelphia. He 
painted stage scenery in Pittsburg and 
Philadelphia before taking a studio in the 
latter city, where his professional life has 
been spent. Works : Cave at Chelton Hills 
(1876) ; Civita Castellana, Mrs. J. Harrison, 
Philadelphia ; Near Carrara, F. Rogers, ib. 

Christiansand, Norway ; contemporary. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Gude ; Medals 
in Nice, Antwerp, and New Orleans ; Ber- 
lin, 1886. Studio in Paris. Works : Return 
of Fishermen Norway, Morning Walk 



(1879) ; Steamboat Wharf in Norway, Win- 
ter Evening in Norway (1880) ; Winter 
Morning on Coast of Norway (1881); Moon- 
Rise, Return from Mass (1882) ; Morning 
in Cornwall, Unrest (1883); The Old Net 
(1884), Luxembourg Museum ; Morning at 
the Christiania Fjord (1884) ; Sunset near 
Trondhjem, Calm in a Fjord (1885); Bau- 
daksvanclet Lake, Norway (1886). 

SMITH-LEWIS, JOHN, born at Burling- 
ton, Vt. ; contemporary. Genre painter, 
pupil in Paris of Ernest Hubert. Mention 
honourable, Paris Salon, 1886. Work: Gath- 
ering Varech in a Storm (1886). 


SMITS, EUGENE, born in Antwerp in 
1826. History and landscape painter, pupil 
of Brussels Academy and of Triqueti in 
Paris. Visited Italy in 1861-64, also Ger- 
many and Holland. Medals, Brussels, 1866 ; 
Order of Leopold, 1870 ; Officer, 1881 ; 
Order of Francis Joseph of Austria. Studio 
in Brussels. Works: Roma, King of Bel- 
gium ; Seasons, Brussels Museum ; Santa 
Trinita de' Monti ; Neptune Festival ; Mir- 
ror ; Roman Garden ; Diana ; Convales- 
cence ; Souvenir of Naples. Mailer, 325. 

SMOUT, LUCAS, the younger, born at 
Antwerp, baptized Feb. 27, 1671, died there 
April 6, 1713. Flemish school; marine 
painter, son of Lucas Smout, the elder (his- 
tory painter, 1620-74), and pupil of Hendrik 
van Minderhout. Works : Coast View with 
Country House and Figures, do. with Ro- 
man Monuments, Cattle and Figures, Schwe- 
rin Gallery ; Naval Battle in Kjoge Bay, 1710, 
Hofrath C. Rost, Dessau. Schlie, 587; Van 
den Branden, 1056 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, vi. 
347 ; xvii. 62. 

SNAKE CHARMER (Le charmeur de 
serpents), Mariano Fortuny, A. T. Stewart 
Collection, New York ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 6 in. 
x 4 ft. An Arab, with shoulders and legs 
bare, is lying flat on a rug spread on the 
ground, holding in his left hand a rod and 
intently watching a serpent crawling towards 
him ; behind him, another Arab, seated, 

holding a musical instrument in his lap; 
at left, a stork standing over the serpent. 
Painted in 1870. Same subject, Edouard 
Andre, Paris. Etched by Boilvin. Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1875), xi. 278. 

SNAKE IN THE GRASS, Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 
4 ft 1 in. x 3 ft 3 in. A girl seated on a 

Snake in the Grass, Sir Joshua Reynolds, National Gallery, London. 

bank is sporting with Cupid, who has seized 
both ends of her girdle and is untying it ; 
in the grass by her side, the head of a snake ; 
in background, n red curtain. Exhibited 
at Royal Academy, 1785, under title of 
Venus. Painted for Lord Carysfort, who 
paid 200 guineas for it. Subsequently called 
Love unloosing the Zone of Beauty, and 
later, Snake in the Grass, the snake possibly 
being intended as an emblem of Cupid. 
Purchased with the Peel pictures in 1871. 
Duplicate in Soane Museum, London ; an- 
other in Baron Rothschild's Collection ; a 
third in Hermitage, St. Petersburg, called 
Venus and Cupid. Engraved by J. R. 
Smith (1787) ; S. W. Reynolds ; H. Robin- 
son. Cat Nat. Gal.; Leslie & Taylor, iL 



538 ; Art Journal (1872), 300 ; Walpole, An- 

born in Leyden, Nov. 2, 1651, died Sept. 1, 
1691. Dutch school; portrait and genre 
painter in the manner of the elder Frans 
van Mieris. His best pictures are often con- 
founded with those of Willem van Mieris. 
He was court painter to the prince of An- 
halt-Dessau. "Work : Lady at Toilet receiv- 
ing Letter, Berlin Museum. Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 544. 

SNAYERS, PEETER, born in Antwerp, 
baptized Nov. 24, 
1592, died in 
Brussels in 1667. 
Flemish school ; 
painter of battles, 
camp scenes, por- 
traits, and land- 
Ifc scapes, pupil of 
Hendrik van Ba- 
len and of Sebas- 
tian Vrancx ; en- 
tered the guild in 1613 ; court painter at 
Brussels in 1624 to Archduke Albert and to 
Cardinal Infant Ferdinand. "Works : Battle 
of the Forty, Hampton Court ; 'Siege of 
Courtrai (1650), Battles of Prague, of Wimpf- 
fen, and of Hoechst, Brussels Museum ; 
Cavalry Charge, Combat of Horsemen, Ghent 
Museum ; Forest Path with Wanderers, De- 
fence of a Village, Berlin Museum ; Battle 
Field of Pa via, Male Portrait, Cassel Gallery ; 
Travelling Coach attacked by Horsemen (?), 
Darmstadt Museum ; Traveller in Moun- 
tainous Country (1669), Robbers attacked 
by Armed Men, three others, Dresden Mu- 
seum ; Pantry with Game, Fruit, etc., Stiidel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Battle on "White Moun- 
tain near Prague, Battle between Spaniards 
and Hollanders, Schleissheim Gallery ; Rais- 
ing of Siege of Louvain (1639), Defeat at 
Grancourt (1641), Battle of Thionville (1642), 
Battle of Ltitzen (1642), Siege of Einbeck 
(1644), Relief of St. Omer (1645), Taking 
of Neuburg (1645), Encounter at Presnitz 
(1648), Relief of Freiburg (1648), Crossing 

of the Somme (1662), Attack of Grancourt, 
Engagement near Munich in 1648, three 
others, Museum, Vienna ; Skirmish by For- 
est Border (1657), Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; 
Cavalry Skirmish, Czernin Gallery, ib. ; Capt- 
ure of Ypres, Lille and Dunkirk, Nocturnal 
Attack on Lille, Siege of Gravelines, and 
thirteen others, Madrid Museum. Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 339 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; 
Kramm, v. 1534 ; Michiels, vii. 272 ; Rooses 
(Reber), 409 ; Van den Branden, 666. 
SNELLTNCK (SneUinx), JAN, the elder, 

born in Mech- 
lin in 1549, died 
in Antwerp, 
Oct. 1, 1638. 
history painter; 
settled at Ant- 
w e r p before 
1574. Velvet 
Brueghel and 
his son, and 
most of the painters of the epoch, were his 
friends. Archduke Albert, to whom he was 
court painter, and the churches of Flanders 
employed his brush extensively. Van Dyck 
painted his portrait. Designed carpet pat- 
terns for factory at Oudenarde. His most 
interesting work is : Crucifixion (1597), Mu- 
seum, Antwerp. Other works : Madonna 
with singing Angels and St. Cecilia, St. 
James's, ib. ; Altarpiece with Resurrection 
(1601), St. Romuald's, Mechlin ; Descending 
of the Holy Ghost (1606), St. Catharine's, 
ib.; Creation of Adam (1608), Church of 
Our Lady, Oudenarde ; Transfiguration of 
Christ (1616), Annunciation, St. Walpurgis, 


ib. Five of his sons were painters. Ch. 
Blanc, ficole flamande ; Cat. du Mus. d'An- 
vers(1874), 342 ; Kramm, v. 1535 ; Michiels, 
vi. 221 ; Rooses (Reber), 109 ; Siret (1883), 
ii. 281 ; Van den Brauden, 431. 


SNYDERS, FRANS, born in Antwerp, 
baptized Nov. 11, 1579, died there, Aug. 19, 
1657. Flemish 
school ; animal and 
still-life painter, 
pupil of Pieter 
Brueghel, the 
younger, and of 
Hendrik van Balen; 
master of the guild 
in 1602; visited Ita- 
ly in 1608-9; paint- 
ed especially for 
Philip IV. of Spain and Archduke Leopold 
William, and was held in great affection by 
Rubens, who in his will appointed him, with 
Jan Wildens and Jacob Moermans, to preside 
over the sale of his objects of art ; often 
worked conjointly with Rubens and Jordaens, 
and Van Dyck repeatedly painted his por- 
trait. Works : Bear Hunt, Lion Hunt, 
Grosvenor Gallery, London ; Still -Life, 
South Kensington Museum, ib. ; Fox Hunt, 
Fable of the Hare and the Tortoise, do. of 
the Lion and the Mouse, Fox and Cat, Wild 
Beasts fighting for Prey, seventeen others, 
Madrid Museum ; Earthly Paradise, Entry 
of Animals into Noah's Ark, Stag Hunt, five 
others, Louvre ; Dead Game and Fruits, 
Brussels Museum ; Swans and Dog, Still- 
Life, Antwerp Museum ; Stag Hunt (land- 
scape by Rubens), Kitchen (figures by Ru- 
bens), Hague Museum ; Still-Life (2), Am- 
sterdam Museum ; Boar attacked by Dogs, 
Rotterdam Museum ; Dog seizing Heron, 
Musee Rath, Geneva ; Bird Catching, Still- 
Life, Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; 
Boar Hunt, Greyhounds, Brunswick Gallery ; 
Great Kitchen-Piece, two others, Cassel Gal- 
lery ; Combat of Animals, Stag Hunt, Stii- 
del Gallery, Frankfort ; Swans and Ducks 
attacked by Dogs, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Game and Fruit, Various Fruits, Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Hunts and Still- Life (5), 
Stockholm Museum ; fourteen pictures, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg ; four Dogs' Heads, 
Still- Life, Cock Fight (1615), Bear Hunt 
(attributed), Berlin Museum ; Boar Hunt, 

Raczynski Gallery, ib.; Kitchen (figures by 
Rubens), nine others, Dresden Gallery ; 
Two Lions pursuing Deer (masterpiece), 
Boar Hunt, Greengrocer's Stall, four others, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Boar Hunt, Dead 
Game watched by Dogs, Germanic Museum, 
Nuremberg ; Fish Market (2), Kitchen with 
Dead Birds (16U), Oldenburg Gallery ; 
Fruit Festoon around Christ and St. John 
(figures by Rubens), Falcon Chase, Schleiss- 
heim Gallery ; Boar Hunt, Fox Hunt, Stag 
Hunt, Daniel in Lions' Den (after Rubens), 
Earthly Paradise, Deer Hunt, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Hen defending herself against Fal- 
con, Pesth Museum ; Boar Hunt, Uffizi, 
Florence ; Fruit, _, /> 
The Greengro- ^ J jy 
cer, New York 
Museum.-Ch. f 
Blanc, Ecole fla- ' 
mande ; Immer- 
zeel, iii. 97 ; Kramm, v. 1537 ; Michiels, vii. 
408 ; Rooses (Reber), 255 ; Van den Bran- 
den, 672 ; Zeitschr. f . b. K., xi. (Mitthei- 
lungen, iv. 45). 

SNYERS, PEETER, born in Antwerp, 
March 30, 1681, died there, May 4, 1752. 
Flemish school ; landscape, flower, portrait, 
and genre painter, pupil of Alexander van 
Bredael ; master of Antwerp guild in 1707 ; 
visited London, where he painted many por- 
traits ; returned in 1726, and was director 
of the Antwerp Academy. Works : Moun- 
tainous Landscape, Antwerp Museum ; 
y^v * Worn an Me r- 

f/ I | chant, Amster- 

U ^Jn^Y 6 ^^ <*<* m Museum; 
/ Poultry Yard, 

^^ Germanic Mu- 

seum, Nuremberg. Kramm, v. 1539 ; Mi- 
chiels, x. 478 ; Van den Brandcn, 1207. 

SOCRATES, Greek painter, probably pu- 
pil of Pausias, from the way he is men- 
tioned by Pliny (xxxv. 40 [137]), who says 
his pictures were universally esteemed. 
Sillig, 424. 

Mine, la Marquise de Verac ; canvas, H. 3 


ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 5 in. Socrates, seated in a 
vaulted apartment, surrounded by his grief- 
stricken disciples, is about to take the cup 
of hemlock from the executioner, who averts 
his face as he presents it. Painted for M. 
Trudaine ; belonged afterwards to M. Mi- 
cault de Courbeton. Engraved (1802) by 
Jean Massard, pere. Be veil, i. 59. 

Stockholm, June 3, 1822. Portrait painter, 
son of the Swedish lieutenant-colonel and 
portrait painter Olaf Johan Sodermark 
(1799-1848), pupil of Stockholm Academy, 
while at the same time in the army ; went 
with his father to Italy in 1845, returned 
via France in 1848, then studied at the Dus- 
seldorf Academy in 1852-54, and in Paris 
under Couture in 1855-56. Has painted 
many distinguished persons of his native 
country ; member of Stockholm Academy. 

Socrates, Death of, Louis David, Mme. la Marquise de VeVac. 

SODOMA, IL, Cavaliere, born at Vercelli, 
in Savoy, in 1477 (?), died in Siena, Feb. 15, 
1549. Lombard and Sienese schools. Va- 
sari says he had many nicknames, among 
others Mattaccio (crazy fellow), because he 
was noted as a lover of fun and of practical 
jests. Real name Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, 
wrongly called Razzi by Lanzi and others. 
Pupil of Martino Spanzotti, a mediocre paint- 
er of Casale ; studied next in Milan, perhaps 
under Leonardo, 1498-1501, in which latter 

year he fixed his residence at Siena, where 
he founded a new school which had a brill- 
iant though short 
existence. The 
extant works of 
Bazzi's first Sien- 
ese period, 1501- 
1507, distin- 
guished by purity 
of style and very 
careful execution, 
are the Birth of 
Christ, and the 
Deposition from the Cross, in the Siena 
Academy ; the frescos of the Miracle of the 
Loaves and Fishes, a Pietii, Majesty of St. 
Anna, a Bishop and Dominican Monks, in 
the Cloister of St. Anna in Greta, near Pi- 
enza ; and those of the History of St. Bene- 
dict, at Monte Olivetto, near Buonconvento. 
In 1507 or 1508 Bazzi ac- 
companied Agostino Chigi 
to Rome, where he was em- 
ployed by Julius EC. with 
Perugino on the decoration 
of the ceiling of the Camera 
della Segnatura in the Vat- 
ican, until both were dis- 
placed by Raphael. Noth- 
ing remains of his work but 
the flying genii bearing the 
papal shield in the central 
compartment of the ceiling. 
Disappointed in his hopes 
of further employment, 
Bazzi returned to Siena in 
1510, leaving as a record 
of his two or three years' residence in Rome 
two pictures in the Palazzo Borghese, a 
Leda and the Swan, of a Leonardesque 
character, and a Pieta. Examples of the 
next four years' work (1510-1514) at Siena 
are : Flagellation, Christ bound to the 
Column, Academy, one of his finest crea- 
tions for expression, bodily form, individual 
character, and colouring ; and Madonna 
with Saints, Turin Gallery, which shows 
that the master had then attained the full 



measure of his powers. In 1514 he went 
for the second time to Borne, and in the 
course of a year's residence painted the 
renowned frescos in the upper story of the 
Farnesina, the Marriage of Alexander the 
Great and Roxana, and the Surrender of 
Darius and his Family to Alexander, the 
first of which is one of the most admirable 
works of Renaissance art Though abound- 
ing in beauty of form, countenance, and 
colour, it fails, like all Bazzi's historical 
works, in that instinctive arrangement of 
many details into one great whole which 
constitutes fine composition. It is in his 
single figures, the St. Sebastian, of the Uffizi, 
and the Christ bound to the Column, of the 
Siena Academy, that this master attains the 
highest excellence. The frescos of the Life 
of St. Catherine (152G) in her chapel in S. 
Domenico, Siena, show this ; for while those 
which contain many figures are wanting in 
clearness, such groups as that of the Saint 
in ecstasy, supported by two women, are 
among the most expressive and beautiful 
works of their kind in Italy. His superior- 
ity in single figures is again illustrated in 
the frescos of the Oratory of S. Bernardino, 
Siena, by a comparison of the four Saints 
with the compositions representing the 
Presentation, Visitation, Assumption, and 
Coronation of the Virgin (1518-32). See, 
too, the Saints Ansano, Vittorio, and Ber- 
nardo in the Hall of the Council, Palazzo 
Pubblico, Siena, where there is also a fine 
altarpiece by Bazzi of the Madonna with St. 
Leonardo. Other works : Madonna cle' Cal- 
zolari (1530), Siena ; SS. James, Anthony, 
and Sebastian (1530), the Madonna invest- 
ing a Bishop, with SS. Rosalia and Lucia, 
S. Spirito, Florence ; Ecce Homo, Christ on 
the Mount of Olives, Christ in Limbo, fres- 
cos, Siena Academy ; Altarpiece of Madonna 
with Saints, at Asinalunga ; Madonna En- 
throned, National Gallery, London ; Adora- 
tion of the Magi, S. Agostino, Siena ; Resur- 
rection, Naples Museum ; Sacrifice of Abra- 
ham, Duomo, Pisa ; Madonna with Saints, 
Pisa Academy ; Madonna with Saints, Flor- 

ence Academy ; St. Sebastian, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; Marriage of St Catherine, Palazzo 
Chigi, Rome ; Madonna with Saints, Lucre- 
tia, Turin Museum ; Ecce Homo, Pitti, Flor- 
ence. Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 379, 401 ; Meyer, 
Kflnst. Lex., iii. 178 ; Jansen, Leben und 
Werke des Malers Gio. Bazzi (Stuttgart, 
1879); Burckhardt, 173, 686 ; Lanzi, i. 293 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole milanaise ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1878), xvii. 18, 97, et seq.; Liibke, 
Gesch. itaL Mai., ii. 397 ; Zeitschr. f. B. K., 
ix. 33 ; x. 230. 

SOGGI, NICCOLd, born in Arezzo in 
1480, died there in 1551. Florentine school. 
Was taken at an early age to Florence, where 
he studied under Perugino. In 1512 he 
went to Rome under the patronage of Car- 
dinal di Monte ; accompanied him to Arezzo 
and painted much there for churches and 
companies of the town. Work but little 
superior to that of Domenico Pecori, whom 
he sometimes 
aided. Pictures 
in S. Domenico, S. 
Michele, S. Agos- 
tino, and the Duomo, Arezzo. C. & C., Italy, 
iii. 44 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., x. 209. 

in Florence in 1492, died there, July 17, 
1544. Florentine school ; pupil of Lorenzo 
di Credi, with whom he worked twenty-four 
years ; registered in guild of Florence in 
1522. His later works show the influence 
of Fra Bartolommeo, Andrea del Sarto, and 
Mariotto Albertinelli. Few of his pictures 
have dates, except the Martyrdom of St. 
Arcadius (1521), in S. Lorenzo, and a 
Miracle of St. Dominic (fresco, 1536), in 
S. Marco, Florence. The Nativity, Ber- 
lin Museum, is a copy of Credi's in the 
Florence Academy. C. <fe C., Italy, iii. 512 ; 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ix. 42 ; ed. Mil., v. 
123 ; Burckhardt, 638, 682 ; Siret, 875 ; 
Lubke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 178. 

Berlin, Dec. 10, 1805, died in Cologne, Nov. 
25, 1867. History and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Berlin Academy under Schadow, with 



whom lie went to Diisselclorf in 1826 and to 
Italy in 1830 ; visited the Netherlands and 
France, became in- 
structor in 1832 and 
professor in 1838 at the 
Diisseldorf Academy. 
He was the celebrated 
ladies' portrait painter 
of his time, famous for 
his colouring in the 
style of Titian. Works: 
Einaldo and Armida 
(1827), Eape of Hylas (1829), Lute Player 
(1832), Female Portrait, National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Eegina cosli (1829) ; Diana at the 
Bath (1833) ; Two Leonoras (1834) ; replica 
(183G), Eaczynski Gallery, Berlin ; Italian 
Lute Player (1835) ; Judgment of Paris, 
Borneo and Juliet (183G) ; Tasso and the 
Two Leonoras (1839), Diisseldorf Gallery; 
Donna Diana (1840), Leipsic Museum ; Sis- 
ters (1840) ; Vanitas (1844) ; Lady before 
Mirror (1845), Konigsberg Museum ; Lute 
Player (1849), Christiania Gallery ; Four 
Seasons (1851) ; Lorely (1853) ; Portrait of 
Countess Monts, Cologne Museum ; Female 
Portrait, Carlsruhe Gallery. His son Eich- 
ard (born in Diisseldorf in 1834), genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of the Academy un- 
der Schadow and Jordan, studied in 18C7 
in Paris. Works : Quartering in the Coun- 
try, Old Blind Fiddler (1862) ; Antiquary 
(1866). Karl, another son (born in Diissel- 
dorf, July 21, 1845), was pupil of his father, 
and of Wilhelm Sohn, 'with whom he trav- 
elled, then studied in Paris, London, and 
Italy. Has won success with finely coloured 
genre figures: Costume Study (1880); Span- 
ish Girl (1881) ; Carmen (1884). Blanck- 
arts, 1; Forster, v. 364; Ulustr. Zeitg. 
(1867); (1881), ii. 369 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 218 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, iii. 40 ; Wolfg. Mtiller, Diis- 
seldf. K, 16, 170; Springer, Gesch., 95; 
Wiegmann, 78 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xv. 127 ; 
xvi. 32 ; xx. 43. 

SOHN, WILHELM, born in Berlin in 
1830. History and genre painter, nephew 
and pupil in Diisseldorf of Karl Ferdinand 

Sohn, whose daughter ho afterwards mar- 
ried ; became professor at Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy in 1874. Member 
of Amsterdam and 
Stockholm Academies. 
Medals : Amsterdam, 
1865 ; Berlin, 1866 ; 
Paris, 1867. Works : 
Christ on the Stormy 
Sea (1853), Dtisseldorf 
Gallery ; Christ on 
Mount of Olives (1855); 
Genevieve (1856); 
Gypsy Woman (1858), Konigsberg Museum ; 
Different Walks in Life (1860) ; Fiddler 
and Child ; Question of Conscience (1864), 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Consultation at the Law- 
yer's (1866), Gypsy Girl with Dog, Leipsic 
Museum ; Communion in Protestant Pa- 
trician Family, National Gallery, Berlin. 
SOJAEO, IL. See Gatti. 
SOLAEIO (Solari), ANDEEA DA, born 
about 1458 at Solario, near Milan, died in 
Pavia about 1530. Lombard school ; called 
sometimes Andrea del Gobbo and Gobbo da 
Milano, from his brother Cristoforo (Solario) 
del Gobbo, sculptor and architect, and some- 
times Andrea Milanese. Went about 1490 
with his brother to Venice, and in 1495 
painted there the Madonna, Brera, Milan, 
which shows the influence of Milanese teach- 
ing and of the examples of Da Vinci and of 
Verrocchio. He probably returned soon 
after to Milan, where he painted in 1499 
the St. Catherine, now in the Casa Poldi. 
In 1507-09 he was in France decorating, 
for Cardinal George of Amboise, the Chapel 
at Gaillon, destroyed in 1793. After this, 
many of his pictures found a market in 
France. He is said to have accompanied 
Andrea del Sarto to South Italy in 1513, and 
to have been employed in the Chapel of S. 
Gaudenzio, Naples. About 1515 he began 
the large altarpiece of the Assumption, in the 
Certosa of Pavia, which was finished after his 
death by Bernardino Campi. Among his 
works are : Christ carrying his Cross (1505), 
| Palazzo Borghese, Rome ; Crucifixion, Ma- 



donna of the Green Cushion, Louvre ; Por- 
traits (2), National Gallery, London ; Chrint 
crowned with Thorns, at LUtschena, near 
Leipsic ; Holy Family, dated 1515, Casa 
Poldi, Milan ; and Madonna with St. John, 
Leuchtenberg Gallery, St. Petersburg. So- 
lario's portraits are of exceptional excel- 
lence. C. & C. attribute to him the Colum- 
bine, Hermitage, St. Petersburg, generally 
ascribed to B. Luini. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 
61; Moschini (Florence, 1832); Burckhardt, 
702; Calvi, Notizie, ii. 277; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole milanaise ; LUbke, Gesch. ital. Mai., 
ii. 448 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1883), xxviii. 43. 


SOLIERO. See Morelli. 

Cavaliere, born at 
Nocera de' Pa- 
died in Naples, 
April 5, 1747. Ne- 
apolitan school ; 
called sometimes 
1'Abate C i c c i o 
and sometimes il 
Calabrese rin- 
gentilito (C a 1 a- 
brese ennobled). 
Pupil of his father, Angelo Solimene, a re- 
spectable painter ; afterwards of Francesco di 
Maria and of Giacomo del Po. Later formed 
a style of his own by imitating Pietro da 
Cortona, Lanfranco, Calabrese, Guido, and 
Carlo Maratti. He enjoyed a great reputa- 
tion in his time, and was employed by sev- 
eral popes and by most of the princes of 
Europe ; but he must be ranked with those 
who hastened the deterioration of Italian 
art. Among his works are: The Brazen 
Serpent, Prometheus Chained, St. John the 
Baptist, Artist's Portrait, Madrid Museum ; 
Religion, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; frescos 
in sacristies of S. Paolo and S. Domenico 
Maggiore, Naples ; Heliodorus, Gesil Nuovo, 
ib.; Diana and Callisto, Uffizi, Florence. 
Lanzi, ii. 60 ; Burckhardt, 768, 775 ; Seguier, 
196 ; Ch. Blanc, cole napolitaine. 

drid in 1629, died there, Sept. 25, 1684. 
Spanish school ; his father, who had stud- 
ied under Alonso do Herrera, gave him les- 
sons in painting, but educated him for the 
church. Francisco preferred to paint, and 
with Velasquez for a friend and counsellor, 
bade fair to become pre-eminent in his pro- 
fession ; but his indolence and wealth made 
him a picture collector rather than a paint- 
er. Executed works for the conventual 
churches of Madrid, Alcalii, and Valladolid, 
of which the best was a Virgin of the Con- 
ception, belonging to the Capuchins of the 
Prado. Stirling, iii. 1022. 

SOLOMON, ABRAHAM, born in Lon- 
don in 1824, died at Biarritz, France, Dec. 
19, 1862. Genre painter, pupil of the Royal 
Academy, where he exhibited his first pict- 
ure, The Courtship of Ditchen (subject from 
Crabbe), in 1843. His best pictures are well 
known through engravings. Works : Third 
Class Parting, First Clnss Return (1854); 
Waiting for the Verdict (1857) ; Not Guilty 
(1859) ; Malado Imaginaire, Consolation 
(1861) ; The Lost Found (1862). 

See RaphaeTs Bible. 

Poussin, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 4 
in. x4 ft. 11 in. Solomon, seated upon an 
elevated throne, in centre, extending his 
hands, pronounces sentence ; in foreground, 
the mothers kneeling, one making a gesture 
of terror at seeing her child, which a soldier 
armed with a sword holds by one foot ; the 
other, holding the dead child, cries out 
against the execution of the judgment ; 
other women and soldiers standing. Paint- 
ed in 1649 ; at Versailles in 1709-10. Sketch 
in Louvre. Engraved by Chasteau ; E. Bau- 
det ; Dughet ; Drevet ; A. Testa ; Anne ; 
Andre Morel ; C. Normand. Landon, Mu- 
see, vi. PI. 65 ; Filhol, viii. PI. 541. 

By Itaphael, Camera della Segnatura, Vat- 
ican ; fresco on ceiling. Solomon enthroned, 
at right ; a man at left about to cut in two 
tho child, whom he holds by one leg, 


head downwards, while the true mother, in 
the background, hastens to save it, and the 
false one kneels, in the foreground, with 
arms outstretched and head turned as if 
appealing to Solomon. Painted in 1511. 
Engraved by E. "VVibert ; Anderloni. Pas- 
savant, ii. 90 ; Miintz, 348. 

By Paolo Veronese, Bridgewater House, 
London ; canvas, H. 6 f t. x 8 ft. 9 in. Com- 
position of 21 figures. Solomon on his 
throne in the court of his palace ; execu- 

or 1624. Flemish school ; portrait painter, 
of truthful and lively conception, warm and 
clear colouring, and careful execution ; went 
to England about 1606. Works: Portrait 
of James I., Windsor Castle ; do., and Queen 
Ann of Denmark, Hampton Court Gallery ; 
Portrait of Lord Bacon, Earl Cowper's Col- 
lection, Panshanger House ; Charles L as 
a Young Prince, Copenhagen Gallery. 
Kramm, v. 1541 ; Nagler, xvii. 57. 

SOMEES, LOUIS JEAN, born in Ant- 

Judgment of Solomon, Nicolas Poussin, Louvre, Paris. 

tioner, holding the child by one leg, is 
about to divide it, when the true mother 
interferes. Bought from Orleans Gallery 
for 60 guineas. Waagen, Treasures, ii. 498 ; 
Stafford Gal., ii. PI. 28. 

SOLOMON, SOLOMON J., born in Eng- 
land, contemporary. Figure and portrait 
painter. Exhibits at Royal Academy. 
Works: Portrait (1881); Ruth (1884); Love's 
First Lesson (1885) ; Cassandra (1886). 

SOMER, PAULUS VAN, born in Ant- 
werp about 1570, died in London in 1621 

werp in 1813. Genre painter, pupil of Fer- 
dinand de Braekeleer, then studied in Paris 
and Italy. Works : Interior with Merry 
People, Museum Fodor, Amsterdam ; Two 
Ladies in a Room busy with Flowers, Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Boy with Sleigh in a Winter 
Landscape, Fiirstenberg Gallery, Donau- 
eschingen ; Cromwell discovering Conspir- 
acy against his Life (1837), Leipsic Muse- 
um ; Misery and Wealth (1860); Meditation 
(18G1) ; Monks in a Sacristy ; The Orphan ; 
Family Concert. Immerzeel, iii. 99. 



SOMMEIL DE jtfSUS. See Madonna 
with Diadem. 

SOMOGYI, DANIEL, born at Nyiregy- 
hiiza, Hungary, Sept. 13, 1837. Landscape 
painter, went early in life to Malta, where 
he began to practise painting in water-col- 
ours ; settled at Munich in 1870, studied 
mostly from nature, and has since exhibited 
many views from the Alps in Bavaria, Aus- 
tria, and Switzerland. 

SON, JAN (FRANS) VAN, born at Ant- 
werp, baptized Aug. 16, 1658, died in Lon- 
don about 1718. Flemish school ; flower 
and fruit painter, son of Joris van Son, pu- 
pil of Jan Pauwel Gillemans, the elder ; 
went early in life to England. Works : 
Fruit and Flower-Pieces in Museums of 
Brussels, Lille (1705), Lyons, Nantes (2) ; 
and in the Gallery of Augsburg. Michiels, 
x. 425 ; Van den Branden, 1121. 

SON, JORIS VAN, born at Antwerp, 
baptized Sept. 24, 1623, died there, buried 
June 25, 1667. Flemish school ; flower 
and fruit painter, if not a pupil of Jan de 
Heem, he certainly took that master for his 
model. Master of the guild in 1644. Speci- 
mens of his work are in the Museums of 
Tournay, Madrid (3), Dresden (3), and 
Gotha (1658) ; in the Galleries at Bamberg, 
Carlsruhe, Copenhagen (2, 1664, 1665), 
Schleissheim (2, one dated 1656), and in 
the Van Lerius Collection at Antwerp. 
Van den Branden, 1119. 

born at Diisseldorf, Feb. 2, 1805, died 
there, July 21, 1878. Genre painter and 
illustrator, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy 
under Schadow, and studied in Paris, Hol- 
land, and Frankfort. Works : Hans and 
Grete (after Uhland, 1839), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Scene from Guy Mannering, 
Wild Hunter (1830) ; Bear Dancing (1831), 
Konigsberg Museum ; Warrior's Farewell 
(1831); Return (1833), Count Hatzfeld, Dtts- 
seldorf ; Disturbed Rendezvous (1833, 1847), 
Fish Market, Surprise (1835); Belated Trav- 
ellers (1837) ; Rhenish Ferry (1838) ; After 
the Lesson ; Cossacks quartering themselves 

with a Scholar (1841) ; Mowers returning 
Home (1845). His son, Fritz (born in Dtls- 
seldorf, Sept. 20, 1836), pupil of the Academy 
under Hiddemann, paints humorous genre 
scenes. Works : Grandmother's Birthday, 
Despatch of Victory (1871) ; High Taxes 
(1872) ; Flower Greeting (1881). Kunst- 
Chronik, xiv. 55 ; Mailer, Ddsseldf. K, 211 ; 
Meyer, Conv. Lex., xix. 878 ; Hlustr. Zeitg. 
(1882), ii. 443 ; Wiegmann, 271. 

Berlin in 1832. Genre and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Otto in 1851-53, then studied 
in Antwerp, Paris, and under Jordan in 
Diisseldorf. Works: Bee-Keeper (1860); 
Return from the Chase ; Auction ; Sleigh- 
ing ; Marriage Contract (1866); Coffee Club 
(1868); Lawyer's Anteroom ; Festival Roast 
(1870) ; Unwelcome Suitor ; First Snow ; 
Church Festival; Thirsty Soul; Our He- 
roes, Wiesbaden Gallery. 

SONJE, JAN, flourished in Rotterdam, 
died in 1691. Dutch school ; landscape 
painter, master of the guild at Delft in 
1646, but left that city about 1654 ; paint- 
ed chiefly mountain views in the Italian 
style. Works : A Valley, Hague Museum ; 
View near Rotterdam (1692), Rotterdam 
Museum ; Landscape (1660 ?), Augsburg 
Gallery. Kramm, v. 1540. 

Birkerod, Zealand, 
June 24, 1801. 
Genre and battle 
painter, pupil in 
Copenhagen of Ge- 
bauer and of the 
Academy (1815-26), 
then in Munich 
(1828-31) of Peter 
Hess ; went to Rome 
in 1831, returned in 

1841, and became member of the Academy 
in 1846 ; Order of Danebrog, 1852. Works : 
Cavalry Attack at Sehestedt (1822) ; Skir- 
mish in Tyrol (1829), Roman Peasants going 
to Market (1837), Old Fisherman (1844), 
Cattle in the Water (1846), Scene in St 



John's Night (1847), Attack on Diippel 
(1849), Battle of Fredericia (1850), do. of 
Idsted (1851), St. John's Festival (1858), 
Return from Market (1870), On the Day 
after Battle of Idsted (1876), Copenhagen 
Gallery ; Battle of Fredericia (18C5), City 
Hall, Fredericia. In fresco : Arrival of 
Thorwaldsen at Copenhagen, Unloading of 
his Sculptures at the Museum, Thorwaldsen 
Museum, Copenhagen. Weilbach, 646 ; Si- 
gurd Mttller, 333. 

East Liberty, near Pittsburg, Pa., March 
2, 1822. Landscape painter, self-taught. 
After painting for several years in Cincin- 
nati, he removed to New York, where he 
still resides. Visited Europe in 1853, 1856, 
1860, and 1862. Elected N.A. in 1861. 
Works : Progress of Civilization (series of 4); 
Alastor or the Spirit of Solitude ; Eagle's 
Home ; Dream of Italy ; Spirit of the Alle- 
ghanies (Duke of Buckingham) ; View of 
the Shenandoah ; Recollections of Italy ; 
Sunset near Bethlehem New Hampshire 
(1871) ; Sunset in the Swamp Coast of 
Maine (1873) ; View in Vermont (1875) ; 
Sunset in the Wilderness, Gulf (1876) ; De- 
serted (1877) ; Passing Shower (1878) ; Edge 
of the Woods, T. B. Clarke, New York ; 
Tangled Woods of New Hampshire (1880) ; 
Morning in the White Mountains (1881) ; 
Fog Rising off Mount Adams (1882) ; Near 
Old Orchard Beach Maine (1883) ; Mount 
Winthrop, Burbank's Lake near Shelburne 
New Hampshire, Edge of a Pond Maine, 
Entrance to a Grove near Portland Maine, 
Study of Trees (1884) ; Mascott Lake New 
Hampshire, Hill-Side New Hampshire 
(1885) ; On Glen Road to Mount Washing- 
ton, Ingalls Brook New Hampshire (1886). 

second half of 17th century. Flemish school. 
Landscape painter, pupil in Antwerp of Jan 
de Bruin in 1654, but rather imitated the 
style of Berchem. Works : Reconcih'ation 
of Jacob and Esau, Peasant Women at a 
Fountain in Italy, Brussels Museum ; Peas- 
ants driving Cattle to Market, Hague Mu- 

seum ; Cattle Market, Bamberg Gallery ; 
Italian Herdsmen with Cattle by a Well, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Landscape with Fig- 
ures, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. Van 
den Branden, 1072. 

SOPOLJS, Roman painter, about middle 
of 1st century B.C. Pliny says (xxxv. 40 
[148]), that his works and those of Dionysius 
filled the picture galleries. He was at the 
head of a school of painters in Rome (Cic., 
Ad. Ati, iv. 16). Raoul-Rochette calls him 
a portrait painter. R.-R., Schorn, 315, 404. 
SORDICCHIO, LO. See Pinturicchio. 
SORDO DI SESTRO. See Travi, An- 

at Besserby on 
Samso, Feb. 8, 
1818, died in 
Jan. 24, 1879. 
Marine painter, 
pupil of Copen- 
hagen Academy, 
won a prize in 
1847; cruised in 
the Mediterra- 
nean on a Danish frigate in 1846, and for 
some time went to sea every year in a 
Danish man-of-war ; visited Germany, the 
Netherlands, England, and France in 1853- 
54, and Italy in 1864. Member of Copen- 
hagen (1856) and Stockholm Academies. 
Professor in 1869. Orders of Danebrog 
and Vasa. Works : Coast of Jutland after 
Storm (1848), Summer Morning at Elsinore 
(1861), The Shears at Bohuslen (1862), On 
the Coast of Iceland (1878), Copenhagen 
Gallery ; View from the Sound by Kronborg 
(1871), Christiania Gallery ; Men-of-War, 
Stockholm Museum ; Sunrise near Skagen ; 
View of the Kattegat. Sigurd Mtiller, 339 ; 
Weilbach, 668. 

TENSZ, born in Rotterdam in 1621 (?), died 
there between Oct. 16, 1669, and Aug. 6, 
1670. Real name Hendrik Martensz Rokes. 
Genre painter, pupil of Willem Buiteweg ; 



formed himself after the works of Brouwer, i Rondo de nuit anil Patrouille de nuit by 
though more dull and heavy in colour. He French writers, and Night Watch by Sir 

represented peasant 
scenes, conversations, 
and kitchen interiors, 
with genuine feeling 
for nature, good draw- 


and careful exe- 

cution. Works: Boors 
at Cards, Man and 
Woman at Table, Na- 
tional Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Old Woman by the Fireside, Madrid 
Museum ; Alchemist, Mr. Henderson, ib.; 
Kitchen Interior, Louvre ; Fish Market, 
Lute Player (1C61), Storm (1668), Amster- 
dam Museum ; Rustic In- 
terior (1650), Great Market 
at Rotterdam (1654), Rot- 
terdam Museum; Card 
Players, Dubus Collection, 
Brussels ; Peasants Smok- 
ing, Augsburg Gallery; 
Party of Peasants, Labour- 
ers in the Vineyard (1665), 
Brunswick Gallery ; Peas- 
ants' Brawl, Berlin Muse- 
um ; Quarrel in a Cellar, 
Fisherman with Salmon, 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Dutch 
Vegetable Market, do. Fish 
Market, C a s s e 1 Gallery ; 
Peasant Family (1646), 
Tavern Interior, Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich; Card 
Players (1643), Fishmong- 

Joshua Reynolds. It represents the gather- 
ing in broad daylight, of the Civic Guard of 
Amsterdam outside of their quarters, from 
which they are emerging at the sound of 
the drum calling them to practise. Captain 
Banning Cock and his lieutenant, Willeni 
van Ruytenberg, in centre, are followed by 
the ensign, with the orange, white, and 
blue standard of Amsterdam, and the ser- 
geants with their halberds ; the drummer, 
with a dog at his heels, is beating his drum, 
in right hand front corner, and the guards, 
armed with arquebuses and pikes, are 
crowding through the open door behind. 

ers and Cook (1664), Labourers receiving Pay 
(1667), Dresden Gallery ; Adoration of the 
Shepherds (1642), Copenhagen Gallery; do. 
(1646), Marine with Vessels (1650), Peasant's 
Brawl (1665), Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollandaise ; Burger, 
Musces, ii. 271 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 322 ; 
Kramm, vi. 1902 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 424. 
COMPANY, Rembrandt, Amsterdam Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. 11 ft. 9 in. x 14 ft. 3 in. ; 
signed, dated 1642. Erroneously called 

Sortie of the Banning Cock Company, Rembrandt, Amsterdam Museum. 

On a shield on the building are the names 

of sixteen of the principal figures, all of 
which are portraits. One of the most im- 
portant works of the master, who received 
for it 1,600 florins. It remained in the 
possession of the arquebusiers until about 
1700, when it was removed to the Hotel de 
Ville, where, in order to fit it into a space 
between two doors, it is supposed to have 
been reduced in size. A copy (H. 2 ft. 2 in. 
x 2 ft. 9 in.), now in the National Gallery, 
London, ascribed formerly both to Rem- 



brandt and to Gerard Dou, but probably 
painted about 1660 by Gerrit Lundens, 
proves that the original was cut off as shown 
in the accompanying outline sketch. Judg- 
ing from the proportions of this copy, the 
original, which was placed in the Treppen- 
huis Museum in 1808, was formerly 12 ft. 8 
in. high x 16 ft. 6 in. long. It was restored 
in 1758 by Van Dijk, and again superficially 
in 1852 by N. Hopman. Engraved by L. 
A. Claessens (1797) ; J. W. Kaiser (1867). 
Etched by linger ; Flameng ; Massaloff ; 
Charles Waltner (1886). Lithographed by 
A. Mouilleron. Cat. Amsterdam Gal. ; Vos- 
maer, 147, 462 ; Smith, vii. 59 ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1860), vi. 368; (1885), xxxii. 406; 
Mollett, Rembrandt, 42 ; Fromentin, 325. 

SOUCHON, FRANCOIS, born at Allais 
(Gard), Nov. 19, 1787, died at Lille, April 
5, 1857. History painter, pupil of David ; 
director of school of painting at Lille in 
1836-1857. Works : Martyrdom of St. Se- 
bastian (1824), Cathedral of Bordeaux ; 
Sick Man (1827), Lille Museum ; Raising 
of Lazarus (1827), Church of St. Nicolas-des- 
Champs, Paris. Bellier, ii. 52 ; Devemy, 
Notices biographiques sur Fr. Souchon 
(Douai, 1875). 

born at Halberstadt in 1825. History, 
genre, and portrait painter, pupil of Berlin 
Academy under Remy, then in Munich 
(1848) of Kaulbach and Anschutz, and fin- 
ished his studies in Rome and Naples, 
1851-54. He settled at Leipsic in 1855. 
Works : Thirty Biblical Scenes, Greek 
Church, Leipsic ; Christ Blessing, Church 
at Thronitz, Saxony ; Last Supper, Church 
at Grunau, ib. ; Pifferari and Beggar, Em- 
peror of Germany. Miiller, 498. 

SOURCE, LA, Dominique Ingres, Lou- 
vre, Paris ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 5 in. x 2 ft. 
3 in. ; signed, dated 1856. A young girl, 
nude, with blonde hair, standing in a rocky 
niche, her right arm raised above her head, 
with her fingers grasping the bottom of a 
vase, which, inclined upon her shoulder, is 
held by her left hand ; three little streams 

of water flow from its mouth into a pool 
in which her feet are reflected. London 
Exchange, 1862. Bequeathed by Comtesse 
Duchatel, 1878. Engraved by Calamatta ; 
L. Flameng. Ch. Blanc, Life, 192. 

SOUTMAN, PIETER, born in Haarlem 
about 1580, died there, Aug. 16, 1657. 
Dutch school ; history and portrait painter, 
supposed pupil of Rubens ; was for several 
years court painter to the King of Poland, 
became a citizen of Antwerp in 1620, and 
returned to Haarlem in 1628. Works : 
Two Archery-Pieces (1642, 1644), Haarlem 
Museum ; Laocoon and his Sons, Cassel 
Gallery. Bode, Studien, 110 ; Kramm, v. 
1545 ; Van der Willigen, 266. 

SOWER (Le semeur), Jean Fra^ois Mil- 
let, William H. Vanderbilt Collection, New 
York. A sturdy peasant, bony and swart, 
with a bag of grain about his waist, is strid- 
ing along sowing grain on a hill-side ; on 
the other side of the slope a last ray of sun 
shows a pair of oxen and a man at the end 
of their furrow. The gesture of the sower, 
says Theophile Gautier, is " so beautiful 
that Triptolemus, guided by Ceres, on some 
Greek bas-relief, could not have more maj- 
esty." Painted in 1850 ; Salon, 1850. The 
first Sower (1849), Q. A. Shaw, Boston, was 
laid aside by Millet because the canvas was 
too short, and the present one painted for 
the Salon. Etched by Maris. Art Treas. 
of Amer., iii. 86. 

SOYER, PAUL, born in Paris ; contem- 
porary. Genre painter, pupil of L. Cogniet. 
Medals: 1870; 2d class, 1882. Works: 
Card Party (1883) ; Head of Old Peasant 
(1884) ; Foundry at Antoignc, My Gardener 
(1885) ; Interior of Forge (1886). 

SPADA, LIONELLO, born in Bologna 
in 1576, died in Parma, May 17, 1622. Bo- 
lognese school ; first colour-grinder, and 
then pupil of the Carracci ; after executing 
a few works in Bologna, went to Rome and 
became the pupil of Caravaggio, whom he 
followed in all his travels. After his master's 
death (1609), Spada returned to Bologna, 
where his vanity and arrogance won him the 



hatred of other artists ; but his real talent 
is proved by bis St. Dominick burning the 
Heretical Books, in 
S. Domenico. Ra- 
nuccio, Duke of Par- 
ma, invited him to 
his court, and he 
spent the rest of his 
days there. Other 
works: Prodigal Son, 
-33neas and Anchises, 
Concert, Martyrdom 
of St. Christopher, 
Louvre; Melchisedec blessing Abraham, 
Bologna Gallery : Painter's Portrait, Uffizi, 
Florence ; Chastity of Joseph, Lille Muse- 
um ; Christ crowned with Thorns, Naples 
Museum ; Christ before Pilate, Parma Gal- 
lery. Malvasia, ii. 73 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole bo- 
lonaise ; Burckhardt, 7C4, 788, 790, 803. 
1746, died in Paris, 
May 11, 1822. 
Dutch school ; flow- 
er painter, pupil of 
Herreyns ; went to 
Paris about 1770, 
and became minia- 
ture painter to the 
king in 1774. His 
flower and fruit-pieces are almost equal to 
the best by Huysum. Professor of iconog- 
raphy at the Jardin des Plantes and mem- 
ber of the Institute (1781). Works : Flow- 
ers and Fruits (1789), Louvre. His brother, 
Cornells (1756-1840), distinguished in the 
same branch, painted especially for the por- 
celain factory at Sevres. Ch. Blanc, cole 
hollaudaise ; Immerzeel, iii. 101. 

SPAGNA, LO, born in 14 died about 
1530. Umbrian school ; real name Giovan- 
ni di Pietro, but commonly called, from 
his nationality, Lo Spagna (the Spaniard). 
Called by Vasari, Giovanni Spagnuolo. Art 
education wholly Italian, under Perugino 
and Pinturicchio. Was the companion of 
Raphael in the school of Perugino, and his 

manner is a mixture of the Peniginesque 
and Raphaelesque without the high quali- 
ties of either. Appears first as an inde- 
pendent master at Todi, but usually lived 
at Spoleto. Among his early works are the 
feeble Nativity, at the Vatican, called the 
Madonna della Spineta, and the Adoration 
of the Magi, Berlin Museum (attributed to 
Raphael). They are Peruginesque in dis- 
tribution and drawing, and Raphaelesque in 
accompaniments of type and drapery, and 
are of great interest as showing how Lo 
Spagna combined the methods of his master 
and comrade. This is further illustrated in 
the Madonna with Saints in the Perugia 
Gallery, and the Madonna in the Rovigo 
Gallery, assigned to Perugino. Fine fres- 
cos by him still exist at Todi, Trevi, Spoleto, 
Narni, Perugia, and Assisi. In 151G Lo 
Spagna received the freedom of the city 
of Spoleto, and the following year he was 
elected captain of the guild of St. Luke. 
With none of Pinturicchio's hardness, pure 
and simple in style, Lo Spagna is, after 
Raphael, the most sympathetic of Peru- 
gino's scholars. Other works : Nativity, 
Louvre ; Nativity, Vatican ; Ecce Homo, 
National Gallery, London ; Madonna En- 
throned, in lower church, S. Francesco, As- 
sisi ; Coronation of the Virgin, Mtinicipio, 
Narni ; Madonna, Palazzo Pubblico, Spoleto. 
C. & C., Italy, iii. 303 ; Vasari, ed. Le 
Mon., xi. 53 ; ed. Mil., iii. 593 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole ombrienue ; Burckhardt, 574, G49 : 
Lttbke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 444. 

SPAGNOLETTO, LO, born at Jativa, 
Spain, Jan. 12, 
1588, died in Na- 
ples in 1656. Va- 
lencian and Nea- 
politan schools. 
Real name Josef 
de Ribera ; pupil 
in Valencia of 
Francisco Ribal- 
ta ; went when ( 
quite young to Rome, and lived, while study- 
ing, on the charity of his comrades, who nick- 



named him Spagnoletto (little Spaniard). 
A cardinal took pity upon him, clothed him, 
and attached him to his household, but 
Spagnoletto soon ran away, declaring that 
he needed the spur of poverty to make him 
a good artist. After studying under Cara- 
vaggio he went to Parma, where the grace 
of Correggio temporarily influenced him; 
but he soon returned to the style of Cara- 
vaggio, which he even exaggerated. Hav- 
ing settled in Naples, where he married the 
daughter of a rich picture-dealer, he was 
appointed court painter by the Spanish 
viceroy, his fellow-countryman, and soon 

knighted by Innocent X. in 1644. Bermu- 
dez repudiates the story that he disappeared 
from Naples on account of the seduction of 
his daughter, Maria Blanca, who was also a 
good painter, by Don John of Austria. 
Among his numerous works are : Madonna, 
Beggar, Louvre, Paris ; Dead Christ, Shep- 
herd with a Lamb, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Diogenes with the Lantern (1637), St. 
Mary of Egypt (1641), Deliverance of Peter 
(1642), Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew, do. 
of St. 
Susanna and 

Lawrence, Jacob tending Laban's 
seven others, Dresden Museum ; 
the Elders, Stadel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; his Portrait, St. 
Jerome, Uffizi, Florence ; 
Mathematician, Philosoph- 
er, Palazzo Brignole, Gen- 
oa ; Martyrdom of St. Bar- 
tholomew, Palazzo Spinola, 
ib.; Martyrdom of St. Se- 
bastian, St. Jerome, Silenus 
and Satyrs, Naples Muse- 
um ; Communion of the 
Apostles, and Descent from 
the Cross, S. Martin e, Na- 
ples ; Twelve Apostles, Par- 
ma Museum ; St. Jerome, 
Quirinal, Rome; St. Jerome, 
Academy of St. Luke, ib. ; 
St. Stanislas with Infant 
Jesus, Palazzo Borghese, 
ib. ; St. Jerome, St. Bartho- 
found himself possessed of wealth and hon- ' lomew, Palazzo Colonna, ib.; Death of Ado- 
ours, which enabled him to live like a nis, St. Jerome, Palazzo Corsini, ib. ; Hercu- 

Spalatro, Washington Allston, H. R. Bishop, New York. 

grandee and entertain nobles and princes in 
his palace. Notwithstanding his supreme 
position he was jealous of the advancement 
of others, and became chief of the infamous 

les and Antaeus, Turin Gallery ; Martyrdom 
of St. Sebastian, two St. Jeromes, and St. 
Procopius, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; St. 
Bartholomew, Jacob's Dream, Martyrdom 

cabal of Naples to make war, even to the of St. Bartholomew, St. Francis, Hermit at 

knife, on painters of rival schools employed 
in Naples. By the aid of his tools (Corren- 
zio and Caracciolo), Annibale Carracci, Ca- 
valiere d' Arpino, Guido, Gessi, and Domeni- 
chiiio were successively driven away, while 
Domenichino's death was probably hastened 
by poison. Eibera was made a member of 
the Academy of St. Luke in 1630, and was 

Prayer, Conception, and fifty others, Madrid 
Museum ; Joseph in Prison, Escorial. Ceau 
Bermudez, iv. 184 ; Lanzi, ii. 32 ; Ch. Blanc, 
cole espagnole ; Burckhardt, 767, 774 ; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1882), xxv. 40. 


See Spagna. 
or Vision of the Bloody 

Hand, Washington Allston, H. R. Bishop, 



New York ; burned in 18 . Scene from 
Mrs. Radcliffe's novel, "The Italian." Sche- 
doni, a monk, who has engaged the fisher- 
man Spalatro to murder Ellena, the heroine 
of the story, is conducting him with a lamp 
through the vaults, when Spalatro is seized 
with terror at the vision of a bloody hand. 
Considered by Allston his best picture. 
Painted in 1832 for H. S. Ball, of Charles- 
ton, S. C. ; passed to John Taylor Johnston, 
of New York, at whose sale (187G) sold for 
$3,900 to H. R. Bishop; burned at his 
country-seat on the Hudson. 

Gottingen, Dec. 3, 1843, died on Mount 
Vesuvius, June 25, 1874. History painter, 
pupil in Munich of Ramberg, then (1861) 
in Venice of Pauwels ; returned to Munich, 
where he received marks of distinction from 
the Union for Historical Art, and, provided 
with the great stipend, was about to com- 
plete his studies in Italy, when he was struck 
down by paralysis of the heart while ascend- 
ing Mount Vesuvius. Works : Triumph of 
the American Union, Capitol, Washington ; 
Vandals Plundering ; Geiserich's Departure 
from Rome. Kunst-Chronik, ix. 627. 

born in Hamburg, 
Feb. 1, 1828. Histo- 
ry and genre painter, 
pupil in Hamburg of 
Hermann Kauffmann, 
in Hanau of Pellis- 
sier, then of Antwerp 
Academy (1848-50), 
and in Paris (1851- 
57) of Couture and 
the sculptor Triqueti ; 
copied in the Louvre, visited England and 
Holland, and in 1857-58 Italy, and settled 
in Berlin. Professor ; member of Berlin, 
Vienna, and Hanau Academies. Medals : 
Cologne, 1861 ; Berlin, 1868, 1876 ;. Vienna, 
1873. Works : Amsterdam Orphan Girls 
(1851), Donkey Driver's Siesta (1855), Wal- 
purgis Night (1862), Hamburg Gallery ; Rat 
Charmer of Hameln ; St John's Eve in Co- 

logne ; Luther as Squire George ; Luther 
making Music at Home (1866), Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; Luther and Melanchthon (1867), Mr. 
Probasco, Cincinnati ; Luther translating the 
Bible (1870), Procession of Death (1876), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Luther's Entry 
into Worms (1875), Konigsberg Museum ; 
Allegory of Labour and Vice (1878) ; Will o' 
the Wisp (1879) ; Three Marys at Christ's 
Tomb (1880). In fresco : The Four Facul- 
ties (1885), University, Halle. Jordan 
(1885), ii. 219 ; Leixner, Mod. K, ii. 82 ; 
Muller, 499; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 
225 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1883), ii. 345 ; D. Rund- 
schau, ix. 324 ; xvii. 301 ; xxi. 147 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, vi. 144 ; xii. 292. 

burg in 1824. Landscape and architecture 
painter, pupil in Munich of Emil Kirchner, 
then studied in Brussels ; travelled in 
France, England, Italy, and Greece, and 
settled in Berlin in 1857. Member of Ber- 
lin Academy. Works : Citadel of Corinth ; 
Acropolis of Athens (several times) ; Uglei 
Lake in Holstein ; Village in Burgundy ; 
Farmyard in Oldenburg (1862) ; The Regen- 
stein in the Hartz Mountains ; Fishermen's 
Hut on the Baltic (1866) ; Theatre of Her- 
odes Atticus at Athens (Jubilee Exhibition, 
Berlin, 1886). 

SPANISH MARRL\.GE. See Marriage. 

SPASIMO DI SICHJA, Raphael, Madrid 
Museum ; wood transferred to canvas, H. 9 
ft. 10 in. x 7 ft. 6 in. Christ, on the way to 
Calvary, has sunk under the weight of the 
cross, which Simon of Cyrene offers to carry ; 
an executioner, at left, endeavours to drag 
him along by a rope, while another raises 
his spear to strike him ; but, regardless of 
his own sufferings, he turns consolingly to 
the Virgin, who, kneeling with outstretched 
arms, is supported by St. John and Mary 
Magdalen ; behind them follow other wom- 
en and a procession of Roman soldiers and 
citizens from the city gates ; in the back- 
ground, a mounted standard-bearer is turn- 
ing towards Calvary, seen in distance. The 
word Spasimo (spasm) is in allusion to the 



spasm or fainting fit of the Virgin. Painted 
in Home between 1516-18 for monks of 
Monte Oliveto, S. M. dello Spasimo, Paler- 
mo ; vessel wrecked on way to Palermo, and 
picture, packed in a tight case, floated into 
Gulf of Genoa, and was picked up and taken 
to Genoa, where the people were delighted 
with their acquisition, but the Pope com- 

Spasimo di Sicilia, Raphael, Madrid Museum. 

pelled them to give it up to its rightful 
owners ; sold by monks in 1661 to Philip 
IV. and taken to Madrid ; carried to Paris 
1813 ; returned in 1819. Numerous 


copies by Antonello da Palermo and others. 
Engraved by Agos. Veneziano (1517) ; Dom 
Cunego (1781) ; Ferdinand Selma (1808) ; 
Charles Normaud (1813); P. Toschi ; and 
many others. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv, 357; 

Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 462 ; Passavant, ii. 
244 ; Miintz, 523 ; Madrazo, 187 ; Reveil, vi. 

at Meissen, Saxony, in 1805, died at Dresden 
in 1865. Landscape painter, pupil of Johaun 
Samuel Arnold (1766-1827) at Meissen, and 
of Dahl in Dresden; became in 1824 drawing- 
master at Arenenberg, near 
Constance, of Prince Louis 
Napoleon, who, when emperor, 
gave him a pension ; spent his 
winters in Rome, returned 
home in 1826, and visited 
Switzerland and Tyrol in 1828. 
Works : The Sustenpass ; 
Heath near Dresden (1843), 
View near Dessau (1844), 
Dresden Art Union ; View of 
Dresden (1841), Harrach Gal- 
lery, Vienna. Nagler, xvii. 

at Hamburg, July 18, 1806, 
died there, Nov. 23, 1835. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Corne- 
lius in Munich, where he was 
also much influenced by Over- 
beck and Genelli ; returned 
to Hamburg, and in 1830 went 
to Italy, where he adopted the 
style and colouring of the old 
Venetian masters. Works : 
Christ and the W r oman of Sa- 
maria (1829) ; Three Marys 
at the Sepulchre (1829), Alba- 
nian Woman with Jug (1831), 
Roman Woman (1832), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Samson and 
Delilah (1834), Leipsic Museum. Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1820-34) ; Nagler, xvii. 123 ; N. 
Necrol. der D. (1835), ii. 1049. 

school, first half of 16th century. Said by 
Vasari to have been pupil of Mantegna, with 
whose style his own has an affinity, like that 
of his countryman, Bartolommeo Montagna, 
whose work his own closely resembles, as, 



e.g., a Madonna in Casa Agosti at Belluno. 
Two altarpieces by him exist : one, a Virgin 
Enthroned, in S. Giorgio, Velo ; the other, 
an Assumption, in the gallery of Vicenza. 
Other specimens of his work are in S. Coro- 
na and S. Chiara, Vicenza, and in the Casa 
Piovene, Padua. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 420 ; 
Burckhardt, 604. 

born at Halle, Saxony, in 1691, died at Ans- 
pach in 1746. Portrait painter, son and 
pupil in Hamburg of the portrait painter 
Johaun Heinrich Sperling, then pupil of 
Leipsic Academy. Court painter in Ans- 
pach in 1710. Later went to Rotterdam ; 
became one of the best pupils of Adriaan 
van der Werff, many of whose pictures he 
copied. Works : Pomona and Vertumnus in 
the Form of an Old Woman (1719), Dres- 
den Gallery ; Head of a Persian (1743), 
Gotha Museum. Nagler, xvii. 138. 

SPERL, JOHANN, born at Buch near 
Nuremberg, Nov. 3, 1840. Genre painter, 
pupil at the Industrial Art School in Nu- 
remberg under Kreling, then of the Mu- 
nich Academy under Anschiltz and Ramberg. 
Works : The New Suit ; Looking for a 
Bride ; Going to Baptism ; Suabian Peas- 
ant Wedding ; On Furlough. Muller, 499. 

hu Vedder, Martin Brimmer, Boston. The 
Sphinx, covered to the chin with the desert 
sand, as it was before the excavations of 
Captain Caviglia ; an old Arab, bending for- 
ward and partly kneeling, has placed his 
ear to the imperturbable lips, as if he ex- 
pected the mystery of the ages to answer 
his questions. 

born at Dttsseldorf, April 30, 1619, died 
there, Aug. 10, 1690. Dutch school. Por- 
trait and history painter, pupil of Govert 
Flinck in Amsterdam. Court painter in 
Cologne, where he portrayed many princes 
and princesses. Works : Archer's Banquet 
(1650), Amsterdam Museum ; Lady's Por- 
trait (1648), Darmstadt Museum ; Juno giv- 
ing lo to Argus, Liechtenstein Gallery, 

Vienna ; Portrait of Prince Johann Wilhelm 
of the Palatinate, and Portrait of a Lady 
(both attributed), Munich Gallery. Immer- 
zeel, iii. 104. 

werp, Aug. 30, 1635, died there, buried 
Aug. 30, 1711. Flemish school ; land- 
scape painter, mostly self-taught ; went in 
1660 to Italy, and returned to Antwerp in 
1666, having meanwhile painted also in 
France, for Louis XIV. Works : Two Land- 
scapes, St. Augustine's, Antweqj ; do., Mad- 
rid Museum ; View in Paris, Germanic Mu- 
seum, Nuremberg ; Landscapes with Fig- 
ures, etc. (2), Oriental Seaport, Schleissheim 
Gallery. Van den Branden, 1073. 

Autumn), Nicolas Ponssin, Louvre, Paris ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 5 ft. 3 in. In a 
valley, with a height and fortifications of a 
city on right, a woman mounted upon a 
ladder gathers fruit from a tree ; in fore- 
ground, the two spies sent by Moses into 
Canaan bear suspended from a polo im- 
mense bunches of grapes as evidence of the 
fertility of the soil. One of a series of four 
painted in 1660-64 for the Due do Riche- 
lieu, whence passed to Louis XTV. En- 
graved by J. Pesne. Filhol, iv. PI. 238. 

SPIESS, HEINRICH, born in Munich, 
May 10, 1832 (1831), died there, Aug. 6 (8), 
1875. History painter, pupil of Munich 
Academy under Voltz and Kaulbach. As- 
sisted Schwind in the Wartburg frescos ; 
with his brother August painted the Villa 
Feodora in Lieben stein after L. Richter's 
designs. Works : Two Scenes from Life of 
Henry the Lion, National Museum, Munich ; 
allegorical representations of the Sciences 
(with his brother August), in Arcades of 
Maximilianeum, ib. Dioskureu (1875), 
262 ; Kunst-Chronik, x. 810. 

SPILNBERGER (Spielberger), HANS, 
bora at Kaschau, Hungary, in 1628, died in 
1679. History painter, supposed to have 
studied in Italy. Court painter in Augs- 
burg, then in Vienna. Works : St. Peter's 
Pentecostal Sermon, Church of Holy Cross, 



Augsburg ; Death of St. Benedict, St. Em- 
meram's, llatisbon ; Assumption, St. Ste- 
phen's, Vienna. 

SPINELLI, PARRI, born in Arezzo in 
1387, died there in 1452. Florentine school; 
son of Spinello Spinelli, and probably his 
pupil, but an imitator of Lorenzo Monaco. 
He was a third-rate artist, below the Gerini 
in talent, though Vasari, his townsman, saw 
fit to praise him. Some of his frescos, much 
overpainted, exist in S. Domeuico, in S. 
Maria della Misericordia, and in S. Fran- 
cesco, Arezzo. C. & C., Italy, ii. 25 ; Vasari, 
ed. Le Mon., ii. 198 ; iii. 144 ; ed. Mil., ii. 
275 ; Siret, 880 ; Burckhardt, 493. 

SPINELLI, SPINELLO, born at Arezzo 
about 1333, died there, March 14, 1410. 
Florentine school. Son of Luca Spinelli, 
of a Ghibelline family that took refuge at 
Arezzo about 1308 ; commonly called Spi- 
nello Aretino or d' Arezzo. Pupil of Jacopo 
di Casentino, and at twenty a better painter 
than his master. He was of great merit, 
following the style developed by Jacopo and 
by Bernardo Daddi, but rose above them 
and represented the spirit of Giotto's school 
at the close of the 14th century better than 
any other artist of his time. He had, in- 
deed, many of the qualities of Giotto, 
though compared with him he is a bold 
decorator, careless of form and of detail. 
The Florence Academy has a Madonna with 
Saints and Angels, signed and dated 1391 ; 
and a church in Arezzo his Madonna della 
Rosa ; but he is seen at his best in his 
frescos, especially Life of St. Benedict 
(1385), Sacristy of S. Miniato, near Flor- 
ence ; History of SS. Ephesus and Potitus 
(1391), Campo Santo, Pisa ; Barbarossa and 
Pope Alexander HI., Palazzo Pubblico, 
Siena; and Lucifer and the Rebel Angels 
(fragment belonging to Sir A. H. Layard, 
England), in S. Francesco, Arezzo. C. & C., 
Italy, ii. 7 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mou., ii. 185 ; ed. 
Mil., i. 677 ; W. & W., i. 477 ; Burckhardt, 
493, 495, 498, 504. 

SPITZER, EMANUEL, bom at Papa, 
Hungary, Oct. 30, 1845. Genre painter, 

mostly self-taught; worked in Paris in 
1864-67, for "L'Art pour tous," settled in 
Munich in 1871, and is one of the contribu- 
tors to "Fliegeude Blatter." Works: Fisher 
Boy (1873) ; Girl at the Well, Girl playing 
among Flowers (1875); Little Darling, Sur- 
prise for Papa (1877) ; Sweet Gossip (1878); 
Permission for Dancing (1884) ; They are 
coming! (1885). Wurzbach, xxxvi. 186; 
Allgem. K. Chr., viii. 587. 

SPITZWEG, KARL, born in Munich, 
Feb. 5, 1808, died 
there, Sept. 13, 1885. 
Genre and landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Hanson ; for several 
years illustrator for 
the comic paper 
"Fliegende Blatter." 
His pictures are 
marked by genuine 
humour, and he has been called the Jean 
Paul of painters. Order of St. Michael in 
1865. Works : Sunday Hunter (1844) ; 
Widower (1845) ; Policeman catching Flies 
(1852) ; Bookworm (1853) ; Writer cutting 
Pen (1854) ; Schoolmaster serenading his 
Sweethenrt, Old Gentleman in Favourite 
Spot, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; School 
Children (1859), Itinerant Dramatic Com- 
pany resting ; Librarian, Biblical Interpreta- 
tion (1860) ; Portrait Painter (1862), Prague 
Art Union ; Women of Dachau at Forest 
Chapel, Letter-Carrier (1862) ; Mail Coach, 
Meeting of Old Friends (1863) ; Geologist, 
Astrologer (1864) ; Turkish Coffee-House 
(1862), Hermit playing the Violin, Group of 
Alpine Herdswomen, Hypochondriac exam- 
ining the Weather, Lovers Parting, Serenade 
from Barber of Seville (1865), Schack Gal- 
lery, Munich ; Ascent of Alp, Descent from 
do. (1870); In the Garret (1882), Two Her- 
mits, New Pinakothek, Munich. Allgem. 
K. Chr., is. 777, 1001 ; Graph. K, v. 44 ; 
Kunst f. Alle, i. 24 ; Mtiller, 500 ; Reguet, 
ii. 268 ; Schack, Meine Gemiildesammlung 
(1884), 194 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iv. 115 ; xxi. 77. 
SPOSALIZIO. See Virgin, Marriage of. 



in Antwerp, March 21, 1546, died in Prague 
about 1627. Flemish 
school ; history and 
portrait painter, pupil 
of Jan Mandyn and of 
Cornelis van Dalen. 
In 1565 he went to 
Paris, and thence to 
Milan, Parma, and 
Rome, where he re- 
mained until 1575. 
Recommended to 
Maximilian H. in 1575, he executed for him 
and his son, Rudolph H., important decora- 
tive works, and resided as court painter in 
Prague, whither he returned after a visit to 
his native country in 1602. Ennobled by 
Rudolph IL, he called himself Spranger van 
den Schilden. Despite many good qualities, 
his works show the want of early training. 
Works : Magdalen, Antwerp Museum ; Su- 
sanna justified by Daniel, Brussels Museum ; 
Holy Family, Brunswick Gallery ; Banquet 
of the Gods, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Diana 
and Acteon, Christiania Gallery ; Diana 
and Nymphs, Stockholm Museum ; Venus 
served by the Graces, Hermitage, St. Pe- 
tersburg ; Resurrection (attributed), Berlin 
Museum ; Circumcision, Descent from the 
Cross, Old Piuakothek, Munich ; Cupid and 
Psyche, Oldenburg Gallery ; Apollo, Mydas, 
and Marsias, Lot and Daughters fleeing 
from Sodom, Susanna and the Elders, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Cupid and Psyche, 
Stuttgart Museum ; Ulysses with Circe, 
Mercury surprising Venus and Mars, Venus 
and Mercury with Genii, Apollo and Muses, 
Vulcan and Maia, Triumph of Wisdom, Al- 
legory on Virtues of Rudolph H., Hercules 

and Omphale, 
Mars with Ve- 
nus and Cu- 
pid, portraits 
of Artist and 
his Wife, Vi- 
enna Museum. Ch. Blanc, ficole flainande ; 
Fetis, Artistes beiges a 1'etranger, L 389 ; 




Immerzeel, iiL 104 ; Eramm, v. 1551 ; Mi- 
chiels, vi. 3 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 31. 

SPRING, Nicolas Poussin. See Paradise. 

SPRING-TIME, Pierre Auguste Col, D. 
T. Lyle, Brooklyn, N. Y.; canvas, H. 8 ft. 
x 4 ft. A young man and a girl, life-size, 
sitting in a swing among the trees of a 
garden. Painted in 1873 ; bought by John 
Wolfe, New York ; at his sale (1878) to Mr. 
Lyle. Replica, smaller, Dr. Marcy, New 
York ; two more in Europe. Photogravure 
in Art Treasures of America, i. 54. 

sterdam, May 25, 1817. Architecture paint- 
er, pupil of Kasper Karsen, whom he greatly 
surpasses in conception of his subjects and 
in powerful colouring. Member of Rotter- 
dam Academy in 1856 ; gold medal, Hague, 
1857 ; Orders of Oaken Crown (1861) and 
of Leopold. Works : City Hall at Middle- 
burg (1859) ; do. and Market at Veere 
(1861), City Hall at Cologne (1874), Muse- 
um, Amsterdam ; City in Winter, Market in 
Haarlem, View in the Briel, Museum Fodor, 
ib. ; Town Hah 1 and Market at Naarden, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; Leyden Cathedral ; City 
Halls at The Hague, Brussels, Bremen, 
Brunswick, Miinster, Cologne, and Lflbeck ; 
Market Place in Ulm. Immerzeel, iii. 106 ; 
Kramm, v. 1553. 

SPROSSE, KARL, born in Leipsic, June 
11, 1819, died there, Jan. 1, 1874. Land- 
scape and architecture painter, pupil of 
Leipsic Academy under Brauer and Schnorr. 
Visited Saxony and the Rhine country in 
1836-37 ; went in 1844 to Rome ; spent 
many years there and in Venice, but made 
occasional visits home ; visited also Greece. 
Gold medal in 1854. Works : Roman Fo- 
rum ; St. Mary's Church in Nuremberg ; 
Cathedral of Ratisbon ; St. Mark's in Ven- 
ice ; Castle of Merseburg ; Cathedrals of 
Erfurt and Worms ; Series of Views in Rome 
and Venice ; many churches and castles in 
Germany ; Rear View of Ratisbon Cathedral 
(1857), The former Moat at Leipsic (1858), 
Tombstones of the Scaligers, Leipsic Muse- 
um. Andreseu, i. 76; Kuubt-Chrouik, ix. 252. 



SPRUYT, CHARLES, born at Brussels, 
July 2G, 1769, died there in 1827(?). History 
and genre painter, son of and first instruct- 
ed by Philip Spruyt (1727-1801), then pupil 
of Ghent Academy, where he won the first 
prize in 1790 ; went to Rome in 1815, and 
returned to Brussels in 1821. Member of 
Ghent Academy. Works : St. Theresa pray- 
ing to the Virgin ; Disciples at Einmaus (in 
America) ; Interior of Grotto in Franciscan 
Monastery ; Shop Interior (1824) ; Jan I. 
Duke of Brabant in the Prison of his Sister 
Maria Queen of France (182G), formerly in 
Haarlem Pavilion ; Francesco Francia dying 
while looking at one of Raphael's Pictures 
(1829) : Interior of Subten-anean Church in 
Rome ; One of the Sette Salle, ib. (1833) ; 
Refectory in St. Gertrude's Convent ; Land- 
scape in Sunset (1836). Immerzeel, iii. 107. 

Padua in 1394, died there in 1474. Paduan 
school ; in 1422 he inherited enough from 
his father, Giovanni, a notary, to enable him 
to set up a tailor and embroiderer's shop. 
Embroidery being akin to the art of design- 
ing, he was attracted to the study of paint- 
ing. In time he opened the earliest Italian 
art academy in his native city, where, as he 
says, 137 pupils were taught ; and thus ac- 
quired the name of " father of painters." 
He travelled much and made a large collec- 
tion of casts from the antique, pictures, and 
other objects of art for the benefit of his 
pupils. Though the founder of a school, 
he was himself comparatively unskilled as a 
painter, and the work from his studio was 
chiefly done by his disciples. His name 
first appears in the lists of the Paduan guild 
in 1441. He contracted to decorate the 
chapel of S. Cristoforo at the Eremitani, and 
intrusted the execution to Pizzolo, Manle- 
gna, and others. He took part in decorating 
the Santo and the cloisters of S. Francesco, 
Padua, and painted an altarpiece and a Ma- 
donna for the Lazzara family, still extant. 
Besides Pizzolo and Mantegna, he numbered 
among his pupils Marco Zoppo, Dario of 
Treviso, and Ansuino. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 

294 ; Burckhardt, 128, 403, 575 ; Siret, 882 ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 384 ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. 
Mai., i. 456. 

STAAFF, KARL THEODOR, born in the 
Province of Herjedalen, Sweden, June 28, 
1816. Portrait painter, pupil of Stockholm 
Academy in 1831. Began with historical 
painting, then changed to portraits. Also 
illustrated some of Jegner's writings. Mem- 
ber of Stockholm Academy in 1856. Works : 
King Oscar I., Drottningholm Castle near 
Stockholm ; Charles XV. ; President Asker ; 
Gen. Akrell ; and others. Miiller, 501. 

cow, Aug. 14, 1768, died there, March 26, 
1835. History painter, pupil of Molitor 
(probably Franz Iguaz, who died at Cracow 
in 1794) and of Kasimir Molodzinski (died 
at Cracow, Jan. 28, 1795) ; painted at first 
biblical scenes for churches, but after 1794 
episodes of national history, and scenes from 
popular life, in oil and fresco. He was the 
first among the Polish painters to pursue 
a national tendency in art. Professor at 
the St. Barbara Lyceum, Cracow, in 1817. 
Member of Cracow Academy of Sciences. 
Works : Fettering of St. Peter (1789) ; Kos- 
ciuszko on the Ring Square in Cracow in 
1794, Episcopal Palace, Cracow ; Battle of 
Raclawice ; Martyrs of Sandomir, St. Cath- 
arine, Bishop Erasmus, St. Sophia, Descent 
from the Cross, Dominican Church, Cracow ; 
St. Helen, Franciscans, ib.; Divine Provi- 
dence, Entombment, St. Barbara's, ib.; Ma- 
donna of Loreto, Capuchins, ib.; Entry of 
Prince Poniatowski into Cracow in 1809 ; 
Taking of Cracow by Warsaw Troops un- 
der Poniatowski ; Vision of Sainted Poles 
in the Clouds, Episcopal Palace, Cracow. 
In fresco : Views of Cities and Representa- 
tions of Popular Customs in Poland (1816- 
17), ib. ; The Sciences and Arts, Polish Schol- 
ars (33 medallions in 11 groups), Eleven 
Episodes in History of Cracow University 
(1820-21), Jagellonic Hall, University, ib. 
Many others in oil and fresco in churches, 
monasteries, and on the estates of Polish 
, uobles. Wurzbach, xxxvi. 314. 



STACK, JOSEF MAGNUS, born at Suml 
in 1812. Landscape painter, pupil of Stock- 
holm Academy, and studied later in Munich. 
Visited the Tyrol and Italy. Works: Elf 
Valley in Dalecarlia, Stockholm Gallery ; 
View of Genzano ; Munich and Bavarian 
Highlands, Royal Palace, Stockholm. 

STADEMANN, ADOLF, born at Mu- 
nich in 1824. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy ; paints chiefly winter 
scenes, often by moonlight or rainy weather. 
Works : Winter Landscape (1837), New Pi- 
nakothek, Munich ; do., Schack Gallery, ib.; 
View on Ammer Lake (1857) ; Winter Scene 
(1860) ; Bain and Sunshine (I860) ; Village 
in Winter. Cotta's Kunstbl., 1840; D. 
Kunstbl., 1856-58 ; Dioskuren, 1860-62. 

STADING, EVELINE, born at Stockholm 
in 1803, died in 1829. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Fahlcrantz, then copied from 1824 
in Dresden after Euisdael and studied from 
nature, and went in 1827 through Salzburg 
and Tyrol to Rome. Works : View from 
Villa Chigis Park near Ariccia, Park and 
Castle of Rosersberg, Christiania Gallery ; 
View of the Hockstein near Dresden ; Castle, 
Lohmen ; Loch Mill ; View of Dresden. 

STADKEUS, Greek painter, pupil of Ni- 
costhenes, mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 40 
[146]) as a worthy artist. Possibly identi- 
cal with the sculptor of the same name, 
master of Polycles. 

STAELBENT. See Stalbemt. 

STAG AT BAY, Sir Edwin Landseer, 
Lord Godolphin. Stands in the shallow of 
a lake, near the shore, with head erect ; one 
of the two dogs that have followed him lies 
on his back howling, while the other gives 
tongue to announce the whereabouts of the 
game. Royal Academy, 1846. Engraved 
by C. Mottram. Art Journal (1870), 144. 

STAG FIGHT (Combat de Cerfs), Gus- 
tave Courbet, Louvre, Paris. Two noble 
stags, with locked horns, are contending for 
supremacy in a wood. Salon, 1861. Pur- 
chased at Lepel-Cointet sale for 49,100 fr. 

STAG HUNT, Velasquez, Lord Ashbur- 
ton, London ; canvas, H. 6 ft x 8 ft Philip 

IV. and hia courtiers hunting stags in an 
arena enclosed by canvas walls, in the Pra- 
do, a royal hunting-seat two leagues from 
Madrid ; among the personages are the 
King, Queen Isabel, Olivarez, Velasquez 
standing uncovered in foreground, and 
Alonso de Espinar, aide to Don Balkisar 
Carlos. Painted before 1629 ; purchased 
by Mr. Baring from ex-King Joseph Bona- 
parte, who took it from the Royal Palace, 
Madrid. Curtis, 24 ; Waagen, iii. 347. 

By Philips Wouvxrman, Munich Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. 5 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. An open 
country divided by a river, with huntsmen 
in distance driving a stag into the water, on 
which are people in boats ; on left bank of 
river, a terrace and gardens ; opposite, a 
clump of trees with a picnic party, horses, 
and musicians. Smith, ix. 182. 

STAIGG, RICHARD M., born in Leeds, 
England, about 1820 ; died at Newport, 
It L, Oct. 11, 1881. Portrait and genre 
painter ; came to America in youth, after 
studying drawing in an architect's office in 
Leeds, and settled in Newport, It. I., where 
he began to paint miniatures on ivory, un- 
der the advice and assistance of Washington 
Allston. In 1861 he was elected a member 
of the National Academy, New York ; was 
in Paris in 1867-69, and again in Europe in 
1872-74. After his return he painted por- 
traits, and occasionally landscapes and genre 
pictures, some of the last of which were 
much admired. His miniatures, when ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy, London, and 
the Salon, Paris, received favourable notice. 
Works : First Steps, The Lesson, St. Jerome, 
(1870) ; Italian Chestnut Gatherer (1875) ; 
Empty Nest, Cornice Road Italy, Italian 
Peasant Knitting (1876) ; Italian Girl's 
Head (1877) ; Margaret, Boy's Head (1878) ; 
Pet Squirrel (1880). 

VAN, born in Antwerp, June 12, 1580, died 
there, Sept. 21, 1662. Flemish school ; 
landscape painter, if not pupil of, certainly 
influenced by Jan Brueghel. Master of the 
guild in 1609, its dean in 1618, called to 



London by Charles L about 1622, and 
worked there until 1642. His landscapes 
are enriched with buildings, biblical and 
mythological figures, and animals. Works : 
Wood Landscape, Antwerp Museum ; do., 
Amsterdam Museum ; Landscape, Kirmess, 
Cassel Gallery ; Kirmess, Stadel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; do., Vienna Museum ; Banquet 
of the Gods (1622), Judgment of Midas, 
Dresden Gallery ; Adoration of the Shep- 
herds (1622), Stag Hunt by a Lake, Berlin 
Museum ; Wood Landscape, Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; Triumph of David 
-toftyTALBEMT over Goliath (with P. 
F A 9 1 622.' Brueghel, 1619), Madrid 
Museum. Kramm, v. 
1556; Michiels, ix. 118; Kooses (Reber), 
411 ; Van den Brandeu, 625. 

STALLAEET, JOSEPH, born at Merch- 
tem, Brabant, in 1825. History painter, 
pupil of Brussels Academy under Navez ; 
took the prize for Rome in 1848 ; then spent 
four years in Italy, France, and Germany. 
His pictures are in tasteful antique style. 
Medals at Brussels (1860), Vienna (1873), 
Philadelphia (1876) ; Order of Leopold 
(1863) ; Officer (1881) ; Order of Francis 
Joseph of Austria. Principal professor of 
design and of painting in Royal Academy, 
Brussels. Works : Penelope (1859) ; Hero 
and Leander (1861) ; Death of Dido, Brus- 
sels Museum ; Cellar of Diomedes in Pom- 
peii (1862) ; Ulysses (1863) ; Medea ; Polyx- 
ena sacrificed to the Manes of Achilles, Ghent 
Museum ; Cellar of Diomedes (1879). In 
fresco : Ceilings, Palace of Count of Flan- 
ders ; Four Celestial Regions, Elements and 
Gods, in Brussels National Bank. Muller, 
501 ; D. Rundschau, xx. 471. 

STAMMEL, EBERHARD, born at Diiren 
in 1832. Genre painter, pupil of Diissel- 
dorf Academy under Sohn, then studied in 
Antwerp, Paris, and Munich, and settled at 
Dusseldorf in 1859. Works : Morning af- 
ter Bout ; Bookworm, Royal Collection, Ber- 
lin ; Cavalier and Usurer, Villa Borsig, ib. ; 
Gentlemen's Room, Barmen Art Union ; 
Village Artist ; Everything Lost ; Peasants 

at the Museum ; Art Amateur ; Afternoon 
Pipe. Dioskuren, 1865-66. 

STANDAART. See Bloemen, Pieter van. 
born in London, May 1, 1828, died at Harnp- 
stead, March 22, 1878. Landscape and 
marine painter, son and pupil of William 
Clarkson Stanfield, and student of the Royal 
Academy, to the exhibitions of which he 
was a contributor from 1844 to 1876. He 
painted principally Continental landscapes 
and views of towns. Works : Church of 
St. Michael Ghent (1860); Saarburg Castle 
(1861); On the Lahn (1863) ; Amphitheatre 
at Verona (1864) ; Angers (1868) ; Dunbar 
Castle (1872) ; Entrance to Harbour of La 
Rochelle (1875) ; On the Nile (1876). 

born at Sunderland, 
Durham, in 1793, 
died at Hampstead, 
May 18, 1867. Be- 
gan life as a sailor in 
the royal navy; be- 
came a scene painter 
when still young, and 
soon turned his at- 
tention to landscape 
and marine painting, in which he won suc- 
cess ; exhibited first at Royal Academy in 
1829 ; became an A.R.A. in 1832 and R.A. 
in 1835. After his first visit to Italy in 
1813, painted many Italian views. He ex- 
celled in mountain and river scenery, and 
in naval battle scenes and seaport views. 
Works : Market Boats on the Scheldt (1826); 
Wreckers off Fort Rouge (1827); Mount St. 
Michael (1830) ; Fishermen of Honfleur, 
View of Venice (1831) ; Opening of New 
London Bridge, Portsmouth Harbour (1832); 
Battleof Trafalgar (183Q); Viewnear St. Malo, 
Amalfi, Avignon, Ancona (1840) ; Castle of 
Ischia, Pozzuoli (1841); Isola Bella, Kitchen 
of Inn Amalfi (1842); Mazerbo and Lu- 
cello, Ducal Palace Venice, Ischia (1843) ; 
Oude Scheldt, Day after the Wreck (1844) ; 
Trajan's Arch Ancona, Capture of Spanish 
Frigate El Gamo (1845); Ponte Rotto 



Rome (1846); Dordrecht, French Troops scape (1861), New Pinakothek, Munich 

fording the Magra (1847) ; Am alii. Mola de 
Gaeta (1848); Tilbury Fort, Lago Maggiore 
(1849) ; Battle of Roveredo (1851) ; Bay of 
Baire, Port of Eochelle (1852) ; The Victory 
towed into Gibraltar (1853); Last of the 
Crew, Hulks in the Medway (1854) ; Siege 
of Sebastian (1855); The Abandoned, Guarda 
Costa off Bidassoa (1856) ; St. Jean de Luz, 
Calais Fishermen (1857) ; Fortress of Sa- 
vona, Castle of Ischia (1858) ; On Coast of 
Brittany, Maltese Xebec on Bocks, Brodick 
Castle (1859) ; Angers, Vesuvius, Outward 
Bound (1860); Capture of Smuggled Goods, 
Homeward Bound (1861); Stack Rock, Race 
of Ramsay, Nieuwe Diep, Coast of Norman- 
dy, Coast of Brittany (1862); Coast of Cala- 
bria, The Defence and her Prize on Morning 
after Trafalgar, Oude Scheldt, Shakespeare's 
Cliff Dover, Worms Head Bristol Chan- 
nel (1863) ; Mew Stone Plymouth Sound, 
War, Peace, On the HoUands Diep (1864) ; 
Bass Rock, Vale of Narni (1865) ; Tintagel 

Evening Bell, Night in Venice, Schack Gal- 
lery, ib. Regnet, ii. 277 ; Kuust-Chronik, 
xvi. 166. 

STANHOPE, R SPENCER, born in Eng- 
land ; contemporary. Belongs to Pre-Raph- 
aelite school ; paints highly elaborated dec- 
orative pictures akin in style to early Flor- 
entine art. Lives in Florence (1884). 
Works : Flight into Egypt (1862) ; Rizpah 
(1863) ; The Mill, Beauty and the Beast 
(1865); Footsteps of the Flock (1868); Rape 
of Proserpine (1869) ; Eve Tempted, Love 
and the Maiden, Banks of the Styx (1877) ; 
The Shulamite, Cupid and Psyche (1878) ; 
Waters of Lethe (1880) ; Autumn (1881) ; 
The Shulamite (1882); Charon and Psyche 
(1883) ; Patience on a Monument (1884) ; 
Birth of Venus (1885) ; Why seek ye the 
Living among the Dead ? (1886). 

STAN/IONI, MASSIMO, Cavaliere, born 
in Naples in 1585, died there in 1656. Ne- 
apolitan school ; pupil in Naples of Fabrizio 

Castle, Pic du Midi d'Ossaiu Pyrenees . Santafede, of Caracciolo, and Corenzio ; af- 
(1866); Skirmish off Heligoland (1867, his ; terwards studied in Rome works of Anni- 
last work). Art Journal (1857), 137 ; (1867), bale Carracci and of Guido, and succeeded 
171 ; Portfolio (1879), 124, 135 ; Gentle- in imitating the colouring of the latter so 

man's Mag., July, 1867 ; Sandby, ii. 149. 

STANGE, BERNHARD, born in Dres- 
den, July 24, 1807, died at Sindelsdorf, Oct. 
10, 1880. Landscape painter, pupil of Rott- 
mann in Munich in 1830 ; also influenced 
by Rahl. Visited Venice iu 1849 ; in his 
latter yeai-s lived as a farmer in the coun- 
try. Deep feeling for the poetry of nature 
and history pervades his pictures. Order 
of St. Michael in 1858. Works : Morning 
Bell (20 replicas) ; Evening in the Alps 
(1835) ; Alpine Valley (1837) ; Mountain 
Valley at Twilight (1838); Autumn Evening 
on Lake (1841) ; Celebration of German 
Union (1849) ; Moonlight (1851), Hamburg 
Gallery ; Foundation of Venice Morning ; 
Arrival of Admirals after Battle of Lepan- 
to Noon ; Singers on the Canal Night 
(1854-57), Queen Victoria ; Ships in Gulf 
of Venice (1853), Evening from Tower Win- 
dow, Burial of Doge (1852), Moonlight Land- 

well that he was called Guido Reni di Na- 
poli. His reputation won him the enmity 
of Spagnoletto, who persecuted him bitterly. 
Works : Lucretia, Naples Museum ; Cleo- 
patra, Palazzo Cassaro, Naples ; Deposition 
of Christ, over entrance inside Church of 
S. Murtino, Naples ; St. Sebastian, Louvre ; 
Madonna, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 
Lanzi, ii. 38 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole napolitaiue ; 
Lavice, 223. 

born in Brussels, June 26, 1799, died in 
1881. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of David ; won grand prizes in Antwerp 
(1822), Brussels (1823), and The Hague 
(1829), and became professor iu the Brus- 
sels Academy. Works: Return of Prodi- 
gal Son, Prague Gallery ; Death of Cleo- 
patra ; Napoleon at St. Helena ; many por- 
traits of princely personages. Irnmerzeel, 
iii. 108. 



LAAS, Baron TJAEDA VAN, born at Wehe, 
GrOniugen, in 1822. Landscape painter, 
self-taught ; studied old Dutch masters un- 
til 1819, when he visited America. Settled 
in Diisseldorf iu 1852, whence he made 
sketching tours to Thuringia, Switzerland, 
and England. Member of Amsterdam Acad- 
emy. Medals: The Hague, 1857, Lyons, 
1865. Works : Invitation to Kirmess ; Har- 
vest ; Water Mill. Mtiller, 502. 

STAR OP EMPIRE, Emanuel Leutze, 
Capitol at Washington ; mural painting on 
staircase landing, House of Representatives. 
"Westward the star of empire takes its 
way." Represents an emigrant train cross- 
the Rocky Mountains. Painted in 18 , 
for $20,000. 

Gratz, Styria, March G, 1782, died there, 
July 23, 1838. History and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Vienna Academy under Maurer, 
then under Caucig and Lampi ; became di- 
rector of the Gratz Academy in 1817, and 
of the newly erected gallery in 1819. Vis- 
ited Italy in 1817 and 182C. Works : Su- 
sanna at the Bath (1816) ; Maximilian I. 
on the Martin Wall, Magdalen iu the Des- 
ert (1826) ; Cimon taking his Father's Place 
in Prison (1828) ; Hylas and the Nymphs 
(1832) ; Baumkirclmer defending the Neu- 
stadt Gate at Gratz in 1452, Venus, Count 
Attems, Gratz ; St. John the Baptist, Chapel 
of the Joaimeum, ib. ; Christ bearing the 
Cross, City Parish Church, ib. ; Christ in 
the Temple, Chapel of the former Ferdinan- 
deum, ib. Hormayr's Archiv (1822), 696 ; 
(1823), 724 ; (1827), 179 ; Wurzbach, xxxvi. 

STARNINA, GHERARDO, born in Flor- 
ence in 1354 (?), died there in 1408 (?). 
Florentine school ; pupil of Antonio Vene- 
ziano, with whom he spent some years ; set- 
tled in Florence, where, in spite of rude 
manners and a hot temper, he found pat- 
rons. In 1378 he became involved in the 
disturbances of the Ciompi, and fled for his 
life to Spain, where he acquired wealth in 

the exercise of his art. In 1387 he was 
again in Florence and took the freedom of 
the painters' company, appearing as Gherar- 
do d' Jacopo Starna. He was painting there 
in 1406, after which there is no trace of him. 
None of the pictures attributed to him by 
Vasari remain, though some of the frescos 
in the Chapel of the Duomo at Prato, a se- 
ries completed by Antonio Vite, the pupil of 
Stamina, may be his work. C. & C., Italy, 
i. 493 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ii. 177 ; ed. 
Mil., ii. 5 ; Burckhardt, 491, 497. 

STARVATION COVE (Bai des Todes, 
Bay of Death), Julius von Payer ; canvas, 
H. 12 ft. x 14 ft. The final scene in Sir 
John Franklin's Polar expedition ; one of a 
series of four pictures projected by the 
painter. Seven of the last survivors lie dead 
in their boat, which is seen in its whole 
length in the moonlight ; Captain Crozier, 
the only living one, bareheaded and musket 
in hand, is leaning forward fixedly watching 
a bear, whose head is seen at right watch- 
ing the corpses ; in the distance, two other 
bears ; at left, an expanse of ice. Painted 
in 1883. London Times, Jan. 29, 1884; 
Kunst-Chronik, xix. 110, 123, 157 ; xx. 335 ; 
Allgem. K. C., viii. 601. 

in Cracow in 1800, died in Rome after 
1870. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of Lampi in Vienna, and in 1817 of St. 
Luke's Academy in Rome, where he was in- 
fluenced by Canova and Thorwaldsen, later 
by Overbeck, Joseph Hyzler, and Joseph 
Craffonara. Painted portraits of Czartory- 
ski family in Vienna ; became professor in 
Cracow in 1831 ; soon after 1850 settled in 
Rome. Gold medal, Paris, 1844. Works : 
Moses on Mt. Sinai, Abel, Holy Family, St. 
Joachim with SS. Anna and Mary, Cracow ; 
Maccabees ; Madonna and Angels ; Madon- 
na di Neve ; Crucifixion ; Baptism of Christ ; 
Madonna surrounded by Angels ; Holy 
Family (1870); and many portraits. Wurz- 
bach, xxxvii. 242. 

VAN, born at Leyden, died there after 1668. 



Dutch school ; genre painter, painted her- 
mits, old men and women, in a highly fin- 
ished style like that of Gerard Dou, whom 
he closely imitated. Works : Scholar in his 
Study, Louvre, Paris ; Hermit, Old Man in 
Prayer, Schoolmaster, Amsterdam Museum ; 
St. Jerome Praying (1690), Copenhagen 
Gallery ; St. Francis in his Hermitage, Ol- 

denburg Gallery; Herring Seller, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg. Kugler (Crowe), ii. 412. 

Burlington, Vt., in 1810, died in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Sept. 16, 1885. Portrait and figure 
painter. Elected N. A. in 1849. Works: 
Washington as a Soldier, a Statesman, a 
Farmer, and In Death (4 pictures), formerly 
in Abbott Collection in Spingler Institute, 
New York. 

STEELL, GOURLAY, born in Edinburgh ; 
contemporary. Animal painter, younger 
brother of Sir John Steell the sculptor. 
Exhibits at the Royal Academy, London, 
and at the Royal Scottish Academy, Edin- 
burgh, of which he is a member. He was 
appointed, after the death of Landseer in 
1873, animal painter in Scotland to the 
Queen. Several of his pictures have been 

STEEN, JAN, born in Leyden in 1626, 
died there, bur- 
ied Feb. 3, 1679. 
Dutch school; 
genre painter, pu- 
pil at Utrecht of 
Nicolas Knupfer, 
and at the Hague 
of Jan van Goyen, 
whose daughter 
he married in 
1649 ; developed 
under the influence of Frans Hals and Adri- 
aan van Ostade. Lived for some time in 
Haarlem before 1648, when received into 
the guild of Leydeii ; went to The Hague 

in 1649, lived there until 1653, then again 
at Leyden until 1658 or 1659. Said to have 
kept a brewery at Delft, where he lived for 
a short time, probably between 1650 and 
1G52. At various times from 1661 to 1669 
he resided at Haarlem, in constant difficul- 
ties with creditors. Probably after his fa- 
ther's death, in 1669, he returned to Leyden, 
where, in 1672, he applied for a license to 
keep a tavern. His first wife having died 
in Haarlem in 1669, he married a widow, 
Maritje Herculens, in 1673. He standsfore- 
most among the greatest Dutch painters of 
familiar life, which ho illustrated with rare 
mastery, lashing the follies and vices of his 
day with keen satire. Works : Music Mas- 
ter, National Gallery, London ; Girl with 
Spaniel (1663), Party of Eleven at Cards and 
Music, Country People in Tavern, Twelfth 
Night, Riotous Mirth before an Inn, Four 
Men and a Woman at Cards, Buckingham 
Palace, ib. ; Fishmonger, School Room, 
Bridgewater Gallery, ib.; Jovial Party in 
Ale-House, Playing at Skittles, Lord Ash- 
burton, ib.; The Glutton (1661), A Christen- 
ing, Merry Party by Village Inn, Mr. Hope, 
ib.; Family Scene, Interior, Love in the 
Country, three others, Mr. Munro, ib. ; 
Wedding, Painter singing to his Lute, Phy- 
sician writing Prescription, School Boys 
playing Tricks (1672), four others, Mr. Ba- 
ring, ib.; Physician feeling Pulse of a Girl, 
Family taking Advantage of Mother's Nap, 
two companion pictures witli Riotous Par- 
ties, Apsley House, ib. ; Bad Company, Feast 
in a Tavern (1674), Louvre, Paris ; Benedic- 
ite, Comte Henri de Greffulhe, Paris ; Art- 
ist's Portrait, Return from Festival, Woman 
Scouring, A Baker, A Quack (2), St. Nicho- 
las's Day, Game of Tric-Trac, Peasant Wed- 
ding (1672), Banquet, The Dupe, Dancing 
Lesson, Jolly Inmates (1668), Sick Lady, 
Drinking Couple, Family Scene, Orgie, Van 
der Hoop Museum, Amsterdam ; Eating 
Oysters, Wedding (1653), Six Collection, ib. ; 
Artist courting Maritje Herculens, Physician 
feeling Lady's Pulse, Prodigal Son, Van 
Loon Collection, ib.; St. Nicholas's Day, 



Surgical Operation, Tobias healing his Fa- 
ther, Old Man Cutting Pen, Rotterdam Muse- 
um ; Dentist, Menagerie (1660), Sick-Room, 
similar subject, Steen's Family, The Inn, 
Hague Museum ; St. Nicholas's Day, Sur- 
gical Operation, Rotterdam Museum ; do., 
Twelfth Night, Gallant Proposal, Rhetori- 
cians, Museum, Brussels ; Marriage of Cana, 
Arenberg Gallery, ib. ; Samson insulted by 
Philistines, Country Wedding, Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; Artist's Portrait, Suermondt Muse- 
um, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Philosopher Reading, 
Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Jan Steen in a Tav- 
ern Garden, Quarrel at Play, Frivolous Par- 
ty, Berlin Museum ; Wedding Contract, 
Merry Party, Brunswick Museum ; Tavern 
Garden, Carlsnihe Gallery ; Feast of the 
Bean, Tavern Scene, Cassel Gallery ; Miser 
surprised by Death, Triumphal Entry of 
Saul into Jerusalem (1671), Copenhagen 
Gallery ; Morning after Wedding, Gallery, 
Dessau ; Boy and Dog, Old Woman and 
Dog, Amalienstift, ib. ; Marriage at Cana, 
Woman feeding Child, Expulsion of Hagar, 
Dresden Museum ; Moses striking the Rock, 
Man joking with Servant Girl, Alchemist, 
Fish Market at Leyden, Stiidel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; Jolly Company, Gotha Museum ; 
Peasants in a Landscape, Interior with mer- 
ry Peasants, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Coveted 
Tid-Bits, Konigsberg Museum ; Quarrel be- 
tween Card Players (1664), Doctor's Visit, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Music Assembly 
in Open Air, Oldenburg Gallery ; Lovesick 
Maiden, Tavern Scene, Schwerin Gallery ; 
Peasant Wedding, Dutch Interior (1G63), 
Museum, Vienna ; Devotee, Baron Roths- 
child, ib.; Peasant Party, Schonborn Gal- 
lery, ib.; Esther and Ahasuerus, Doctor's 
Visit, Musical Entertainment in a Garden, 
Game of Tric-Trac (1667), Tavern Scene, 
Wedding, Gouty Old Man, The Drinkers, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Young Violin- 
ist, Peasants at Table, Uffizi, Florence ; The 
Old Rat comes to the Trap at last, Dutch 
Kirmess, Metropolitan Museum, New York. 
Ch. Blanc, cole hollandaise ; Bode, Stu- 
dien, 193 ; Burger, Musees, i. 104, 252 ; ii. 

107, 262 ; Dohme, lii. ; Gower, Figure Paint- 
ers, 49 ; Graph. K, iii. 28 ; Immerzeel, iii. 
110; Kramm, v. 1562; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 
401 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xvii. 267, 283, 574 ; 
Kunstbode (1881), 

225; Eie S e1 ' Bei - 
trage, ii. 326 ; Wed- 
more, Masters of Genre Painting, 106 ; 
Westrheene, Jan Steen (Hague, 1856); Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, iii. 190 ; v. 228 ; viii. 353 ; xiv. 
253, 315, 343. 

elder, born at Steenwyck about 1550, died 
at Frankfort in 1604. Flemish school ; ar- 
chitecture painter, pupil of Jan Fredeman de 
Vries ; master at Antwerp in 1577. Went 
to Germany in 1579. Painted chiefly church 
interiors, generally with figures by some of 
the Francken family. The first to repre- 
sent the effect of the light of torches and 
tapers on architectural forms. Works : Vesti- 
bule Interior, National Gallery, London ; Il- 
luminated Cathedral, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Buildings, Hague Museum ; Interior of St. 
Peter's at Louvain, Brussels Museum ; A 
Market (1598), Brunswick Gallery ; Court- 
Yard of a Palace (1588), Amalienstift, Des- 
sau ; Interior of Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral 
(1573), Schleissheim Gallery ; Liberation of 
St. Peter (1604), Gothic Church Interior, Vi- 
enna Museum ; Prison of St. John the Bap- 
tist, Uffizi, Florence ; others in Aschaffen- 
burg (2), Cassel (5), Christiania, St. Peters- 


burg (3), and Stuttgart Galleries. Kramm, 
v. 1568 ; Michiels, vi. 203 ; Riegel, Bei- 
trage, ii. 34 ; Siret (1883), ii. 294. 

younger, born in Amsterdam (?) or in Frank- 
foi-t about 1580, died in London, after 1649. 
Flemish school ; architecture painter, son 



and pupil of Hendrik van Steenwyck the el- 
der ; fellow scholar with Pieter Neefs. Paint- 
ed architectural 
backgrounds for 
many of Van 
Dyck's pictures. 
Worked first nt 
Antwerp ; after 
1629 in England, 
when Charles I. 
ordered several 
pictures from him. 
Works : Christ be- 
fore the High Priest, Peter's Denial, Ma- 
drid Museum ; Jesus with Martha and Mary 
(1620), four Church Interiors, Louvre, Paris ; 
View of a Public Square (1614), Hague Mu- 
seum ; Interior by Candle-Light, Suermondt 
Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Liberation of 
Peter (2), Gothic Church Interior, Bruns- 
wick Gallery ; A Prison (1649), Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Liberation of Peter (2, one dated 
1631), Darmstadt Museum ; Terrace before 
Vestibule of Renaissance Building (1618), 
Leipsic Museum ; Italian Palace (1623), In- 
terior of Sacristy (1634), Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg ; Interior of Renaissance Palace 
(1611), three others, Schwerin Gallery ; 
three Church Interiors (1609, 1611, 1614), 
Hall of Castle (1637), Dresden Gallery ; 
Liberation of Peter (1621, 1633), Church 
Interior, do. (1605), Vienna Museum ; 
Gothic Church Interior, Copenhagen Gal- 
lery ; do., Gotha Museum ; St. Peter in 
Prison, Church Interior, and others, Hamp- 

ton Court. Ch. Blanc, l5cole flamande ; 
Kramm, v. 1568 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 35, 
73 ; Siret (1883), ii. 294. 

rara in 14 , died there, Jan. 17, 1500. 
Lombard school ; real name probably Ste- 
fano Falzagalloni ; pupil of Squarcione. 
His decorations of a chapel in S. Antonio, 

Padua, mentioned in 1445 by Michele Sa- 
vonarola as a marvel of art, were destroyed 
in 1500. He also painted the Madonna del 
Pilastro on one of the pillars of the same 
church. Two pictures attributed to him in 
Brera, Milan : one, Madonna with Saints, is 
in the manner of Turn ; the other, Madonna 
Enthroned between Saints, is rather attrib- 
utable to Rondinello. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 528; 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., v. 179 ; ed. Mil., iii. 407 ; 
Lanzi, iii. 189 ; Ch. Blanc, tfcole ferraraise. 

STEFANO DI GIOVANNI, first half of 
15th century. Sienese school ; commonly 
known as Sassetta. He imitated the formal 
arrangement, painful minuteness of out- 
lines, and the softer curves of draperies 
which distinguish Ugolino and Segua. The 
Birth of the Virgin, in the sacristy of the 
Duomo at Asciano, the Madonna with Saints 
(1436), in the Osservanza outside Siena, and 
a similar one, in S. Domenico, Cortona, are 
by him. C. & C., Italy, iii. 74. 

da Zevio. 

STEFANO DA ZEVIO, the elder, flour- 
ished in latter part of 14th century. Veron- 
ese school ; painted frescos in the choir of 
tli e Basilica of S. Zevio, Verona ; Crucifixion, 
near the door of the sacristy there ; Madonna 
Enthroned (fresco), over an altar in the 
church at Illasi. Bernascoui, 220. 

STEFANO DA ZEVIO, the younger, 
born at Zevio, near Verona, in 1393, died 
in 1450. Veronese school ; called also Ste- 
fano da Verona. He was the contemporary 
and perhaps pupil of Vittor Pisano, but he 
was far from equalling him in grace, draw- 
ing, and expression. He is praised by Va- 
sari, but the examples he has left show that 
he followed in the beaten track of the min- 
iaturists, and cared more for minute finish 
than for drawing and modelling. Works : 
Fresco, Madonna and Saints, Casa Sona, 
Verona ; Prophets, etc., over small door, S. 
Eufemia, Verona ; Adoration of the Magi 
(1435), Brera, Milan. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 
458 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., vi. 86 ; Lanzi, ii. 
88 ; Bernasconi, 226. 



born at Wiidenswyl, Switzerland, Dec. 13, 
1815. Landscape painter, pupil of the Mu- 
nich Academy under Cornelius, after study- 
ing lithography. Devoted himself to land- 
scape in 1841, taking Kottmann for model. 
Made excursions to Bavarian and Swiss Alps, 
Upper Italy, and with Friedrich Voltz to Par- 
is. Medals in Berne and Vienna. Works : 
Woodland near Berchtesgaden, two others, 
Basle Museum ; View near Meiringen (1852), 
Approaching Storm in Canton Glarus, Berne 
Museum ; Autumn Morning, View on Brienz 
Lake, St. Gall Museum ; Mountain Brook, Zu- 
rich Gallery ; Reichenbach Fall (1853) ; Among 
Higher Alps, NewPinakothek, Munich ; Four 
Seasons in four Swiss Landscapes (1857) ; 
View on Vierwaldstatter Lake (1860) ; Moun- 
tain Brook ; Chillon on Lake of Geneva 
(1862); Waterfall in Norway, Provinzial Mu- 
seum, Hanover ; Autumn in South Germany 
(1864), Konigsberg Museum ; Valley of the 
Elm in Canton Glarus (1865) ; View in Ba- 
varian Highlands (1866) Leipsic Museum ; 
Rocky Gorge of Aare (1870) ; Gmunden 
Lake (1873) ; Heights of Brienz Lake 
(1877) ; Autumn Day in St. Gallen Alps 
(1878), Dresden Gallery ; View of Ramsau 
(1879) ; Ravine and Torrent on Glarner Alp, 
Waterfall after Storm (1882) ; Gorge at Ro- 
senlaui Glacier (1885). Miiller, 503 ; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xvii. 853. 

STEFFECK, KARL, born in Berlin, 
April 4, 1818. Ani- 
mal painter, pupil of 
Berlin Academy under 
Krtiger and Begas, of 
Delaroche in Paris in 
1839, and studied in 
Italy in 1840-42. Be- 
gan with animal pict- 
ures, but soon com- 
bined history and 
genre with them ; 
paints also good portraits, especially eques- 
trian. Director of Konigsberg Academy 
since 1880. Member of Berlin and Vienna 
Academies. Medals : Berlin, Paris, 3d class, 

1855, and Philadelphia ; L. of Honour, 1878 ; 
Prussian Crown Order, 2d class, 1885. Works: 
Godfrey of Bouillon rescuing Hermit from 
Bear (1838) ; Span of Buffaloes (1849), Kon- 
igsberg Museum ; Capture of a Standard 
by Margrave Albrecht Achilles (1848), Span- 
iels fighting for Sun-Shade (1850), Mare 
with Colts (1877), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Horse Pond ; Dead Colt ; Hare, Fox on the 
Watch (1859) ; Work Horses (1860) ; Catch- 
ing Wild Horses ; King Wilhelm at Sadowa 
(1867), Royal Palace, Berlin ; Scene in An- 
teroom, Ravene Gallery, ib. ; String of Horses 
(1872) ; Racing (1874) ; Gypsy Boy riding 
through a Wood (1876); Stag Hunt in Grii- 
newald, Meet, Stettin Museum ; Portraits 
of Emperor Wilhelm, Crown Prince, and 
Field Marshal Manteuffel. In fresco : Epi- 
sode after Battle of Sedan (1884), Arsenal, 
Berlin. Andresen, v. 104 ; Jordan (1885), 
ii. 220; Muller, 504; Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xviii. 886 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 289 ; 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1876), ii. 197 ; Leixner, Mod. 
K, ii. 115 ; Land und Meer (1883), ii. 260. 
deburg, May 3, 1803, died at Landeck, Si- 
lesia, Feb. 3, 1882. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Wach in Berlin in 1822- 
29 ; went to Diisseldorf in 1829, then to 
Rome, and returned to Berlin in 1833. Af- 
ter a long residence in Dttsseldorf, settled 
in Berlin in 1846, but retired to Landeck, 
Silesia, in 1876. Member of Berlin Acad- 
emy in 1841 ; professor in 1854. Works : 
Expulsion from Paradise, Angel at the Gate 
of Heaven (1825); Hagar in the Desert (1829); 
Roman Woman hunting as a Nymph ; Ma- 
donna and Child ; Children Bathing (1834), 
Mary among the Elves (1840), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; replica of latter, Raczynski 
Gallery, ib.; St. Genevieve (1835), Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Thisbe listening at the 
Wall (1836) ; Red Riding Hood and Wolf ; 
Adoration of Shepherds and Kings ; Undine 
(1839) ; Elfin Dance (1842) ; Parable of the 
Sower (1842); Lord's Supper (1844); Christ 
on the Cross, Entombment, St. Jacob's, 
Magdeburg ; Adoration of Shepherds, Hed- 



wig Church, Berlin ; Episode in Magde- 
burg's Destruction ; Hylas carried off by 
Nymphs ; Guardian Angel and Water- 
Sprites (1870) ; Lorelei, Rilbezahl (1872) ; 
Erl-King's Daughters (1874). In fresco : 
Ceiling Medallions, New Museum, Berlin ; 
Resurrection, Angels, Chapel of Palace, ib. ; 
Christ on Mount of Olives, Church of Peace, 
Potsdam. MUller, 504 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 
222 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 51 ; Wolfg. 
MttUer, Dttsseldf. K, 186 ; Wiegmann, 144. 

at Iglau, Moravia, May 16, 1725, died in Vi- 
enna in 1792. German school ; history and 
portrait painter, self-taught ; went to Rome, 
where he took Raphael Mengs for his model. 
In 1751 visited Venice ; then lived in Iglau, j 
until the Empress Maria Theresa called him 
to Vienna as court painter about 1755. 
Member of Academy in 1767. Works : 
Death of St. James ; St. Aloysius, Ignatius 
Loyola, Martyrdom of Stephen ; St. Joseph, 
A Chemist, Vienna Academy. Portraits of 
Maria Theresa, Joseph II., Prince Kau- 
nitz, Field-Marshal Loudon, the Poet Me- 
tastasio. Fresco paintings in different 
churches. Wurzbach, xxxviii. 69 ; Nagler, 
xvii. 286. 

STEINFELD, FRANZ, born in Vienna, 
May 26, 1787, died at Pisek, Bohemia, Nov. 
3, 1868. Landscape painter, pupil of his 
father and of Prokop in sculpture, then of 
Vienna Academy in painting. Appointed 
chamber painter by Archduke Anton in 
1815 ; became corrector at Vienna Academy 
in 1837, professor in 1838. Travelled much 
in Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, 
Holland, Belgium, and France. Gold medal 
in 1848. His style sometimes recalls Ruis- 
dael. He probably painted about 800 pict- 
ures. Works : Rocky Landscape near Ba- 
den (1820); Hallstadt Lake (1834); Swampy 
Wood and Deserted Mill (1846), Vienna 
Museum ; Day-Break (1847) ; Gastein 44 
Years ago (1857). Wurzbach, xxxviii. 81 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, iv. 84 ; Nagler, xvii. 288. 

Hamburg in 1824, died there, Feb. 7, 1880. 

History and portrait painter, pupil in Dlls- 
seldorf of Karl Sohn, and of the Academy 
under Schadow in 1845-52 ; returned to 
Ddsseldorf after having visited Italy, and 
settled in Hamburg. Works : Entombment 
(1844) ; Education of Jupiter (1846), Co- 
logne Museum ; Abduction of Hylas (1847) ; 
Resurrection of Christ, Peter, Paul, St. Pe- 
ter's, Hamburg ; Diana sur prised by Actse- 
on (1847), Tithonus abducted by Eos, Tar- 
tarus, Bacchantes, Portraits of Hermann 
Kauffmann, Ludwig Kuaus, of himself, and 
three others, Kunsthalle, ib. Kuust-Chro- 
nik, xv. 386 ; Graph. K., ii. 60. 

Sorau, Feb. 2, 1846. History painter and 
illustrator, pupil of Berlin Academy in 1863 
-66, and of Carlsruhe Art School until 1869. 
Resided in Berlin ; spent a year in Rome, 
and settled in Frankfort in 1876 ; illustrates 
especially religious subjects. Works: Pe- 
ter's Deliverance from Prison ; History of 
the Birth of Our Lord (1872) ; Labourer in 
the Vineyard (1881). In fresco : Decora- 
tions of Ravenstein House, Frankfort. M(U- 
ler, 505. 

died in 18 1C. History painter, wife of the 
sculptor Karl Steiuhiiuser. Works : Queen 
Esther, Schloss Bellevue, Berlin ; Iphigenia, 
Fhiulein von Waldenburg, ib. ; Christ and 
the Woman of Samaria, Infant St. John 
(1846), Archangel Michael, Schwerin Gnl- 
lery ; Genius of the Vine (1848) ; Madonna 
(1862). Cotta's Kuustbl., 1848; D. Kuust- 
bl., 1857 ; Dioskuren, 1802. 

GUSTE, born at Strasburg, June 26, 1814, 
died in Paris in May, 1885. Genre, portrait, 
and flower painter, pupil of Decaisne. Has 
latterly devoted himself to glass painting 
and church decoration. Medals : 3d class, 
1847 ; 2d class, 1848 ; 3d class, 1851 ; L. of 
Honour, 1860. Works : Consolations, Le- 
onora (1836) ; Young Virgin presented to 
Christ (1840) ; St. Philomena (1841) ; Ma- 
terfamilias, My Finger told me so (1845) ; 
Fruit and Wine, Interior (1846) ; Mother 



(1847), Nantes Museum ; Soap - Bubbles 
(1847); Young Mother, Morning (1848) ; 
Woman and her Child, Gillyflowers (1849). 
Larousse ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 589. 

East Friesland, May 5, 1825. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Hanover Polytechnic School ; 
then studied at The Hague, and since 1852 
in Diisseldorf ; has made frequent sketch- 
ing tours to Holland, Norway, Bavaria, Aus- 
tria, Switzerland, and Italy. Works : Fjord 
in Norway (1855) ; Chiem Lake, Bavarian 
Mountain Landscape (1858), Stettin Muse- 
um ; Ober Lake (1859), Courtray Museum ; 
Approaching Storm (1860) ; Evening in 
Mountains (1862), Emperor Wilhekn ; Even- 
ing on the Heath (1864), Provinzial Muse- 
um, Hanover ; Noon Rest on Mountain Lake ; 
German Landscape. Mtlller, 505. 

YON, born in Stuttgart in 1779, died there 
in 1861. Landscape and history painter, son 
and pupil of Johann Friedrich Steinkopf 
(1737-1825, court painter in Stuttgart in 
1801). Went to Vienna in 1 799, and to Rome 
in 1807, where he was intimate with Koch, 
Schick, and Overbeck, and took Claude Lor- 
rain and Poussin for his models ; lived in 
Vienna in 1814-21, then in Stuttgart, where 
he became instructor at the Art School in 
1829, professor in 1833, director in 1845, 
and retired in 1855. Honorary member of 
Berlin Academy in 1825, of Vienna Acad- 
emy in 1836. Wtirtemberg Crown Order. 
Works : Morning of Sacrifice (1810) ; Re- 
turn of Hercules from Liou Hunt (1812); 
Italian Vintage, Ulysses and Nausicaa (1818 
-20) ; Evening in Italy (1828) ; Cleobis and 
Biton (1833) ; Suabian Spring (1839) ; Ely- 
sian Fields (1843), Stuttgart Museum ; 
Views near Stuttgart (1827), Villa Rosen- 
stein near Stuttgart. Wurzbach, xxxviii. 

STEINLE, EDUARD, born in Vienna, 
July 2, 1810, died at Frankfort, Sept. 19, 
1886. History painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy and of Kiipelwieser ; went in 1828 
to Rome, where Overbeck arid Veit befriend- 

ed him ; returned in 1834, visited Frankfort 
in 1837, studied fresco painting in Munich 
under Cornelius in 1838, 
settled in Frankfort in 
1842, and became pro- 
fessor at the Stiidel In- 
stitute there in 1850. 
Next to Overbeck, with 
whose style he has iden- 
tified himself, and to 
Fdhrich, he is the most 
distinguished represent- 
ative of religious art in 
Germany. Member of Berlin, Vienna, Mu- 
nich, and Hanau Academies. Gold medal 
for art and science ; gold medal, Paris, and 
L. of Honour, 1855 ; Order of Leopold, 
1860 ; do. of Francis Joseph, etc. Oil paint- 
ings : St. Luke painting the Virgin (1840), 
Basle Museum ; Solomon's Judgment (1840), 
Emperors Albrecht I. and Ferdinand HI. 
(1841), Romer, Frankfort ; Sibylla Tibur- 
tina (1848), Stiidel Gallery, ib. ; Madonna 
(1854), St. Leonard's, ib. ; Visitation (1841), 
Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; do. (1848), Carls- 
ruhe Gallery ; Madonna Fontana (1854), Vi- 
enna Museum ; Castle Ward (1854), Weimar 
Museum ; Madonna (1856), Speyer Cathe- 
dral ; St. Joseph (1859), St. Mary's, Aix-la- 
Chapelle ; Warder of Tower (1858), Fiddler 
in Tower (1862), Lorelei (1864), Adam and 
Eve (1867), Schack Gallery, Munich ; Ado- 
ration of the Cross (1885). Water-colours : 
Madonnas, Saints, and many biblical and 
religious subjects ; illustrations to German 
Fairy Tales (1861-74) ; do. to Dante (1835), 
Shakespeare (1868-72) ; do. to Wolfram von 
Eschenbach (1875) ; five scenes from Par- 
cival (1884) ; allegories, landscapes, etc. 
In fresco : The Eight Beatifications (1838- 
40), Chapel of Castle Rheineck, Rhenish 
Prussia (cartoons for do., Stadel Gallery, 
Frankfort) ; Choir of Angels (1843-46), Co- 
logne Cathedral (cartoons in Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery) ; ceiling and wall paintings (1857-58), 
St. Egidius, Milnster ; scenes in History of 
Art and Civilization in Cologne (1860-63), 
Staircase, Cologne Museum ; seven pictures 



on Dogma of Immaculate Conception (1865), 
St. Mary's, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Coronation of 
the Virgin, Choir of Angels, Saints, etc. 
(1876), MUnster Cathedral ; about fifty col- 
oured and other cartoons (1833-79) ; two 
(1846, 1868), National Gallery, Berlin. Art 
Journal (1865), 204 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 223 ; 
Graph. K., iv. 77 ; Kunst-Chronik, six. 557 ; 
xxii. 137 ; Wurzbach, xxxviii. 108 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, v. 24, 54 ; Allgem. K. Chr., viii. 501 ; 
Schack, Meine Gemaldesammlung (1884), 

STELLA, FRANCOIS, born at Lyons in 
1603, died in Paris, July 26, 1647. French 
school ; history painter, younger brother 
and pupil of Jacques Stella, whom he fol- 
lowed to Italy, returning with him to Paris 
in 1634. He was not the equal of Jacques, 
but was painter in ordinary to the king and 
executed works for the oratory of the queen 
at Saint-Germain. The Orleans Museum 
possesses a Holy Family, and St. John pre- 
senting a Cross to Infant Jesus, by him. 
Mnriette, Abecedario, v. 257 ; Bellier, ii. 
524 ; Jal, 1149. 

STELLA, JACQUES, born at Lyons in 
1595, died in Paris, 
April 29, 1657. 
French school ; his- 
tory painter, son of 
Franyois Stella 
(1563-1605), a 
Flemish artist, who 
left a number of 
able works in the 
churches and con- 
vents of Lyons; 

went to Florence in 1616, was employed by 
Cosmo II de' Medici, and in 1623 to Rome, 
where he studied Raphael and the old mas- 
ters, and was especially attracted by Pous- 
sin, whom he imitated. Returned to Paris 
in 1634, obtained a pension through Riche- 
lieu, became first painter to the king, and 
chevalier of St. Michael (1644), and trained 
a number of able artists. Works : Christ 
receiving the Virgin in Heaven, Minerva vis- 
iting the Muses, Louvre ; Holy Family, An- 

gers Museum ; Jesus and the Samaritan 
Woman, Rachel and the Messenger of Jacob, 
Grenoble Museum ; Madonna (2), Cavalry 
Charge, Havre Museum ; Adoration of Magi, 
Pastoral, Portrait of Artist, Lyons Museum ; 
Samaritan Woman, Montpellier Museum ; 
Assumption, Peasants' Dance, Nantes Mu- 
seum ; Bacchanal (2), Marriage of Virgin, 
Christ giving the Communion to St. Peter, 
Holy Family, Rouen Museum ; Holy Fam- 
ily, Nimes Museum ; Sunset, Montaubau 
Museum ; Diana and Nymphs, Infant Christ 
adored by Angels, Oldenburg Gallery ; An- 
nunciation, Holy Family, 
Venus and Adonis, Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg ; Judg- 
ment of Solomon, Vienna 
Museum. Mariette, Abe- 
cedario, v. 256 ; Em eric 
David, Notices historiques 
. . . peinture moderne (Paris, 1854) ; 
Bellier, ii. 524 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole franyaise ; 
Jal, 1149. 

STEPHAN, MEISTER. See Meiater Ste- 

Charles Lebrun, Louvre ; canvas, H. 13 ft. 
1 in. x 10 ft. 2 in.; signed, dated 1651. St. 
Stephen, stoned to death by the Jews (Acts 
vii). He is lying on his back in the fore- 
ground, with hands outstretched and eyes 
upraised, while the rabble are stoning him ; 
in background, left, the walls and gate of 
the city ; at right, spectators ; above, God 
the Father, Christ, and angels with the 
crown and palm of martyrdom. Painted 
for the guild of jewellers and placed in 
Notre-Dame. Engraved by G. Edelinck ; 
E. Picart ; Gerard Audran ; Brissart ; Du- 
flos ; Bazin ; Gautrel ; Tardieu. Re-veil, ii. 

By Tintoretto, S. Giorgio Maggiore, Venice ; 
canvas. The saint, in a prelate's dress, kneel- 
ing in foreground, the stones flying thickly 
about him and covering the ground ; in the 
middle of the picture, several men throwing 
stones, and behind them a confused crowd ; 
Paul seated on ground in front of them ; 



above, Christ, the Father, and St. Michael. 
Beside Stephen is a book crushed by stones, 
which have torn out one of its leaves ; typi- 
cal of the blind rage of the Jews, who vio- 
lated their own law in murdering Stephen. 
Euskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 303 ; Zanotto, 
Subject treated also by Pietro da Cortona, 

Martyrdom of St. Stephen, Charles Lebrun, Louvre. 

Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Anuibale Car- 
racci, Louvre, Paris ; Rubens, Valenciennes 
Museum; Bernardo Gaddi, S. Croce, Flor- 
ence ; Giulio Romano, S. Stefano, Genoa ; 
Domenichino, National Gallery, London ; 
Domenico Passignani, S. Spirito, Florence ; 
Albrecht Altdorfer, Maurice Chapel, Nu- 
remberg ; Guercino, Dresden Museum ; Al- 
essandro Turchi, ib. ; Ludovico Cigoli, Uf- 
fizi, Florence ; Bartholomeus Brunbergh, 
Louvre ; Eustache Lesueur, Hermitage, St. 

1 Petersburg ; Eugene Delacroix (1853), Ar- 
ras Museum ; Alphonse Legros (1866), Av- 
ranches Museum ; Jean Baptiste Pierre, 
Marseilles Museum. 

STERN, IGNAZ, called Stella, born at 
Ingolstadt in 1698, died in Rome in 1746. 
Italian school; history painter, pupil of Ci- 
gnani in Bologna. Resided later in Rome. 
Works : Madonna and Cherubim, 
do. and St. John, Germanic Muse- 
um, Nuremberg; Madonna and 
Child, Vienna Museum ; Annuncia- 
tion, Church of Annunciation, Pia- 
cenza ; several altarpieces, St. Eliz- 
abeth's, Rome. 

Augsburg ; contemporary. History 
and portrait painter, pupil of Jules 
Lefebvre, Boulanger, Courtois, and 
Dagnan. Studio in Paris. Works : 
Death of Cleobis and Biton (1884) ; 
The Evening (1885) ; Portraits 

SEPH, Baron de, born in Paris, 
June 22, 1814, died there, June 7, 
1862. Figure and portrait painter, 
son and pupil of Charles de Steu- 
ben, and pupil of Ingres. He spent 
ten years in Russia, where he paint- 
ed for the Cathedral of St. Isaac, 
by order of the emperor, Jacob 
blessing his Children. He lived also 
three years in Rome. Medal, 3d 
class, 1840. Works: Rubens (1840); 
Episode of the Youth of Milton 
(1842); Bath at the Fountain, Wom- 
en of the Environs of Rome (1845). Bel- 
lier, ii. 526. 

STEUBEN, CHARLES, Baron de, born 
at Bauerbach, Baden, April 19, 1788, died 
in Paris, Nov. 21, 1856. French school ; 
history and portrait painter, son of an offi- 
cer in the Russian service, pupil of St. 
Petersburg Academy, and in Paris of Ge- 
rard, Robert Lefebvre, and Prudhon. Mem- 
ber St. Petersburg Academy, 1833. Di- 
rector of drawing in Paris Polytechnic 


School in 1837. Resided in Russia in 1844- 
54, then returned to Paris. Medal in 1819 ; 
L. of Honour in 1828 ; Order of Red Eagle, 
1841. Works : Peter the Great in Storm 
on Lake Ladoga (1812), Ainieus Museum ; 
St. Germain giving his Property to the Poor 
(1819), Church of St. Germain-des-Pres ; 
Mercury putting Argus to Sleep, Palace of 
Compiegne, Tell springing from Gessler's 
Boat (1822), Oath on the Grfltli (1824), de- 
stroyed in Palais Royal in 1848 ; Episode of 
Youth of Peter the Great (1827), Valenci- 
ennes Museum ; Innocence taking Refuge 
with Justice, Ninon de L'Enclos giving her 
Library to Voltaire (1827) ; Rousseau's First 
Interview with Mme. de Warens ; Return 
from Elba; Battle of Waterloo (1835); 
Jeanne la Folle awaiting her Husband's 
Resurrection (1836), Lille Museum ; Defeat 
of Abderahman by Charles Martel (1838), 
Versailles Museum ; Esmeralda and Quasi- 
modo (1839), Nantes Museum ; Christ 
stripped of his Vestments on Calvary, Ju- 
dith, Napoleon with the King of Rome 
(1841) ; Joseph and Potiphar's Wife, Sam- 
son and Delilah (1843) ; Battle of Ivry, and 
Portraits, ceiling in Louvre ; Portraits of 
Charles H., Louis HI. and Carloman, Louis 
IV., Hugues Capet, Anne of Austria, Louis 
de Luxembourg, General Desaix, General 
Pichegru, Louis de France Due d'Anjou, 
Louis de France Due d'Orluans, Marquise 
de Pompadour, Versailles Museum ; As- 
sumption, Strasburg Cathedral ; Resurrec- 
tion, Joachim and Anna, Assumption, Birth 
of St. John Baptist, Entry of Christ into 
Jerusalem, Crucifixion, Virgin at the Tomb, 
Cathedral of St. Isaac, St. Petersburg. His 
wife, Mme. la baronne de Steuben (nee 
Eleonore Anne Trolle), born in Paris, Dec. 
25, 1788, died there, Dec. 29, 1869, was a 
good portrait painter, pupil of her hus- 
band and of Robert Lefebvre. Revue uni- 
ver. des Arts, iv. 286 ; L' Artiste (1843), iv. 
21 ; Revue fra^aise (1856), vii. 440 ; Bel- 
lier, ii. 525 ; Larousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 

STEVAERTS. See Palamedesz. 

STEVENS, ALFRED, born in Brussels, 
May 11, 1828. Genre painter, pupil of the 
Paris Ecole des B. 
Arts, then in Brus- 
sels of Navez, and 
in Paris of Roque- 
plan ; has acquired 
great fame with 
his graceful repre- 
sentations of ele- 
gant modern inte- 
riors, enlivened 
with women's and 
children's figures. Medals : Brussels, 1851 ; 
Paris, 3d class, 1853 ; 2d class, 1855 ; 1st 
class, 1867, 1878 ; Order of Leopold, 1855 ; 
Officer, 1863, afterwards Commander ; L. of 
Honour, 1863 ; Officer, 1867 ; Command- 
er, 1878 ; Commander of Austrian Order 
of Francis Joseph, and of Bavarian Order 
of St. Michael. Works : Discouragement of 
Artist, Love of Gold (1853); Masquerade on 
Ash Wednesday (1853), Marseilles Museum ; 
What is called a Vagabond, First Day of 
Devotion, Meditation (1855) ; Consolation 
(1857), Raveno Gallery, Berlin ; At Home, 
Summer (1857) ; A Mother, The Bouquet, A 
Widow, News (1861); The Visit, Return from 
the Assembly, Innocence, Miss Fauvette, etc. 
(1867) ; Lady in Pink (1867), Brussels Mu- 
seum ; Lady in Studio (1878) ; Conversa- 
tion (1881), Morgan sale, New York, 1886, 
$3,500 ; By the Shore (1882), Seney sale, 
ib., 1885. In fresco : Allegories on Four 
Seasons, Royal Palace, Brussels. Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1874), i. 203 ; (1876), ii. 269 ; (1877), 
i. 16 ; (1882), ii. 601 ; Larousse, xiv. 1100; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., x. 310 ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1878), xvii. 160, 335. 

STEVENS, JOSEPH, born in Brussels in 
1822. Genre and animal painter, brother of 
preceding; self-taught, studying in Paris; first 
exhibited in Brussels in 1844 ; in Paris, 1847. 
Medals : Paris, 2d class, 1852, 1855, 1857; 
Order of Leopold, 1851; Officer, 1865; 
L. of Honour, 1861. Works : Bitch and 
her Companion, The Mendicants, Faithful 
rather than Happy, etc. (1844-46) ; Torture 


of Tantalus (1849) ; Prisoner's Dog (1850) ; 
Surprise, Bull pursued by Dog (1853) ; Street 
in Brussels in the Morn- 
ing (1851), Eouen Mu- 
seum ; Episode in Dog- 
Show at Paris (1855), 
Brussels Museum ; Hap- 
py Moment, Monkey 
stealing Dainties (1859); 
Prestidigitator, Melan- 
cholia of First Pipe 
(1857); Dog and Fly 
(1878), etc. Larousse, 
xiv. 1100 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1880), xxii. 360. 
STEVER, GUSTAV CURT, born in Riga, 
May 16, 1823, died in Diisseldorf, March 17, 
1877. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Berlin Academy in 1847 ; went to Stock- 
holm in 1850 to paiut portraits for court and 
University of Upsala ; in 1845 studied in 
Paris under Couture ; settled in Hamburg 
in 1859, in Diisseldorf in 1865. Professor ; 
Mecklenburg House Order. Works : Death 
of the Wend King Gottschalk ; Abishag and 
David (1860), Schwerin Gallery ; Transfig- 
uration ; Adoration of the Angels ; Last Sup- 
per ; Page and Waiting Woman (1868) ; 
Resurrection (1870) ; Dutch Family Life 
(1871) ; Christ and Peter on the Sea (1873) ; 
Adam and Eve beside Abel's Body (1874) ; 
Jean Mabuse painting his Sleeping Child ; 
Adam van Noort surprising Rubens at his 
Private Studies ; Van Dyck at the Easel ; 
Noble Lady of Old Germany ; Cavalier sing- 
ingwithLute(1875). Blanckarts, 131 ; Mey- 
er, Conv. Lex., xvii. 
858 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xii. 434 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, vi. 150. 
JULIUS L., bom in 
Philadelphia ; con- 
temporary. Genre 
painter, pupil of Za- 
maco'is, of Girome, 
and of Raimundo de 
Madrazo. Mention honorable, Paris Salon, 
1885. Works : Reading, La Maja (1878) ; 

Portrait (1879) ; Summer (1882) ; Court in 
Cairo (1883) ; Five o'clock Tea (1884) ; 
Hunt Ball (1885) ; Full Speed (1886), James 
Gordon Bennett. 

Mentz, Nov. 1, 1781, died in Munich, April 
9, 1858. Portrait and history painter, pupil 
of Fiisel in Wiirzburg, and of Fiiger in Vi- 
enna. Visited Poland in 1805, and painted 
portraits in Warsaw and Cracow ; then stud- 
ied under Gerard in Paris ; went to Frankfort 
in 1808, to Milan in 1810, and proceeded as 
far as Rome. Called to Munich in 1812 to 
paint the royal family ; to Vienna for like 
purpose in 1816. Court painter in 1820. 
Works : Liberation of St. Leonard from 
Dungeon, St. Leonard's, Frankfort ; Por- 
traits of Goethe, Beethoven, Tieck, Hum- 
boldt, Schelling, Kings Max and Ludwig, of 
himself, his Daughter, and many others ; 
Gallery of Beautiful Women ; Portrait of 
Goethe (1828), Emperor Francis I. of Aus- 
tria (1817), Empress Caroline Auguste, Por- 
traits of Bavarian Princes and Princesses (9), 
Female Portrait, New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Gen. Tettenborn (1815), Hamburg Gallery. 
Nagler, xvii. 348. 


STILKE, HERMANN, born in Berlin, 
Jan. 29, 1803, died there, Sept. 22, 1860. 
History painter, pupil of Berlin Academy 
under Kolbe. In 1821 went to Munich, 
then to Diisseldorf with Cornelius to learn 
fresco. After working in Coblentz and Mu- 
nich, visited Italy in 1827, and returned in 
1833 to Diisseldorf to join Schadow. Was 
employed in the Castle of Stolzenfels in 
1842-46, and from 1850 resided in Berlin. 
Professor in 1854. Works : Crusaders' 
Watch (1834) ; St. George and Angel ; Sons 
of Edward IV., National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Pilgrims in the Desert (1834), Raczynski 
Gallery, ib. ; Maid of Orleans (1837) ; Last 
Christians in Syria (1841), Konigsberg Mu- 
seum ; Tristan and Isolde ; Judith and Hol- 
ofernes ; Amazons ; Last Judgment (with 
Sturmer), Hall of Assizes, Coblentz. In 
fresco : Six Virtues of Chivalry (1842-46), 



Castle of Stolzenfels ; Royal Palace, ] 
Theatre, Dessau. His wife, Hermir 
Peipers, 1808-69), was a land- 
scape and flower painter. Jor- , 
dan (1885), ii. 224 ; Wolfg. /. 

e (u 


D ; 


r sl 

Mttller, Diisseldf. K, 78; Wiegmann, 

temporary. Daughter of a Greek merchant 
of London, and wife of W. J. Stillman. Sub- 
ject painter, pupil of Ford Madox Brown. 
Exhibits at Grosvenor Gallery. Works : 
Lady Fray's Desire (1867); Christina (1868); 
Brewing the Love Philter (1869) ; St. Bar- 
bara, Mystic Tryst (1870) ; Sir Launcelot 
disguised as a Fool (1873) ; Moua Lisa 
(1875) ; Last Sight of Fiammetta (1876) ; 
Roses and Lilies (1877) ; Gathering Orange 
Blossoms, Fiammetta Singing, Peusierosa 
(1879) ; Beatrice (1880) ; Among the Wil- 
lows of Tuscany, Meeting of Dante and 
Beatrice (1881) ; Crown of Wind Flowers, 
Legend of Fair Women (1882) ; Childhood 
of St. Cecilia (1883) ; Madonna, By a Deer 
Well (1884); Garland Makers (1885). Port- 
folio (1870), 117. 

STIMMER, TOBIAS, born at Schaffhau- 
sen in 1534 or 1539, died in Strasburg in 
1582. German school ; painted house dec- 
orations at Schaffhausen, Strasburg, and 
Frankfort (1554), and portraits for the Mar- 
grave of Baden. Principal work an illus- 
trated Bible, which Rubens valued very 
highly. Portraits of Man and Wife (1564), 
Basle Museum ; Massacre of the Innocents, 
Solomon's Judgment (?), Hohenzollern Mu- 
seum, Sigmaringen ; Portrait of Hen- von 
Schuyz and his Wife, Waagen Collection, 
Munich. Kugler (Crowe), i. 270 ; W T olt- 
mann, D. Kunst im Elsass, 316. 

STIRRUP CUP (La Coupe de 1 etrier), 
Jean Louis Ernest Mtdssonier, Sir Richard 
Wallace, Bart., Hertford House, London. 
Two cavaliers have stopped in front of an 
inn, at right ; one, mounted on a white 
horse, is drinking, while the other receives 
a glass from a man-servant. Painted in 
1865 ; purchased by Marquis of Hertford 

at Prince Paul Demidoff sale, Paris (1868). 
Never engraved. 

By Jean Louis Ernest Hfrixgonier, Sir 
Richard Wallace, London. Called La halte 
(The Halt). Three cavaliers, mounted re- 
spectively on a white, a bay, and a black 
horse, have stopped in front of an inn, in 
the door of which stand a man, smoking a 
pipe, and a child ; the cavalier at left is 
drinking, while a maid-servant offers the 
second one a glass from a tray ; at right, a 
cart, fowls, and village street with figures. 
Painted in 1862 for the Due de Moray, and 
afterwards enlarged at his request ; at his 
sale (1865), purchased by Marquis of Hert- 
ford ; passed by inheritance to Sir R. Wal- 
lace. Etched by Flameng before the en- 

By Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier, J. W. 
Mackay, New York. Called Sans dcbrider 
(Without Dismounting). Two cavaliers have 
stopped to drink in front of the inn, and 
are attended by a man-servant and waiting- 
maid ; in background, a gallant takes his 
ease under shelter of the inn balcony. 
Painted in 1876 ; John Wilson sale, Paris 
(1881). Etched by Lalauze. 

Meissonier has treated this or a similar 
subject, with one, two, or three horsemen, 
several times. One, called A tournebride 
(At the Inn), painted in 1860, represents 
three cavaliers served by a man-servant. 
Another, painted in 1862, belongs to C. F. 
H. Bolckow, Marton Hall, near Middles- 
borough, England. A third, called Halte 
a 1'auberge (Halt at the Inn), painted in 
1864, represents a single horseman drink- 
ing in front of an inn, a man holding a tray, 
and a woman and child at the inn door to 
left. Pictures bearing this title are owned 
by William J. Stewart, Paris, and in the 
United States by J. H. Stebbins and D. O. 
Mills, New York. 

Buffalo, N. Y., in 1836. Landscape painter ; 
self-taught Has painted in Chicago, New 
Orleans, and New York. Works: The 
Grave Robbers (1870) ; The Young Natural- 


ist (1875) ; Arctic Pastime (1878) ; West 
Farms Autumn Study, Thomas B. Clarke, 
New York ; Autumn (1880), Erwin Davis, 
ib.; More Snow, E. J. Chaffee, ib.; Little 
Runaway, Dr. John Carr, ib. ; The Veteran, 
Four-year-old Soldier (1884), W. H. Fal- 
coner, ib.; Convalescent (1882); Valencia 
Oranges (1884) ; An Upland Ranch, Boston 
Art Club. 

temporary. Animal painter, settled in Ant- 
werp. Medal at Vienna in 1873. Works : 
Cattle Market ; Work and Rest ; Right of 
the Strongest ; Meal-Time ; Dog Shearer ; 
Antwerp Slaughter House ; At the Stand ; 
Kitchen of a Lover of Animals. Mfiller, 

STOBER, FRANZ, born in Vienna in 
1760, died in Speyer, Oct. 4, 1834. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Vienna Academy 
under Brand. Visited the Netherlands, and 
settled in Speyer, where Baron von Hut- 
ten zu Stolzenburg made him inspector of 
his gallery. Works : Falls of the Rhine at 
Schaffliausen ; Ruins of St. Jacob's Church 
in Speyer (1787), Vienna Museum. Wurz- 
bach, xxxix. 74 ; Nagler, xvii. 382. 

STOCKLER, EMANUEL, born at Nik- 
olsburg, Moravia, Dec. 24, 1819. Land- 
scape and genre painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Joseph MOssmer and 
Thomas Euder. Travelled in Italy and 
the Orient ; appointed court painter in 
Russia ; visited Venice in 1878. Francis 
Joseph Order in 1879. Works : Hall of 
the Assunta ; Baptistery of St. Mark's ; 
Ruins of Palace of Belisarius in Constan- 
tinople (1849), Vienna Museum ; Rococo 
Lady ; Page ; Girl sewing Wedding Dress, 
Madonna della Salute Venice, Emperor of 
Austria ; Duino near Trieste (1852) ; To- 
phana in Constantinople (1855) ; In Mon- 
tenegro (1869) ; and many water-colours. 
Allgem. Kunst-Chrouik, is. 166 ; Wurzbach, 
xxxix. 100. 

STOHL, HEINRICH, born in Vienna in 
1826. Landscape, architecture, and genre 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy, then 

studied in Munich. Visited Bohemia, Up- 
per Austria, Munich, and Upper Italy. Suc- 
cessful in oil, but most of his pictures 
are water-colours in the possession of the 
Austrian imperial family and aristocracy. 
Works: Antechamber in Doge's Palace 
(1854); Interior of San Marco (1855) ; Portal 
of St. Zeno's in Verona (1856) ; Room from 
Golden Age of Venice (1858) ; Market in 
North Italy (1862); etc. Wurzbach, xxxix. 

born at Tonsberg, Norway, Sept. 5, 1837. 
Genre and interior painter, pupil of Dfis- 
seldorf Academy, then studied for some 
time in Venice. Visited the Rhine countries, 
Holland, France, and Scandinavia. Works : 
Interior of St. Lambertus in Ddsseldorf 
(1862) ; Studio of Monk Painter ; Sacristy 
of St. Gereon in Cologne ; Cloister near 
Bornhofen ; Interior of Carmelite Church 
at Boppard ; Cloister of Kanep ; Repast in 
Monastery ; Beggars in Monastery ; Infal- 
lible Bowl (1870); Convent Library (1872) ; 
Collection Day at Monastery (1873), Chris- 
tiania Gallery ; Visit of a Cardinal at Mon- 
astery ; Tavern in Cologne at Time of Oc- 
cupation by the French (1880) ; Dinner at 
Mtlnchausen's (1882). Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xx. 627 ; Miiller, 333 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1882), 
i. 407. 

STONE, FRANK, born in Manchester, 
Aug. 22, 1800, died in London, Nov. 18, 
1859. Genre painter, self-taught ; went to 
London in 1831 ; joined the old Water Col- 
our Society in 1832 ; exhibited at Royal 
Academy in 1837, and afterwards painted 
mostly in oil-colours. Elected an A.R.A. 
in 1851. In 1856 he visited the French 
coast, and afterwards painted many French 
subjects. Works : Legend of Montrose 
(1840) ; Philip van Artevelde, Prince Charles 
and the Infanta (1841) ; The Last Appeal 
(1843) ; Course of True Love (1844) ; Im- 
pending Mate, Mated (1847) ; Christ and 
the Sisters of Bethany (1848) ; A Girl of 
Brittany, Alice (1849) ; Sympathy, Garden- 
er's Daughter (1850) ; Merchant of Venice 



(1851); Old, Old Story (1854); Bonjour 
Messieurs (1857) ; Missing Boat (1858). 
Many of bis works are engraved. Art Jour- 
nal (1856), 333 ; (I860), 9. 

STONE, MARCUS, born in London, July 
4, 1840. History and 
genre painter, son and 
pupil of Frank Stone ; 
exhibited first picture, 
Best, at Boyal Acad- 
emy in 1858 ; elected 
an A.R.A. in 1877. 
Has drawn many book 
illustrations. Works : 
Claudio accuses Hero 
(18G1) ; From Waterloo to Paris (1863) ; 
Royalists seeking Refuge in the House of a 
Puritan (1864) ; Stealing the Keys (1866) ; 
Nell Gwynne (1867) ; Interrupted Duel 
(1868) ; Princess Elizabeth forced to attend 
Mass (1869) ; Henry VHI. and Anne Boleyn 
(1870) ; Royal Nursery (1871) ; Edward H. 
and Piers Gaveston (1872) ; Le Roi est 
mort Vive le Roi ! (1873) ; My Lady is a 
Widow and Childless (1874) ; Sain et sauf 
(1875) ; Appeal for Mercy (1876) ; Sacrifice 
(1877) ; Post Bag, Time of Roses (1878) ; 
In the Shade, Summer Time (1879) ; Mar- 
ried for Love (1881) ; Bad News (1882) ; 
Offer of Marriage, Asleep (1883) ; Fallen 
Out, Reconciled (1884) ; Gambler's Wife 
(1885) ; A Peace Maker (1886). Meynell, 
211 ; Art Journal (1869), 33. 

Derby, Conn., Sept. 26, 1830, died in New- 
port, R. I, Sept. 15, 1875. Portrait painter, 
pupil of N. Jocelyn in New Haven ; re- 
moved to New York in 1851 ; elected an 
A.N.A. in 1856, and N.A. in 1859. Works : 
Portraits of Bishops Williams of Connecti- 
cut (1858),Littlejohn of Long Island (1858), 
and Kip of California (1859) ; Mr. Corcoran 
(1865) ; James Gordon Bennett (1871) ; 
Moses Grinnell (1871). 

STONE AGE, Fernaud Cormon, St. Ger- 
main Museum ; canvas. Return from a 
bear-hunt in the Stone Age. In centre, at 
entrance to a rude domicile built of huge 

tree-trunks, sits an aged chieftain, knife and 
flint axe in hand ; before him lies the car- 
cass of a bear, which a group of skin-clad 
hunters, with half-tamed wolves for dogs, 
have brought in ; at right, the women and 
children of the tribe. Salon, 1884. 

STONE-BREAKERS (Casseurs do pier- 
res), Gustavo Courbet, Louvre, Paria Two 
peasants at work beside a dusty road ; one 
is breaking stones with a hammer, while the 
other is carrying away the fragments in a 
wicker basket. Salon, 1851. Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1878), xvii. 518 ; Century Mag. (1884), 
xxvii. 487. 

STOOP, DIRK, born probably at Utrecht 
in 1610, died there in 1686. Dutch school ; 
painted cavalry skirmishes, hunts, seaports, 
and genre pieces ; son and pupil of the 
glass painter Willem Jansz van der Stoop ; 
entered guild of Utrecht in 1638 ; formed 
himself after Esaias van cle Velde and Jan 
Maris the younger ; for some time court 
painter at Lisbon, whence called Roderigo 
Stoop ; about 1662 he accompanied the In- 
fanta Catharine of Portugal to London ; re- 
turned to Utrecht in 1678. Works : Hunt- 
ing Party (1645), Amsterdam Museum ; 
Halting-Place before Inn, Haarlem Muse- 
um ; View of Convent near Lisbon, Hague 
Museum ; Halt by Hostelry, Rest by Foun- 
tain, Brussels Museum ; Cavalry Skirmish 
(1650), Berlin Museum ; Huntsmen with 
Dogs and Horse, Dresden Gallery ; Reunion 
after Hunt (1639), Copenhagen Gallery ; 

Officers by their Horses, Schwerin Gallery. 
Kramm, v. 1577 ; Fetis, Cat. Brussels Mu- 
seum, 467 ; Meyer, Gemiilde kongL Mus., 

at Kjerte in Fiinen, July 21, 1805, died in 
Copenhagen, Sept. 2, 1883. Genre painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy. Went in 
1832 to Munich, where he remained twenty 



years, excepting 1845-46, passed in Italy, 
and returned home in 1852. Professor at 
Copenhagen Academy. Works : Oscar's 
Death (1828) ; Cupid and Psyche in Boat ; 
Venus after Bath (1844) ; Psyche's Abduc- 
tion ; Elfin Dance ; Sakuntala ; King Hej- 
mer and Aslang ; Scenes from Scandinavian 
and Italian Life ; portraits ; altarpieces. 
Miiller, 508 ; Weilbach, GG3 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xviii. 728. 

NAND, born in Turin, Italy, in 1778, died 
in Paris, June 19, 1854. Landscape and 
history painter, chiefly in water-colours ; 
pupil of Palmerius. He lived in France 
after 1800 ; was painter and professor of 
design to the Duchesse de Berry. Medal, 
1st class, 1824 ; L. of Honour, 1825. Paint- 
ed chiefly views in France and Italy, but 
occasionally a figure-piece. Works : Battle 
of Abendsberg in 1809, Combat of Zuaim 
in 1809, Portrait of Marshal Schomberg, 
Versailles Museum ; Waterfall in Landscape, 
Palais de Trianon. Bellier, ii. 527. 

born in Paris ; contemporary. Landscape 
and genre painter, chiefly in water-colours ; 
son and pupil of Felix Marie Ferdinand 
Storelli. Medal, 3d class, 1839 ; 2d class, 
1840. Works : View of Chateau de Pierre- 
fonds (1870), Comte de Pont ; Environs of 
Romilly-sur-Seiue (1875) ; La fontaine La- 
gaurre (1877) ; The Two Brothers (1878). 
His son and pupil, Andre (born in Paris), 
who paints similar subjects, studied also 
under Questel and Justin Ouvrie. Bellier, 
ii. 527. 

in London, Jan. 7, 1834. Genre painter ; 
studied in Paris and in London, where he 
was a pupil of J. M. Leigh, and of the Roy- 
al Academy schools in 1853 ; exhibited in 
Royal Academy, Family Group (1852), Ma- 
donna (1853), and Holy Family (1854) ; vis- 
ited Spain in 1863 ; elected an A.R.A. in 
1876. Works: Meeting of William Sey- 
mour and Arabella Stuart (1864) ; Royal 
Challenge (1865) ; Breakfast (1866) ; After 

Whiphand (1875) 
ing Lesson (1876) 

You! (1867); Saying Grace, Shy Pupil 
(1868) ; Going to School, Sister, Old Soldier, 
Children Fishing 
(1869); Duet, Only 
a Rabbit (1870); Rosy 
Cheeks (1871); Little 
Buttercups, Course 
of True Love (1872); 
Mistress Dorothy, 
Love in a Maze 
(1873); Grandma's 
Christmas Visitors 
(1874) ; Caught, The 
My Lady Belle, Dane- 
Old Pump Room at 
Bath, Judgment of Paris, Christmas Eve 
(1877) ; Sweet Margery (1878) ; Orphans, 
Lilies, Oleanders and Pinks (1879); Late for 
Church, Follow my Leader, Daphne (1880); 
Coral Necklace (1881) ; Coracles on the Dee, 
Out for a Walk (1882); Sunflower, Connois- 
seur (1883) ; Shy Lover, Peace Maker, Art 
and Nature (1884) ; Zeuxis and the Maid- 
ens of Crotona (1885) ; On Guard, Violin 
Player (1886). Art Journal (1875), 173 ; 
Portfolio (1871), 19. 

STORK (Storck), ABRAHAM, the elder, 
born in Amsterdam before 1650, died about 
1710. Dutch school ; marine painter, pu- 
pil of Backhuysen ; pictures truthful and 
spirited, but inferior to his master's in com- 
position and elegance of touch. Works : 
View of the Dam at Amsterdam (1675), 
Italian Harbour, Marines (2), Amsterdam 
Museum ; Calm Sea, Ghent Museum ; do., 
and The Beach (1683), Hague Museum; 
Italian Port, Dutch Seaport in Winter, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; A Lock (1667), Gisignies 
Collection, Brussels ; Sea-Battle, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Amsterdam Harbour (1689), Dres- 
den Gallery ; Stormy Sea (1686), Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; others in Aschaffenburg, 
Darmstadt, Gotha (3), Konigsberg (2), 
Oldenburg, Schleiss- .. . ^ . i. p 

heim (2, one dated * - bTQT :K-r 
1688), Schwerin. O." / & JJ 
Immerzeel, iii. 116; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 505 ; 
Burger, Musees, ii. 309 ; De Stuers, 149. 


New Haven, Conn., Jan. 23, 1835. Portrait 
and genre painter, pupil in New Haven of 
Professor Bail, and of Charles Hine, por- 
trait painter ; studied in Europe one year 
and sketched in Cuba. Elected an A.N.A. 
in 1875. Studio in New York. Ideal works : 
Echoes from the Sea (1876); Student of Nat- 
ure (1878) ; Young Mother (1879) ; Indian 
Encampment Orchard Beach (1881); Elec- 
tion Returns (Smith's College), Winning 
Hand (1883) ; Broken Vase, Still Trusting 
(1884) ; Our Father who art in Heaven 
(1885) ; The Fishermen (1886). Portraits : 
Whitelaw Reid, Lotus Club, New York ; 
Governor of Villa-Clara, Villa-Clara Gal- 
lery, Madrid, Spain ; Mrs. Ann S. Stephens 

STOTHARD, THOMAS, born in Lon- 
don, Aug. 17, 1755, 
died there, April 27, 
1834. Apprenticed 
in 1770 to a designer 
for brocaded silks, 
then tried book il- 
lustration, and in 
1777 entered schools 
of Royal Academy ; 
elected A.R.A. in 
1791, and R.A. in 
1794, and in 1810 was appointed librarian. 
Although best known by his book illustra- 
tions, of which he made upwards of 5,000, 
he painted some good subject pieces, the 
most ambitious of which is Intemperance, on 
the staircase of Burghley House, Northamp- 
tonshire. Other works : Greek Vintage, 
Woodland Dance, Cupid and Calypso, Di- 
ana and Nymphs, Cupids preparing for the 
^M J. / >k Chase, Myth of Nar- 
V *^>*-y <*~~V cissus, Canterbury Pil- 
*^ grims, National Gal- 

lery. Bray ; Life (London, 1851) ; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole anglaise ; Redgrave ; Sandby, 
ii. 303. 

STOTT, WILLIAM, born at Oldham, 
England ; contemporary. Portrait and genre 
painter, pupil in Paris of Gorome. Medal, 

3d class, 1882. Works: Midday Dream, 
Knitter (1881); Ferryman, Bathing (1882); 
Children's Round, Grandpa's Study (1883) ; 
The Two Sisters (1884); My Father and 
My Mother, Moonrise (1885) ; Spring Day 

STOTZ, OTTO, born at Ludwigsburg, 
Wflrteinberg, in 1805. Animal painter, 
studied in Munich. Settled in Stuttgart, 
later in Vienna. Works : Review in Stutt- 
gart ; Racing at Cannstadt ; Catching Horses 
in Wallachia (1841), Vienna Museum ; Ara- 
bian full-blooded Horses (1852) ; Horses in 
Stable, Return from Hare Hunt (1853) ; 
Arab Horses in Stud at Babolua (1854) ; 
English Stallions, Horses from Imperial 
Stud at Kisbcr (1858); Horses in Stable 
(1870) ; etc. Wurzbach, xxxix. 202. 

Hayna, Aug. 10, 1761, died in Oldenburg, 
Jan. 27, 1836. Landscape painter, pupil in 
Cassel of Tischbein, copying chiefly Ruis- 
dael and Wouverman. Entered service of 
Duke of Oldenburg in 1783 ; returned to 
Cassel in 1786 ; visited Italy in 1788 ; be- 
came court painter iu Cassel in 1794 ; went 
to Eutin in 1797, and to Oldenburg in 1803. 
Works : Sicilian Landscape (1796), Olden- 
burg Gallery ; Ruins of Ancient Theatre in 
Taormina, Ruins of Piestum (1803) ; Land- 
scape with Shepherds, do. with Ruins (2), 
Cassel Gallery. Nagler, xvii. 439 ; N. Necr. 
der D. (1836), i. 86. 

STRADANUS, JAN, born at Bruges in 
1523 (1530?), died at Florence in 1605. 
Flemish school. Real name Johannes or 
Hans van der Straet. History painter, first 
instructed by his father, then pupil of M. 
Franck and Pieter Aertszen ; then went to 
Italy, and in Rome studied especially Raph- 
ael and Michelangelo, vying with Daniele 
da Volterra and Salviati iu the execution of 
some pictures for the Belvedere. Called to 
Naples by Don Juan d'Austria, he decorated 
his palace with paintings, and accompanied 
him to Flanders, but soon returned, and 
settled at Florence, where he was called 
Giovanni della Strada, and worked con- 


jointly with Vasari in the ducal palace. 
After his pictures 388 engravings were 
made. Works : Scourging of Christ, Ban- 
quet of the Gods, Vienna Museum ; Christ 
on the Cross, and several other scenes from 
the Passion, S. Annunziata, Florence ; Mar- 
tyrdom of the Thousand Saints, San Fi- 
renze, ib. ; Christ and the Money Changers, 
S. Spirito, ib.; Scenes in Life of Christ 
(frescos), Oratorio S. Clemente, ib.; others 
in churches and palaces in Rome and Na- 
ples. Immerzeel, iii. 118 ; Kramm, v. 1581 ; 
Nagler, xvii. 444. 

Mondsee, Salzkammergut, Feb. 28, 1814, 
died in Munich, Dec. 31, 1883. History 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy and of 
Schnorr. Executed most of Kaulbach's 
cartoons in colours. Professor and honor- 
ai-y member of Munich Academy. Works : 
Two Scenes from Charlemagne's Life af- 
ter Schnorr's designs, Munich ; cartoons for 
glass windows, Glasgow and Ratisbon Ca- 
thedrals ; illustrations, which have done 
most to make him known. Miiller, 509 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 284. 

STRAET. See Stradanm. 

STRAFFORD, EARL OF, portrait, An- 
ton van Dyck, Blenheim Palace ; canvas, H. 
3 ft. 4 in. x 4 f t. G in. Lord Strafford, hold- 
ing a letter in his hand and dictating an 
answer to his secretary, Sir Thomas Main- 
waring ; seen to knees. Waagen, Treas- 
ures, iii. 130. 

TION, Paul Delarochc, Duke of Sutherland ; 
canvas, H. 8 ft. 8 in. x 10 ft. 3 in. Thomas 
Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, Minister of 
Charles I., while being taken from the 
Tower of London to the place of execution 
(1641) stops beneath the dungeon of Arch- 
bishop Laud to ask his blessing. He is 
represented kneeling before the prison wall, 
with halberdiers and pikemen on each side 
of him, looking up to the window above, 
through the iron grating of which the prel- 
ate is putting out his hands in the act of 
benediction. Painted in 1835 ; Salon, 1837. 

San Donato sale, in Paris (1870), 30,000 

born in Vienna in 1827, died there, March 
5, 1881. Genre and animal painter, pupil 
of Vienna Academy under Steinfeld and 
Kupelwieser. First painted landscapes, 
then riding and hunting pictures, and mil- 
itary genre. Works : Plundering Cossacks 
(1847), Vienna Museum ; Uhlan Outpost 
(1847), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Cavalry Skir- 
mish (1861) ; Stone Cart (1870) ; Wallen- 
stein's Cavalry in Ambush (1874). Wurz- 
bach, xxxix. 279. 

born at Tokarowka, near Kiev ; contempo- 
rary. History painter, pupil of Markow. 
Works : King Stanislaus in Baccianelli's 
Studio (1859) ; Wallenstein in Bohemia 
(1862) ; Murder of Bishop of Liege (1863). 

STRATONICE, Dominique Ingres, Due 
d'Aumale, Chantilly ; canvas. Antiochus 
Soter, son of Seleucus Nicator, King of 
Syria, having fallen seriously ill, Erasistra- 
tus, the King's physician, suspecting the 
cause, orders the ladies of the palace to 
come in one by one, and discovers by the 
beating of his patient's heart that he is in 
love with his beautiful step-mother, Queen 
Stratonice. The King, rather than lose his 
son, broke the bonds which bound him to 
Stratonice and permitted Antiochus to mar- 
ry her. In the picture, Erasistratus is stand- 
ing beside the bed of Antiochus, with his 
left hand upon his patient's heart, the other 
slightly raised in astonishment as he gazes 
at Stratonice, standing at left with her face 
averted. King Seleucus, kneeling beside 
his son's couch, with his head buried in the 
drapery, sees nothing of the drama before 
him. Ordered in 1834 by Due d'OrlcSans ; 
finished in Rome in 1840 ; acquired in 1853 
by Prince Demidoff for 63,000 francs ; sold 
to Due d'Aumale. Replica (1860), with 
changes, ComtesseDuchfitel ; another (1866), 
with changes, Montpellier Museum, bought 
from Mme. Ingres for 20,000 francs. Orig- 
inal sketch, Louvre, Paris. Engraved by 



Leopold Flameng (1869). Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1881), xxiv. 322, 329; Cb. Blanc, Ingres, 
114 ; Larousse, xiv. 1136. 

Subject treated also by Gerard de Lairesse, 
Amsterdam Museum ; Adrien van der Werff, 
Louvre, Paris. Filhol ; Landon, 2d Col., iii. 

Strawberry Girl, Sir Joshua Reynold:, Sir Richard Wallace, 

STRAUCH, GEORG.born at Nuremberg, 
Sept. 17, 1613, died July 13, 1675. German 
school ; portrait and history painter, pupil 
of Johann Hauer. Works : Immaculate 
Conception, Vienna Museum ; two Portraits, 
Prague Gallery ; Female Portrait (1664), 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg. Nagler, 
xvii. 465. 

STRAUCH, LORENZ, born at Nurem- 
berg in 1554, died there in 1630. Portrait 
painter of distinction, and also known 
through a number of fine prospects of Nu- 
remberg. Works: Male Portraits (10, 1581, 
1591, 1593, 1594, 1596, 1597, 1602, 1604, 
1615, 1620), Female do. (1593, 1597, 1605), 
Child's Portrait (1603), Germanic Museum, 

Nuremberg ; Female Portrait, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; do. (1591), Male Portrait 
(1605), Schleissheim Gallery. Nagler, xvii. 

STRAWBERRY GIRL, Sir Joshua Re y- 
nolds, Hertford House, Sir Richard Wallace, 
London ; canvas. A little girl, three-quar- 
ters length, standing with folded hands, 
with an odd turban-like head-dress, and a 
strawberry pottle on her right arm. Sir 
Joshua declared this to be one of the "half- 
dozen original things " which no man ever 
exceeds in his life-work. Painted in 1773 ; 
sold for 50 guineas to Earl of Carisford ; 
bought at Rogers's sale (1856) by Marquis 
of Hertford for 2,100 guineas. Repetitions : 
Lansdowne House ; Lord Normanton. En- 
graved by T. Watson (1774) ; S. Cousins 
(1873). Leslie & Taylor, Life, ii. 3, 20 ; 
Pulling, 46 ; Redgrave, Century, i. 141 ; 
Stephens, Eng. Children by J. R. 

STREATElt, ROBERT, born in London 
in 1624, died there in 1680. Pupil of Du- 
moulin ; painted history, portraits, land- 
scapes, and still-life. Was sergeant painter 
to Charles II. ; painted ceilings at White- 
hall, destroyed by fire, and the ceiling of 
the theatre at Oxford, still extant. F. de 
Conches, 58 ; Redgrave. 

sterdam in 1632 (?), died there, June 12, 
1678. Dutch school ; portrait and still-life 
painter, about whose life 
no particulars are known. 
Worts : Fishmonger 
Woman, Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Breakfast Table 
(2, one dated 1649), 
Schwerin Gallery ; Still- 
Life, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
(1642), Breakfast, Liechtenstein 


Vienna. His son and pupil, Hendrik (1659- 
1713), who painted architecture and still-life, 


was also n, pupil of Emanuel de Witte. By 
him is a Breakfast Table, in the Schwerin 
Gallery, and a Gothic Church Interior (?), 
in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Schlie, 

STEEITT, FRANZ, born at Brody, Galicia, 
in 1839. Genre painter, pupil of Cracow 
Art School and Vienna Academy under En- 
gerth ; settled in Munich in 1871. Medal, 
London, 1884. Works : Abduction of Prin- 
cess Halszka ; Kathariua Jagiellonika in 
Prison ; Counted Moments ; Favourite of 
the Family ; Forbidden Fruit ; Incredulous 
Listener ; Signal of Distress, Gypsy Boy 
playing Violin (1884). Allgem. Kunst-Chro- 
nik, viii. 530, 876, 1035 ; ix. 130. 

STEETES (Streetes), GUILLIM, British 
painter of 16th century, probably born in 
Holland. Painter in 1551 to Edward VI., 
who, Strype records, paid him 50 marks 
for two portraits of himself, one now at 
Windsor, the other at Petworth, and a 
third of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, be- 
headed in 1546-47. The last named, now 
at Knole, a full-length, life-size picture, is 
more Italian than Dutch in style, and much 
resembles the work of Girolamo da Treviso. 
Wilmot-Buxton, 16. 

STEIGEL, BERNHAED, born at Mem- 
mingen in 1460 or 1461, died there before 
June 23, 1528. German school ; history and 
portrait painter, mentioned in documents 
as living in Memmingen between 1516 and 
1528, in Augsburg about 1517, in Vienna 
about 1520, 1522, and 1525 ; identical with 
Master of the Collection Hirscher. In his 
altarpieces he appears influenced by Zeit- 
blom, although his figures are less ele- 
vated in form and bearing ; he was an ex- 
cellent colourist. Works : Four Pictures 
with Saints, Elizabeth of Thuringia and Em- 
peror Henry H., Four Altar Wings (1515) 
with Nativity, Visitation, etc., Christ parting 
with Mary, Christ before the Crucifixion, Jo- 
hannes Cuspinian and Family (1520), Berlin 
Museum ; Pieta, Mocking of Christ, Annun- 
ciation, Washing of Feet, Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
Portrait of Imperial Family, Museum, Vien- 

na (attributed to Grtinewald) ; Married Cou- 
ple, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Altar Panels, 
National Museum, Munich ; do. (4), David 
with the Head of Goliath, Portraits of a Pa- 
trician and his Children (1517), Emperor 
Maximilian I., Male Portrait, Old Pinako- 
thek, ib. ; Altar Panels (6), Madonna, Two 
Portraits, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg; 
Portrait of Margaret of Austria, Schwerin 
Gallery ; Four Altar Wings, Archaeological 
Union, Stuttgart. Allgem. Zeitg. (1881), 
1771, 1775; Kunst - Chronik, xvi. 329; 
Schnaase, viii. 457 ; W. & W., ii. 454 ; Jahr- 
buch der preuss. Kunstsammlungen, ii. 54, 
59 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xxii. 38. 

Lisbon in 1708, died at Oporto in 1792. 
Portuguese school ; history painter, pupil 
St. Luke's Academy in Rome under Maria 
Benefial. After an absence of almost twenty 
years, returned to Lisbon, where he deco- 
rated Eoyal Theatre. Settled in Oporto, but 
visited London and Lisbon. Works : Last 
Supper, St. Nicolao Church, Lisbon ; Altar- 
pieces, S. Joao Nova and Senhara da Victo- 
ria, ib. ; Earthquake of Lisbon. 

at Hanover, Aug. 26, 1834. Flower painter, 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy, and in Carls- 
ruhe of Gude ; was much influenced by 
Lessing and Vasberg. Lives at Carlsruhe. 
Works : Morning Greeting ; Forgotten ; 
Gretchen's Eoses ; Flower Baskets in a Boat 
(1884) ; Garland and Willow Tree (1884). 
Miiller, 510 ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 125, 349. 

STEOOBANT, FEANZ, born in Brussels 
in 1819. Architecture painter. Illustrated 
works on Belgian art and architecture. 
Gold medal in Brussels, 1854 ; Leopold Or- 
der in 1863. Works : San Giorgio in Ven- 
ice ; Brussels Houses of the Guilds, Brussels 
Museum ; Entrance to Old City in Prague ; 
Palace Interior in Cracow ; Entrance to 
Heidelberg Castle. Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 

STEOZZI, BEENAEDO, born in Genoa 
in 1581, died in Venice, Aug. 3, 1644. Gen- 
oese school ; called also II Cappuccino and 



H Prete Genovese. Pupil of Pietro Sorri, 
and one of the most remarkable followers of 
Caravaggio ; be- 
came early a 
monk of Order 
of St. Francis. 
Left it to sup- 
port aged moth- 
er and sister, and 
refusing to re- 
turn on the death 
of the one and 
the marriage of 
the other, was sentenced to three years' im- 
prisonment ; but escaped to Venice and lived 
there as a secular priest the rest of his life, 
executing many works for churches and 
palaces. He was an excellent colourist, 
though not always correct in design, and 
enjoyed a good reputation in his day. 
Among his best works are : Copy of Cambia- 
so'sCaritas, Incredulity of St. Thomas, Palaz- 
zo Brignole, Genoa ; Virgin and St. Felix, Ca- 
puccini, Genoa ; Three Philosophers, Palaz- 
zo Adoruo, Genoa ; SS. Joseph and John, 
Palazzo Walli, ib. ; A Bishop, Palazzo Du- 
razzo, ib.; The Samaritan Woman, Palazzo 
Faragina, ib. ; Saint, Palazzo Pallaviciui, ib. ; 
A Monk, Susanna, Palazzo Spinola, ib. ; A 
Monk, Turin Gallery ; Sculpture, Ceiling in 
Royal Palace, Venice ; St. Jerome, Venice 
Academy ; Bathsheba, Dresden Gallery ; 
Christ and the Pharisees, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich. Lauzi, iii. 266 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole 
gonoise ; Burckhardt, 760, 768, 788, 800, 
803 ; Lavice, 51, 84, 89, 90. 

STROZZI, FILIPPO, portrait, Titian, Vi- 
enna Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft. G in. x 2 ft. 
7 in. Much overpainted, but looks as if it 
had once been a fine picture by the master. 
Painted about 1540. C. & C., Titian, ii. 

PETER, Baron, born at Cles, Tyrol, in 1648, 
died in Vienna in 1714. German school ; his- 
tory painter, son and pupil -of Jacob Strudel, 
and in Venice pupil of Carlo Lotti. Settled 
in 1680 in Vienna, where he was made court 

painter in 1689. Was also a sculptor. En- 
nobled in 1693 ; first director of the newly 
founded Vienna Academy in 1704. Works : 
Jupiter and Antiope, Susanna at the Bath, 
Dresden Gallery ; Hngar, Cassel Gallery ; 
Bacchanal, Ddsseldorf Gallery ; Martyrdom 
of St. Lawrence, Satyr bound by Zephyr 
and a Boy, Children Playing, Bath of Diana, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Genii with Festoons 
(4), Pieta, Vienna Museum. Nagler, xvi. 

in England ; contemporary. Genre painter ; 
exhibits chiefly at the Grosvenor Gallery. 
Works : Love's Music (1877) ; Peona, Pass- 
ing Days (1878); My Beloved, Isabella 
(1879) ; Marsyas and Apollo (1880) ; St. 
Cecilia (1882) ; The Ten Virgins, A Story- 
Book (1884) ; A Golden Thread, Thy Tune- 
ful Strings wake Memories (1885) ; Isabella, 
Circe and Scylla (1886). 

HONORE), born at Berchem, Jan. 24. 1852. 
Genre and history painter, pupil of Ant- 
wei - p Academy. Visited London and Paris. 
Professor at Weimar Art School in 1878 ; 
resigned and removed to The Hague in 
1882. White Falcon Order. Works : Two 
Sacrifices, Dordrecht Museum ; Birds of 
Prey ; Disillusion ; Alone at the Rendez- 
vous ; Seduced (1885) ; six historical pict- 
ures for the Luther Hall of the Wartburg 
(with Willem Linnig, Jr.). Mtlller, 510 ; 
Allgem. K. Chr. ix. 838. 

STRY, ABRAHAM VAN, born at Dor- 
drecht, Dec. 31, 1753, died there, March 7, 
1826. Genre painter, brother of the follow- 
ing, pupil of Joris Ponse (1723-83) ; found- 
ed at Dordrecht in 1774 the society Pictura, 
which formed several excellent artists, and 
of which he was the first president. Mem- 
ber of Institute of the Netherlands, and in 


1818 of Antwerp Academy. Works : Draw- 
ing Lesson, The Housewife, Kettle Scourer, 



Amsterdam Museum ; Well-Supplied Table, 
Village Inn, Rotterdam Museum. Immer- 
zeel, iii. 120 ; Kramm, v. 1582. 

STEY, JACOBUS VAN, born at Dor- 
drecht, Oct. 2, 1756, died there, Feb. 4, 
1815. Landscape and animal painter, pu- 
pil of Andreas Cornelia Lens at Antwerp 
Academy, then formed himself chiefly 
through the study of Paulus Potter and 
Aelbert Cuyp. Works : Landscape, Milk- 
ing Time, Evening in the Country, Going 
to Market, Museum Amsterdam ; Cattle 
resting on lliver Bank, Museum Fodor, ib. ; 
Cows and Sheep by Farm Buildings, Leip- 
sic Museum ; Cows in Pasture, Czernin 
Gallery, Vienna. Immerzeel, iii. 119 ; 
Kramm, v. 1583. 

STEYOWSKI, WILHELM, born in Dant- 
zic in 1834. Genre painter, pupil of Schadow 
in Diisseldorf. After visiting Galicia, Hol- 
land, and Paris, settled in Dantzic. Medal 
in 18G4. Works : Washerwomen surprised 
by Eain (1854) ; Sunday Afternoon in the 
Country (185G) ; Polish Sailors before the 
Evening Fire ; Boatmen Besting (I860) ; 
Little Wire-AVorker ; Dancing Cossack 
(1861) ; Skaters ; Polish Jews in Syna- 
gogue (18G2) ; Jews Praying ; Eendezvous 
on Eoofs of Dantzic ; Wedding Procession 
of Galician Jews (1874) ; Landscape on Vis- 
tula (1882). Miiller, 511. 

STUART, GILBERT, born in Narragan- 
sett, Ehode Island, 
Dec. 3, 1755, died 
in Boston, July 27, 
1828. After some 
unaided efforts, he 
received instruction 
from Cosmo Alexan- 
der, a Scotch portrait 
painter, whom he ac- 
companied to Scot- 
land in 1772. The 
death of his master 

left Stuart to shift for himself, and after 
struggling a while at the University of Glas- 
gow, he returned home. In 1775 he went 
again to England and found a friend and 

master in Benjamin West, who employed 
him as an assistant. In 1785 he set up a 
studio of his own with great success, getting 
high prices. In 1788 he visited Dublin and 
painted several portraits. In 1792 he re- 
turned to America. Soon after his arrival 
in New York, the Duke of Kent offered to 
send a ship of war for him if he would go 
to Nova Scotia and paint his portrait ; but 
unwisely, as he afterwards thought, he de- 
clined the offer. After working for two 
years in New York, Philadelphia, and Wash- 
ington, Stuart settled in Boston, where he 
resided the remainder of his life. His por- 
traits show great insight into character, and 
are remarkable for their simplicity of 
means. They have great individuality, ex- 
cellent balance of light and shade, and gen- 
erally pure colour. Among the best are 
those of Washington, of whom Stuart was 
the painter par excellence. \Vorks : Por- 
trait of Washington (1796), Martha Wash- 
ington (1796), Washington at Dorchester 
Heights, General Henry Kuox, Josiah 
Quincy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ; 
Washington, John Adams, Jefferson, Madi- 
son, and Monroe, T. Jefferson Coolidge, ib. ; 
Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, Mr. and Mrs. 
David Sears, Mrs. William Amory, ib.; 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Revere, John Eevere, 
ib. ; Jared Sparks (1827), Mrs. Parks, Cam- 
bridge, Mass.; Judge Joseph Story, Har- 
vard University, ib. ; Mr. and Mrs. Josiah 
Quincy (1806), Edmund Quincy, Dedham, 
Mass.; Eev. William Ellery Churning, 
George G. Channing, Milton, Mass.; Mr. 
and Mrs. George Gibbs, Colonel George 
Gibbs, Wolcott Gibbs, Cambridge, Mass.; 
Dr. Samuel William Johnson (1792), Mrs. 
William Bellamy, Dorchester, Mass.; Com- 
modore O. H. Perry, Oliver H. Perry, 
Lowell, Mass. ; Sir John Temple, Mrs. Eliza 
B. Temple Winthrop, Eobert C. Winthrop, 
Brookline, Mass.; Presidents Washington, 
John Adams, and Jefferson, and Egbert 
Benson (1807), Historical Society, New 
York ; General Horatio Gates, John E. 
Stevens, ib.; Commodore Macdouough, A. 



R. Mficdonough, ib. ; Josiah Ogclen Hoff- 
man, Mrs. Ogden Hoffman, ib. ; Mrs. Robert 
Morris, Lenox Gallery, ib. ; John Jacob As- 
tor, J. J. Astor, ib. ; Governor and Mrs. 
Winthrop Sargent (1805), Mrs. W. Butler 
Duncan, ib.; John Jay, Augustus Jay, ib.; 
John Jay, Steven Van Rensellaer, Hon. John 
Jay, Bedford, N. Y.; Robert Morris, Mrs. 
Morris, Bay Ridge, N. Y.; John R. Morris 
(1800), John R. Morris, Mount Morris, 
N. Y.; Commodore Stephen Decatur, Ly- 
ceum of Navy Yard, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Madi- 
son, Monroe, A. A. Low, ib.; Washington 
(full-length), do. (bust), Mrs. Blodgett, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Willing Jackson, Pennsyl- 
vania Academy, Philadelphia, Pa.; Com- 
modore John Barry, Mrs. Dr. Leiper, ib. ; 
Horace Binney (1800), Miss Susan Binney, 
ib.; Bishop William White (1798), Mrs. 
George H. White, ib.; General Thomas 
Mifflin, F. E. Dixon, Bridgewater, Pa.; 
Madame Patterson Bonaparte, Charles Jo- 
seph Bonaparte, Baltimore, Md. ; Jefferson, 
Madison, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me. ; 
Thomas Callender, John Callender, Miss 
Calleuder, Newport, R. I.; Chief Justice 
Shippen of Pennsylvania, Corcoran Gal- 
lery, Washington ; John Singleton Copr 
ley, Lady Lyndhurst, London ; W. Grant 
of Congalton skating in St. James's Park 
(ascribed to Gainsborough), Lord Charles 
Pelham Clinton, Moor Court, Stroud ; Sir 
Joshua Reynolds (1784), Lord Inchiquin ; 
Sir Edward Thornton (2), Sir Edward 
Thornton, England ; Benjamin West, Na- 
tional Gallery, London. -Mason, Life and 
Works of G. S. (New York, 1879) ; Tucker- 
man, Book of the Artists ; Scribner's Mag., 
March, 1879 ; Atlantic Monthly, Dec., 1868, 
Reminiscences by John Neale. 

STUBBS, GEORGE, born in Liverpool 
in 1724, died in London, July 10, 1806. 
Son of a surgeon, from whom he inherited 
a love of anatomy, the study of which, in 
connection with art, was the occupation of 
his life. He was the first of the English 
painters to give life and motion to the pict- 
ures of animals. About 175-4 he visited 

Italy; on his return settled in London, 
where he became noted as an animal 
painter, especially of horses, and an anato- 
mist. In 1773 he was president of the So- 
ciety of Artists ; elected an A. R. A. in 
1780, and R. A. in 1781, but declined the 
latter honour. Works : Fall of Phaeton ; 
Lion killing Horse ; Tiger in his Den. 
Redgrave ; F. de Conches, 342 ; Sandby, i. 

STUCKELBERG, ERNST, born at Basle 
in 1831. Landscape and genre painter, pupil 
in his native city of Dietler, and in Antwerp of 
Dyckmans and Wappers. Studied the old 
masters in the Louvre in Paris ; travelled 
over Switzerland and Upper Italy in 1853 ; 
remained some time in Munich ; from 1856 
lived ten years in Rome, and settled in 
Basle. Gold medal in Munich in 1869. 
Works : Forest Spring in Sabine Moun- 
tains ; Lady-Day in Sabine Mountains, Elijah 
and the Widow, Marionettes, Artist's Chil- 
ren, Basle Museum ; Legend of Foundation 
of Convent of Ober-Schonthal ; Return of 
St. Gall Citizens after Battle of Grandson, 
St. Gall Museum ; Charcoal Burners in Jura 
Mountains, Zurich Gallery ; Service of Chil- 
dren of God (1867) ; City and Country 
Children ; Youthful Love ; Fortune Teller ; 
Hermit of Maranno ; Gypsy ; Fortune 
Teller, Children from Abroad, Last Rha 1 - 
tian (1883). In fresco : Tell's Chapel. 
Miiller, 511 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 739 ; 
six. 231. 

Hamburg, Dec. 28, 1803, died there, Oct. 
23, 1886. Landscape and genre painter, pu- 
pil of Gerdt Hardorff, then of Copenhagen 
Academy under Gebauer, and in Dresden 
of Dahl. Works : Storm Landscape (1830) ; 
Village in Winter (1837) ; Blankenese Fish- 
ermen (1838) ; Village Landscape on the 
Trave ; Village Life in Holstein, Hamburg 
Gallery. Andresen, iii. 60. 

Hamburg in 1640, died there, May 8, 1721. 
German school Landscape and marine 
painter, and also painted some historical 


pictures. Works: Sacrifice of Iphigenia, 
Royal Palace, Berlin ; Harbour View, Cassel 
Gallery ; do., Gotha Museum ; Naval Bat- 
tles (2), Schwerin Gallery. Nagler, xvii. 
519 ; Schlie, 610. 

STUNTZ. See Freyberg, Elektrine von. 
in Paris, Feb. 28, 1802, died at VersaiUes, 
Sept. 16, 1881. History painter, pupil of 
Ingres, went in 1831 to Florence, where he 
remained over twenty years, zealously 
studying the old masters; in 1853 he re- 
turned to Paris, and then settled at Ver- 
sailles. Medal, third class, 1842. Works : 
Death of Brunhilde, Death of Suetonius 
(1835) ; Lady of Florence (1835), Madrid 
Museum ; Cimabue and Giotto (1838) ; 
Moses on the Mountain, Wrestlers (1842) ; 
Incredulity of Thomas (1844), Ministry of 
Interior, Paris ; Cimabue's Madonna carried 
in Procession in Florence, 1270 (1859) ; 
Twelve Allegories on the Events of 1870- 
71 ; One hundred and eight illustrations to 
Dante's Divine Comedy. Ischarner, Die 
bild. K. in der Schweiz (1884), 59. 

STURM, FRITZ, born at Rostock, May 
17, 1834. Marine and landscape painter ; 
pupil of Berlin Academy in 1859-61, of 
Eschke, and at Carlsruhe of Gude in 1865- 
70. Made sketching tours in Sweden, Nor- 
way, Switzerland, Holland, and Italy. Lived 
in Diisseldorf in 1870-75, then moved to 
Berlin. Medal, London, 1872. Works : 
Norwegian Coast (1863), Wismar from the 
Sea (1864), Tempest on the Sea (1866), Ship- 
wreck (1868), Schwerin Gallery ; Hamburg 
Harbour (1866) ; Life Boats going to a 
Wreck (1867) ; Pilot Boat returning Home ; 
Crew deserting Sinking Ship ; Brig on the 

Coast ; Baltic, 
Sea, National 
Gallery, Berlin. Jordan (1885), ii. 225 ; 
Muller, 511. 

STURMER, KARL, born in Berlin in 
1803, died in March, 1881. History painter, 
son and pupil of Johanu Heinrich Stiirmer 

(1774-1855), and in Diisseldorf of Cornelius, 
whom he accompanied to Munich and in 
1842 to Berlin. Works: Friedrich I. of 
Brandenburg takes Pope John XXIH. Pris- 
oner (1856) ; Auto da Fe of Spanish Inquisi- 
tion (1872). In fresco : Barbarossa's Rec- 
onciliation with Pope Alexander, Helldorf 
Castle, near Dfisseldorf ; Defeat of 
Ottokar at Mtthldorf, Taking of Bel- 
grade, Arcades of Court Garden, 
Munich ; Deeds of Hercules and 
Theseus, Old Museum, Berlin. Rosenberg, 
Berl. Malersch., 249 ; Mailer, 511. 

STUVEN, ERNST, born at Hamburg in 
1657, died at Rotterdam in 1712. Dutch 
school. Flower and fruit painter, pupil in 
Amsterdam, whither he went in 1675, of 
Jan Voorhout, Willem van Aelst, and Abra- 
ham Mignon. Was twice imprisoned in 
Amsterdam, then banished from the city, 
and settled at Rotterdam. Works : Two 
Fruit-Pieces with Insects, Schwerin Gallery. 
Immerzeel, iii. 120 ; Schlie, 612. 


SUBLEYEAS, PIERRE, born at Uzes 
(Gard), in 1699, died 
in Rome, May 28, 
1749. French school. 
History painter, 
pupil of his father 
Mathieu and, at 
Toulouse, of Rivalz. 
Won the grand prix 
de Rome in 1727 ; 
went to Rome, where 
he married and set- 
tled for life. Member of Academy of St. 
Luke, 1740. Works : Brazen Serpent (1727), 
Christ in the House of the Pharisee (1739, 
also original sketch), Martyrdom of St. 
Hippolytus, Martyrdom of St. Peter, Mass 
of St. Basil, Emperor Theodosius receiving 
the Blessing of St. Ambrose, St. Benedict 
reviving a Child, Brother Philip's Geese, 
The Falcon, The Hermit, Louvre, Paris ; St. 
Stephen and St. Francis appearing to the 
Penitent, Moutpellier Museum ; Theodosius 



Kneeling, Hermit, Nantes Museum ; Camal- 
dolensian Monk (2), Orleans Museum ; St. 
Joseph carrying Infant Christ, Coronation 
of Louis XV., Joseph interpreting the 
Dreams, Annunciation, Joseph's Dream, 
Circumcision, St. Peter Healing the Lame, 
Still-Life, Male Portrait, Toulouse Museum ; 
Portrait of Benedict XIV., Versailles Mu- 
seum ; Cardinal Bentivoglio, Eouen Mu- 
seum ; Ecce Homo, Musee Rath, Geneva ; 
Temptation of St. Anthony, Zdrich Gallery ; 
Homage to St. Januarius, Berlin Museum ; 
Death of Magdalen, Cassel Gallery ; Christ 
in the House of Simon, Dresden Museum ; 
A Bishop blessing a King, St. Norbert re- 
storing a dead Child to Life, Portrait of a 
Bishop, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Priest in 
Vestments, A Monk, Schleissheim Gallery ; 
The Three Magi, Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, Czernin Gallery, Vienna ; Emperor 
Valens fainting at the Mass of St. Basil 
(1745), Carthusian Church at Termini, 
Sicily ; replica in the Louvre ; do., Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg; do. (in mosaic), 


Brera Gallery, 

Milan. Vfflot, *\ 

Cat. Louvre ; 

Bellier, ii. 530 ; Cb. Blanc, Ecole francaise ; 

Biog. universelle. 

SUESS, HANS. See Eulmbach, Hans 

SUEUR. See Le Sueur. 

born at Schwerin in 1742, died at Ludwigs- 
lust, Jan. 1, 1827. History, portrait, land- 
scape, animal, and still-life painter, pupil of 
the court painter Lehmann, then took up 
sculpture under Busch, but was induced by 

difang 178' 

Findorff (1722-72, court painter) to return 
to painting. Works : Portrait of Findorff 

(1773), Dogs (2, one dated 1773), View of 
Altona (1789), Still-Life (1799), Schwerin 
Gallery. Schlie, 93. 

SUHRLANDT, KARL, born at Schwer- 
in ; contemporary. Animal painter, son of 
Rudolf Suhrlandt, pupil in Paris of Ary 
Scheffer ; travelled for many years in Russia, 
where he was employed by the court, and 
became member of St. Petersburg Academy. 
Professor in Schweriu in 1874. Works : 
Russian Horse Dealers ; Smugglers on Rus- 
sian Frontier ; Regiment of Uhlans march- 
ing (1870) ; Cattle Herd (1874) ; Drunken 
Peasant driving ; Galileo in Prison (1853), 
Schwerin Gallery. Miiller, 512; Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1877), ii. 515. 

KARL), born at Ludwigslust, Mecklenburg, 
Dec. 19, 1781, died at Schwerin, Feb. 2, 
1862. History and portrait painter, son and 
pupil of Heinrich Suhrlandt, then studied 
in Dresden under Schenau and Grassi, and 
in Vienna under Fiiger and Maurer ; went 
to Rome in 1808, was in Naples in 1812-15, 
and while there was made Mecklenburg 
court painter, and after his return in 1817, 
professor. Works : Maiden in the Grotto, 
Sleeping Youth (1808), Cupid and Psyche 
(1809), Venus teaching Cupid to bend the 
Bow, Venus, Vulcan, and Mars (1810), Por- 
trait of a Physician (1817), do. of Artist's 
Father (1825), Copies after Old Masters (7), 
Schwerin Gallery. His daughter Mrne. 
Pauline Sol- a\ r \ I i . 

tau, at first JtJilAKttndl J*l 

his pupil, vAoma l8lO 

then of Dubufe in Paris, was a genre and 

portrait painter. 

SULLY, THOMAS, born at Horncastle, 
Lincolnshire, England, June 8, 1783, died in 
Philadelphia, Nov. 5, 1872. Portrait paint- 
er; taken to Charleston, S. C., by his par- 
ents, who were comedians, in 1792 ; was first 
instructed by M. Belzons, a French minia- 
ture painter who had married his sister. In 
1799 he joined his brother Laurence, a 
miniature painter, in Richmond, Va., and 
painted there and at Norfolk until Lau- 



rence's death in 1804. In 1806, having 
married his brother's widow, he removed to 
New York and lived 
there, excepting a 
short visit to Boston 
for instruction from 
Gilbert Stuart, until 
1808, when he re- 
turned to Philadel- 
phia. In 1809 he went 
to London, studied 
several months under 
Benjamin West, and 
coming back in 1810, settled permanently 
in Philadelphia. He again visited England 
in 1837-38, and in the latter year painted 
from life a full-length portrait of Queen Vic- 
toria. Between 1820 and 1840 he exhibited 
ten portraits at the Royal 
Academy. Works: Com- 
modore Decatur, City Hall, 
New York ; Thomas Jef- 
ferson (1821), Military 
Academy, West Point; 
George Frederick Cooke 
as Richard III., Pennsyl- 
vania Academy ; Queen 
Victoria (1838), St. George 
Society, Philadelphia; 
Charles Kemble, Frances 
Ann Kemble, Rembrandt 
Peale, Mrs. Joseph Harri- 
son, ib.; Lafayette, Inde- 
pendence Hall ; Reverdy 
Johnson ; Charles Car- 
roll ; Dr. Benjamin Rush ; 
Washington crossing the Delaware, Boston 
Museum ; Girl offering Flowers at a Shrine, 
Woman at the Well, Mrs. M. O. Roberts, 
New York ; Isabella, Child and Dog, Mrs. 
Joseph Harrison, Philadelphia. Duulap, ii. 
101; Tuckerman, 158 ; Appleton's Journal 
(1872), viii. 693 ; Hours at Home, x. 69. 

SUMMER, Nicolas Poussin. See Ruth 
and Boaz. 

SUMMER STORM, Titian, Buckingham 
Palace ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 9A in. x 3 ft. 1 in. 
An August squall on the borders of the 

Alpine country near Cadore. Painted in 
1534. Probably the best of Titian's land- 
scapes extant C. & C., Titian, i. 396 ; Gil- 
bert, Cadore, 37. 

Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Rome ; fresco 
on ceiling. 

SUONATORE. See Violinist. 

SUPPER AT EMMAUS, (Luke xxiv. 30, 
31). Michelangelo da Caramygio, National 
Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 7 in. x 
G ft. 5 in. Painted for Cardinal Scipio 
Borghese ; from Palazzo Borghese came 
into possession of Lord Vernon, who pre- 
sented it in 1839 to National Gallery. En- 
graved by A. Testa ; B. Vaillant ; G. Gio- 
vane. Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., i. 615, 621. 

By Carpaccio, S. Salvatore, Venice ; can- 

Supper at Emmaus, Titian, Louvre, Paris. 

vas, figures life-size. Christ seated at table, 
with a disciple wearing a turban at his left, 
another at his right ; at each end of table a 
pilgrim. Painted about 1510. Commonly 
attributed to Giovanni Bellini, but one of 
the finest and most characteristic of Carpac- 
cio's works. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 208. 

By Moretto, Tosi Collection, Brescia ; can- 
vas, life-size. Christ behind the table, in a 
gray hat which overshadows his brow, is 
breaking the bread, while an apostle at 
right gazes intently at him ; a second apos- 


tie sitting by ; at the left, the host descends ! hand, and a youth, with a plate of meat, 

a flight of steps, and at the right, a girl in 
fanciful cap and bodice carries a dish; a 
dog under the table. Painted about 1540. 
C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 406. 

By Rembrandt, Louvre; wood, H. 2 ft. 3 in. 
x 2 ft. 2 in. ; signed, dated 1G48. Christ seat- 
ed behind a table in front of a niche between 
two pilasters ; at left is seated one of the 
disciples, seen from behind, and at right 
another, side view ; behind the latter a 
servant bearing a plate. Sale of Collection 

are waiting upon them. Formerly in Esco- 
rinl. Engraved by Van Somplin (1G43) ; in 
reverse by Swanenburg and C. Van Tienen ; 
with changes, A. Lonimeliu. Smith, ii. 131 ; 
ix. 294. 

By Titian, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 
(5 in. X 8 f t. ; signed. Christ seated with 
Luke behind a table in a marble court, with 
Cleopas at the right ; at the left a page with 
a tureen, and behind, a servant with sleeves 
rolled up ; under the table a dog growling 

Supper at Emmaus, Paolo Veronese, Louvre, Pans. 

of Burgomaster W. Six (1734), 170 florins ; 
M. Randon de Boisset sale (1777) to Louis 
XVI., for 10,500 livres. Engraved by Baron 
Denon ; De Frey in Musee franais. Sim- 
ilar subject (1648), Christiansborg Museum. 
Cat. Louvre ; Filhol, viii. PI. 507 ; East- 
lake, Louvre, 183 ; Smith, vii. 44 ; Vosmaer, 
214, 476. 

By Rubens, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. 8 in. x 5 ft. 1 in. The Saviour seated 
at further side of a table, with one disciple 
seen in profile, the other with back to spec- 
tator ; an old woman, with a glass in her 

at a cat. According to tradition Luke is 
Charles V., Cleopas Cardinal Ximenes, and 
the page Philip II. Painted in 1547 ; went 
from Gonzaga Collection, Mantua, into Col- 
lection of Charles I. ; thence to Jabach, who 
sold it to Louis XIV. The original picture, 
of which this is a replica, was presented in 
[ 1547 by Alessandro Contarini to the Signo- 
ria of Venice, and was in existence at end 
of last century. Copies of Louvre canvas 
in Turin and Dresden Galleries. Engraved 
by F. Chauveau (1656) ; Masson. C. & C., 
Titian, ii. 152 ; Zanetti, Pitt. Ven., 165 ; 



Landon, Musee, iii. PI. v.; Mtindler, 208; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole venitienne. 

By Velasquez, Earl of Breadalbane, Perth- 
shire, Scotland ; canvas, H. 4 f t. x 5 ft. 2 
in. Christ seated with two disciples at a ta- 
ble. From King Louis Philippe sale ; pur- 
chased from a canon at Seville for 235. 
Curtis, 7. 

By Paolo Veronese, Dresden Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft, 11 in. x 5 ft. 11 in. From 
Modena Gallery. Restored by Palmaroli. 

By Paolo Veronese, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, 
H. 9 ft. 6 in. x 14 ft. 8 in.; signed. Christ, 
seated between the two disciples behind a ta- 
ble spread in a vestibule adorned with col- 
umns, raises his eyes to heaven and blesses 
the bread ; behind are three domestics bear- 
ing dishes. The painter is said to have rep- 
resented himself and part of his family in 
this picture ; but it is undecided whether he 
is the figure at the extreme left or extreme 
right ; his wife stands at the left, with an 
infant in her arms, and two other of his 
children are near her ; in front, two children 
play with a large dog. From collection of 
Louis XIV. Engraved by Thomassin. 
Cab. Crozat, ii. PL 15 ; Landon, Musue, xiii. 
PI. 17 ; Felibien, i. 730 ; Sauval, Antiquites 
de Paris, ii. 169. 

By Paolo Veronese, Stafford House, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 7 in. Christ, 
seated at table between the two disciples, 
blesses the bread ; a woman and two men 
behind ; in front, a cat and a child play 
with a dog. From Orleans Gallery ; 200. 
Stafford Gal., ii. PL 21 ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures, ii. 60, 498. 

SUPPER, LAST. See Last Supper. 

Vasari. See Gregory. 

By Paolo Veronese, Convent of Monte Be- 
rico, Vicenza ; canvas, H. about 18 ft. x 28 
ft. ; dated 1572. Wantonly mutilated by 
Austrian soldiers, who hacked it to pieces 
with their swords while occupying the con- 
vent after the bombardment of Vicenza in 
1848. The fragments were afterwards put 
together and the picture restored by Profes- 

sor Tagliapietra, of Venice. Guida di Vi- 
cenza, 112 ; Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 35. 

SUS, GUSTAV, born at Rumbeck near 
Rinteln on the Weser, June 10, 1823, died 
in Dilsseldorf, Dec. 24, 1881. Genre and 
animal painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy under Karl Sohn in 1850-51. Was 
also an illustrator and writer. Works : 
First Thought; Two Mothers; Duck Per- 
secution ; Cock Fight ; Domestic Joy and 
Sorrow ; Evening Song (Chickens and Pig- 
eons), Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Three 
Philosophers ; Great Event ; Stable Tragedy 
(1882). Kunst-Chronik. xvii. 224 ; Mtlller, 
512 ; Wolfg. Muller, Diisseldf. K., 370 ; H- 
lustr. Zeitg. (1883), i. 448 ; ii. 168. 

SUSANNA, Lodovico Carracci, National 
Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 8 in. x 3 

Susanna, Lodovico Canacci. National Gallery, London. 

ft, 7 in. Scene from apocryphal Book of 
Susanna. Susanna, surprised by the two 
elders while preparing to bathe in the gar- 
den of Joachim at Babylon, crouches to hide 
her person, while they attempt to remove her 
drapery. Formerly in Orleans Gallery ; then 
in Angerstein Collection, whence purchased 
in 1824. Rosiui, vi. 20 ; Reveil, vi. 3G8. 



By Domenichino, Munich Gallery ; Susan- 
na, seated on a step of the bath, which is 
surrounded by a marble balustrade, is sur- 
prised by the two old men. Fountain in 
middle of bath, and behind it a splendid 
palace in a grove. One of the painter's best 
pictures for composition, drawing, and ex- 
pression. Figures life-size. Copy, with va- 
riations, Devon House, England. Waagen, 
ii. 91. 

By Anton van Dyck, Munich Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 6 in. Susanna, 
nude, seated near a fountain surmounted 
by a statue of Cupid, en- 
deavours to shroud herself 
with crimson drapery ; be- 
hind, the two elders, one 
pulling her drapery, the 
other touching her shoulder 
with his hand. Engraved 
by Ch. de Muchel ; litho- 
graphed by S. Braun. 
Smith, iii. 22 ; Guiffrey, 
243 ; Eastlake, Notes, 65. 

By Luca GiQrdano, Dres- 
den Gallery ; canvas ; 5 ft. 
11 in. x 8 ft. 5 in. ; signed. 
Susanna, nude, sitting on a 
bench near a fountain, en- 
deavours to cover herself 
upon the approach of the 
old men. Engraved by J. F. Beauvarlet. 
Gal. roy. de Dresde, ii. PL 38. 

By Guido Reni, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft. 11 in. Bought 
in 1845 from Penrice Collection ; formerly 
in Palazzo Lancellotti, Rome. Engraved by 
Corn. Visscher and by P. Beljambe for the 
Galerie du Palais Royal. Waagen, Treas- 
ures, i. 338. 

By Rembrandt, Hague Museum ; wood, 
H. 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. ; signed, dated 
1637. Susanna, nude, about to enter a 
stream, is alarmed at the sound of some one 
approaching, and endeavours to cover her 
loins with some drapery ; behind, in bushes, 
the face of one of the elders. Collection of 
Prince of Orange-Nassau in 1770. A similar 

subject, engraved by Earlom, formerly be- 
longed to Sir Joshua Reynolds. Smith, vii. 
16 ; Vosmaer, 421. 

By Rembrandt, Youssoupoff Collection, St. 
Petersburg; signed, dated 1633. Susanna 
surprised at the bath by the old men. 
Waagen, Russia, 414 ; Vosmaer, 34, 430. 

By Rubens, Munich Gallery ; wood, H. 2 
ft. 5 in. x 3 ft. 4^ in. Susanna, with her 
back to the elders, is covering her bosom 
with her hands ; one of the old men is re- 
moving her covering and the other is extend- 
ing his hand to touch her back. Engraved 

Susanna, Tintoretto, Louvre, Paris. 

by Pontius ; Vosterman ; Michel Lasne ; 
Jegher ; Spruyt ; Simon. Sketch in Louvre. 
Repetition, by a scholar, in Berlin Museum. 
Smith, ii. 73, 105. 

By Jean Baptiste Santerre, Louvre, Paris ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 9 in. Susanna, 
nude, near the bath, with one foot in the 
water ; in background, the old men behind 
a wall. Painted in 1704. Engraved by 
Gandolfi ; Porforati. Villot, Cat. Louvre ; 
Filhol, viii. PI. 555 ; Musce royal. 

By Tintoretto, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 
5 ft. 6 in. x 7 ft. 10 in. Susanna, seated near 
a basin under trees, with one attendant cut- 
ting the nails of her feet, another combing 
her hair ; in background, the two elders sit- 
ting at a table ; frogs, ducks, and other ani- 



mals in grass and on the water. From col- 
lection of Louis XIV. Landon, Musue, xiii. 
PI. 56 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Tintoretto, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 1 in. Susanna coming 
out of the bath is watched by the two elders 
hidden in the garden. Similar picture in 
Madrid Museum. Engraved by J. Miinsel. 

By Paolo Veronese, Dresden Gallery ; can- 
vas, 4 ft. 2 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. Acquired in 
1742 from Carignau Collection, Paris, for 
4,500 livres. 

By Paolo Veronese, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, 
6 ft. C in. square. Susanna, seated near the 
bath, envelops herself in her garments upon 
the approach of the old men ; at her feet a 
little dog. Copy, without the dog, in col- 
lection of Duke of Devonshire. Formerly 
in Casa Bonaldi, Venice ; bought of Jabach 
by Louis XIV. Engraved by E. Smith. 
Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Paolo Veronese, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 5 ft. x 5 ft. 10 in. Susanna at the 

Susanna, Paolo Veronese, Madrid Museum. 

bath, in a garden with a marble palace in 
background, hastens to cover herself with a 
brocaded cloth at the approach of the old 
men. Collection of Philip IV. Cat. Madrid 
Museum ; Reveil, xiv. 979. 

Subject treated also by Guercino, Madrid 
Museum and Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; An- 
nibale Carracci, Munich Gallery ; Giovanni 
Biliverti, Florence Academy ; Spagnoletto, 

Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; Guido Cagnacci, 
Count de Briihl ; Domenico Robusti, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Bernardo Strozzi, Palazzo Spi- 
nola, Genoa ; Sir Peter Lely, Burleigh 
House, England ; Murillo, Madrazo Collec- 
tion, Madrid ; Albrecht Altdorfer (1526), 
Maurice Chapel, Nuremberg ; Willem van 
Mieris, Brussels Museum ; Pieter de Stru- 
del, Dresden Museum ; Noel Coypel, Mad- 
rid Museum ; Autoine Coypel, Louvre, 
Paris ; Theodore Chasseriau (Salon, 1839) ; 
Alexandre Longuet (Salon, 1841) ; Philippe 
Auguste Jeanron (Salon, 1852) ; Jean 
Jacques Henner (Salon, 1865) ; Frederick 
Goodall (Royal Academy, 1886). 


SUTTEE, JOSEF, born at Linz, Upper 
Austria, in 1782, died after 1843. History 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
Fiiger, but became a strong adherent of 
Overbeck, whom he followed to Rome, and 
thence went to Munich about 1818 ; assisted 
Cornelius in the Glyptothek and Pinakothek, 
and Heinrich Hess in the Basilica. Visited 
Rome again before 1825 and was back in 
Munich before 1835. Works : Death of Mat- 
tathias (1809) ; The Three Divine Virtues 
(1816) ; Emperor Albrecht's Dog ; St. Luke 
(1818) ; Herodias with the Head of St. John 
(1825), Hagar in the Desert (1836), Stift 
Kremsmiinster, Upper Austria. His son 
and pupil Daniel, born in Vienna in 1810, 
became also a history painter, went with 
him to Munich, where he continued his 
studies at the Academy under Heinrich Hess, 
and assisted his father in the Basilica. 
Wurzbach, xli. 5. 

(Joost), born in Antwerp, baptized Sept. 28, 
1597, died in Florence, April 23, 1681. 
Flemish school ; portrait painter, pupil of 
Willem de Vos, then in Paris of Frans Pour- 
bus, the younger, where he spent three 
years before going to Italy. At Florence 
he was patronized by the Grand Dukes Co- 
simo H. and HI. and Ferdinand II. At Vi- 
enna (1623-24) he was warmly received by 



the emperor, whose portrait he painted, as 
also portraits of members of his family. 
Called to Home in 1C27, he painted Pope 
Urban VEL ; was in the emperor's service 
at Innsbruck in 1652-53, and returned to 
Florence in 1653. Friend of Rubens and 
Van Dyck. Works : Portraits of Vittoria 
della Rovere, Ferdinand II. de' Medici, Ele- 
onora Gonzaga (1620), Christian V. of Den- 
mark as Crown Prince, Emperor Ferdinand 
II., Prince Mattias de' Medici, Margherita 
de' Medici, Grand Duke Cosimo in. as a 
Child, Pandolfo Ricasoli, Artist's own Por- 
trait, Grand Ducal Family as Holy Family, 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Penitent Magdalen, 
St. Margaret, War and Peace (1638), The 
Florentine Senate swearing Allegiance, Male 
Portrait in Swiss Costume, Portraits of Gali- 
leo (1636), of Puliciani, of Claudia de' Med- 
ici, Uffizi, ib. ; Portrait of Vittoria della 
Rovere, Turin Gallery ; Archduchess Clau- 
dia, Vienna Museum ; Portrait of Young 
Lady, Berlin Museum ; Portrait of Galileo, 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; do., Lord 
Methuen, Corsham Court, England ; Portrait 
of Alessandro Farnesc, Royal Institute, Edin- 
burgh. His brother Jan was his pupil, and 
accompanied him to Vienna, where he set- 
tled and was patronized by the emperor. 
Work : Portrait of a Matron, Vienna Mu- 
seum. Another brother, Cornells, was al- 
so in the emperor's service. Baldinucci, 
Opere, xii. 13 ; Fetis, Les Artistes beiges, 
i. 257 ; Kramm, v. 1588 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 300 ; Michiels, ix. 25 ; Rooses (Reber), 
375 ; Van den Branden, 960. 

Bruges, Jan. 3, 1743, died in Rome, Feb. 9, 
1807. Flemish school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Matthias de Visch, then in 
Paris at the old St. Luke's corporation and 
at the Academy under Bachelier ; won the 
2d grand prix de Rome in 1768, and the 1st 
in 1771 in competition with David, and stud- 
ied in Rome (1772-78) under Vien ; after 
his return to Paris he was made member of 
the Academy in 1780, adjunct professor in 
1781, professor and director of the French 

Academy in Rome in 1792, but being im- 
prisoned during the revolutionary disturb- 
ances did not enter upon this position until 
1801. Works : Death of Admiral Coligny 
(1787), Louvre ; St. Francis de Sales, Ver- 
sailles Gallery ; Tancred wounded recog- 
nizes Clorinda, Amiens Museum ; Portrait 
of M. Trouard, Besanyon Museum ; Tancred 
rescued by Clorinda, Nantes Museum ; In- 
vention of Drawing (1798), Artist's Portrait, 
two other portraits, Bruges Academy ; Mi- 
nerva among Rus- 
tics (1776), Ghent 7X3 
Museum; Vestal J L>' 
making Fire de- 
scend from Heav- 
en ; Birth of the 
Virgin ; Mother of 
the Gracchi. His 
wife (nee Charlotte 
Louise Rameau) painted figures and min- 
iatures. Immerzeel, iii. 122 ; Michiels, x. 
538 ; Weale, Cat. Bruges Acad., 89 ; Bellier, 
ii. 534 ; Jal, 1159. 

SUYDAM, JAMES A., born in New York 
in 1817, died at North Conway, N. H., Sept. 
15, 1865. Landscape painter, studied under 
Minor C. Kellogg, with whom he travelled 
through Greece and Turkey ; on returning 
to America worked in the studios of Durand 
and Kensett. Elected N.A. in 1856. He 
was instrumental in building the present 
Academy in New York, and was its treas- 
urer until his death. He bequeathed to it 
the pictures known as the Suydam Collec- 
tion. Works : View on Long Island, Will- 
iam A. Reese ; Hook Mountain on the Hud- 
son, S. Clift ; New London Lighthouse 
Twilight, Olyphant Collection. Tucker- 
man, 540. 

SVOBODA, EDUARD, born in Vienna, 
Nov. 14, 1814. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Vienna Academy and of Friedrich 
Schilcher ; in great demand as a portrait 
painter in Vienna ; has decorated in fresco 
several churches in Bohemia and Hungary. 
Works : Va banque, Vienna Museum ; Dis- 
tribution of Wood (1845) ; Protest (1847) ; 



Family Festival (1862) ; Disagreeable Visit 
(1867); Distribution of Prizes (1872). 
Wurzbach, xli. 61. 

SVOBODA, KARL, born at Planic, Bo- 
hemia, in 1823, died in Vienna, Sept. 12, 
1870. History painter, pupil of Prague 
Academy under Euben ; visited Croatia and 
Slavonia to study the life of the southern 
Slavs, and settled in Vienna in 1851. Works : 
Henry IV. at Canossa (1845) ; Wenceslaus 
H, Coronation of Albrecht II., Joseph II. 
in Prague, Death of King Wenceslaus the 
Saint, Belvedere, Prague ; Foundation of 
Prague University (1855); Retreat of Charles 
V. (1859), Vienna Museum ; Conquered Mil- 
anese before Barbarossa (1863) ; Cycle (10) 
from Iphigenia in Tauris (1869), Loggia, 
Opera House, Vienna. Wurzbach, xli. 67. 

born in Leydeu, died in Utrecht in 1639. 
Dutch school ; history painter, studied in 
Rome and lived in Naples ; notable as the 
first teacher of Rembrandt. Work : Pro- 
cession in St. Peter's Square (1C28), Copen- 
hagen Gallery. Kramm, v. 1592 ; Vosmaer, 
Rembrandt, ses precurseurs, 50 ; do., Rem- 
brandt, sa vie, etc., 379. 

SWANEVELT, HERMAN, born at Woer- 
den, near Utrecht, about 1600, died in Paris 
(?) in 1655. Dutch school ; landscape paint- 
er, went early to Paris and thence to Rome, 
where he studied under Claude Lorrain. 
In 1653 made member of the Royal Acad- 
emy ; in 1654, with Patel, decorated a room 
in the Hotel Lambert at Paris. Works : 
Three Landscapes, Hampton Court ; do., 
Madrid Museum ; Wooded Landscape, Sun- 
set, three others, Louvre ; Italian Landscape 
(1650), Hague Museum ; do., and Wooded 

Landscape with St. Anthony (1653), Stiidel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; three do., Brunswick 

Gallery ; Joseph relating his Dream, Basle 
Museum ; others in Munich, Dresden, Ham- 
burg, and Copenhagen Galleries. Kramm, 
v. 1593 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 490 ; Ch. Blanc, 
35cole hollandaise ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 360. 
SWART, JAN, born at Groningen in 
1469, died at Gouda in 1535. 
Dutch school; history and 
landscape painter ; formed 
himself after Scorel, and in 
Italy, where he lived, espe- 
cially at Venice. Works: 
Adoration of the Magi (at- 
tributed), Munich Gallery ; 
do., Cologne Museum ; do., 
Brussels Museum. Kramm, v. 1594 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, ii. 43. 

born in Paris, Aug. 21, 1800, died at Ver- 
sailles, March 2, 1870. History and genre 
painter, son and pupil of Jacques Franois 
Joseph Swebach, and student of the cole 
des Beaux Arts. Accompanied his father 
to Russia. Works : Hunting Scene, Cher- 
bourg Museum ; Capture of a Spy by Hus- 
sars, Besan9on Museum ; Horse Market at 
Moscow, Winter Travel in Russia (1822) ; 
Summer Travel in Russia (1823) ; Retreat 
from Russia (1838). Bellier, ii. 537. 

JOSEPH, called Fontaine, born at Metz, 
March 19, 1769, died in Paris, Dec. 10, 
1823. History and genre painter, pupil of 
J. Silfrede-Duplessis. Usually painted bat- 
tle scenes and landscapes with figures. In 
1810 he was appointed chief painter at 
Sevres ; in 1815-20 held same position in 
porcelain manufactory in St. Petersburg. 
Crowned at the Exhibition of the Place 
Dauphine in 1784 ; 2d prize in 1791 ; grand 

medal, 1801, 1810. Works : Battle of Ma- 
rengo, Battle of Zurich (1802) ; Napoleon 



crossing the Danube (1810), Horse Races, 
Cherbourg Museum ; Shipwreck, Travellers 
Resting, Pozzo di Borgo Gallery ; Stag 
Hunt (1822), Marseilles Museum ; Caval- 
cade, Montpellier Museum. Biog. univer- 
selle ; Bellier, ii. 536. 

SWERTS, JAN, born in Antwerp, Dec. 
25, 1825, died at Marienbad, Bohemia, Aug. 
11, 1879. History painter, pupil of Ant- 
werp Academy under N. de Keyser, and 
intimately allied with Guffens in raising 
Belgian art to its high standard ; became 
director of the Prague Academy in 1874. 
Honorary member of Munich and Dres- 
den Academies, and of German Art Union 
in 1859 ; of Amsterdam Academy, 1861 ; 
corresponding member of the Institut de 
France, 1873. Gold medal, Brussels, 1854 ; 
Order of Leopold, 1855; Officer, 1869; 
Prussian Order of the Red Eagle and Ba- 
den Order of Zilhringer Lion, 1860 ; Dutch 
Order of Oaken Crown, 1861 ; Weimar 
Order of White Falcon, 1865 ; Papal Order 
of Gregory, 1871. Works : Baptism of 
Clovis ; Delivery of Keys to St. Peter ; Van 
Schoonbeck and his Contemporaries ; The 
Labourers (from Lamartine's "Jocelyn"); 
Festival Day ; Italian Woman with her 
Children ; Arrival of Venetian Embassy at 
Antwerp. In fresco : Seven Sorrows of the 
Virgin (1855-70), Notre Dame at St. Niko- 
laes, near Antwerp; Scenes from Life of 
Christ (1859-71), St. George's, Antwerp ; 
Episodes in History of Flanders (1861-6'J), 
Town Hall, Ypres ; Scenes from Local His- 
tory (1873-75), Town Hall, Courtray ; Dec- 
oration of St. Ann's Chapel in St. Vitus' 
Cathedral, Prague (1878). Chronique des 
Arts (1879), 240 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1868), 
xxv. 74 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1872), i. 227 ; Jour- 
nal des B. Arts (1878), 188 ; Riegel, Wand- 
malerei in Belgien, 3, 10-14, 42, 46-62, 105, 
247 ; Vlaamsche school (1879), 149 ; Wurz- 
bach, xli. 25. 

St. Petersburg in 1818. Genre and animal 
painter of distinction, self-taught in Paris, 
and travelling in Germany and the Nether- 

lands ; paints especially horses in a masterly 
manner. Gold medal, Weimar ; Bavarian 
Order of St Michael, Hessian Order of 
Philip the Magnanimous ; L. of Honour, 
1863. Professor at St Petersburg Acad- 
emy. Works: Czar Alexis Michailovich 
reviewing his Troops ; Kibitka (Russian 
vehicle) in the Snow ; Village Wedding ; 
Horse Market in Russia, Station for Post- 
Horses, Return from Bear Hunt (1863) ; 
Sleigh pursued by Wolves, Russian Travel- 
lers meeting in the Woods (1864). Mailer, 

SWORD, JAMES BRADE, born in Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., Oct. 11, 183'.). Landscape 
painter, pupil of Christian Schussele, after- 
wards of William T. Richards and of Asher 

B. Durand. Studio in Philadelphia. First 
exhibited in National Academy, New York, 
in 1863. Works: Trenton Falls (Centennial 
Exhibition, 1876), James Huglehurst, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y.; Peep into Lake George, James 

C. Beach, New York ; Silver Thread Falls, 
Mr. Morris, Bloom field, N. J.; The Fort 
Cove, James S. Whelen, Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
Shores of Rhode Island, Edward Long- 
streth, ib.; Something in the Wind, Duck 
Shooting, C. E. Longley, Providence, R. I.; 
Newport Harbour (New Orleans Exhibition, 
1885) ; In Full Cry, A Cool Spot (1886) ; 
Shores of Conanicut (1887). 

SYBRECHTS. See (Wx-rechts. 

Beziers (Hcrault). 
June 24, 1847. 
History, genre, 
and portrait 
painter, pupil of 
Cabauel. Took 3d 
prix de Rome, 
1869. Medals: 
2d class, 1875 ; 
1st class, 1876 ; 
Prize of the Salon, 1876. Works : Shepherds 
Playing (1873) ; Death of Seneca (1875) ; 
Locusta and Nero (1876), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Last Moments of Vitellius Caesar 
(1878) ; Long, Long Ago (1879) ; Ducar the 



Gaul beheads Flaminius at Thrasymene I background, young men armed with bows ; 
(1882); Trencavel (1884) ; Christ (1886). ' - 1 ^ * J ~ "--* 

Bellier, ii. 537 ; Larousse, Supplement. 

SYMPATHY, Briton Riviere, Holloway 
Institute, Egham, near London ; canvas, H. 
3 ft. 11 in. x 3 ft. 2 in. A little girl with a 
sad face, seated on the stairs, with a dog 
beside her, rubbing his face against hers in 
sympathy. Royal Academy, 1878 ; bought 
by Thomas Taylor, "Wigan, for 800 guineas ; 
Taylor sale (1883), 2,725. 

Dominique Ingres, Cathedral of Autun. The 
martyrdom at Augustodunum of a young 

with a little book 


Paris : 

Syndics of the Arquebusiers, Bartholomew van der Heist, Amsterdam Museum. 

Gaul who had refused to adore the old 
gods and whom the edict of Diocletian con- 
demned to death. Salon, 1834. Studies : 
Isaac Pereire, and Messrs. Haro, Stilrler, 
and Gatteaux. Ch. Blanc, Life, 101. 

Bartholomew van der Heist, Amsterdam 
Museum ; canvas, H. 5 ft, 9 in. x 8 ft. 8 in. ; 
signed, dated 1G57. The four syndics of 
the archery guild of St. Sebastian of Am- 
sterdam, dressed in black, are seated round 
a table covered with a rich cloth. Three of 
them hold prizes ; the fourth addresses his 
colleagues. In middle distance, a woman 
bearing a silver-mounted drinking-horn ; in 

at left, foreground, a hunting-dog. Study 
(1 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 2 in., dated 1653), Louvre, 
Paris. Engraved by Hulmer. Reveil, xii. 
808 ; Filhol. 

Rembrandt, Amsterdam Museum ; canvas, 
H. 6 ft. x 9 ft.; signed, dated 1661. Five 
syndics of the Staalhof (Cloth Hall) of Am- 
sterdam, dressed in black, gathered around 
a table, with their servant waiting upon 
them ; four are seated and one is standing 
in his hand. Taken to 
in 1815. Engraved by 
J. W. Kaiser. 
Etched by De Frey ; Un- 
ger (1876). Lithographed 
by Zimmerman. Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 369 ; Cat. Am- 
sterdam Mus.; Mollett, 
Rembrandt, 72 ; Vosmaer, 
309, 495 ; Smith, vii. 61 ; 
Mag. of Art (1886), ix. 257. 
AS, BERTALAN, born at 
Klausenburg, Transylva- 
nia, in 1835. History 
painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Ftihrich, 
Rahl, and Waldm tiller, lat- 
er in Munich of Piloty, 
and studied in Brussels, 
Antwerp, and Paris. Or- 
der of Francis Joseph, 18G7. Works : Flight 
of Charles VH., National Museum, Munich ; 
Doboczy killing his Wife, Ladislaus V. and 
his Tutor, Pesth Museum ; Finding of Body 
of Louis H. of Hungary (1860) ; Battle of 
Mohiics (1866) ; Portrait of Francis Deak ; 
Women of Erlau defending City against the 
Turks (1867) ; The Orphan, Leda, The Nun 
(1871) ; Storm, The Widow (1872) ; Flight 
of Emmerich Tokoly, Rendezvous, Sisters 
of Charity at Sick-Bed (1873) ; The Dancer, 
Zriny at Szigetvar (National Exhibition, 
Buda-Pesth, 1885). Wurzbach, xlii. 16 ; 
Allgem. K Chr., ix. 623. 



POLD), born in Paris in 1818, died 
at Argenteuil, March 29, 1869. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Delaroche. Medal, 
1867. Works: Niobe and her Children 
(1842) ; Good Samaritan (1847) ; Bacchus 
and Ariadne (1848), M. Goury, Belleville ; 
St. Sebastian (1851) ; Phryne before the 
Areopagus (1852) ; Punishment of Queen 
Brunhilde (1853), Rouen Museum ; Epi- 
sode of Campaign in Egypt (1855), Bor- 
deaux Museum ; Campaign in the Crimea, 
Horde of Barbarians (1857) ; War in the 
Crimea (1859), Ministry of State ; Attila 
massacring his Prisoners (1861), belonged 
to Napoleon HL; Fete of Heliogabalus 
(1863) ; Joshua commanding the Sun (1863), 
Ministry of State ; Convoy of Wounded 
(1864), Saumur Museum ; Hyperides de- 
fending Phryne (1865); Solferino (1866); 
March from Saragossa (1867) ; Burning of 
Scutari (1868). Bellier, ii. 537. 

TABOR, MOUNT, Claude Lorrain, Gros- 
venor House, London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 6 
in. x8 ft. 5 in.; signed, dated 1656. Called 
by Waagen, Sermon on the Mount. Liber 
Veritatis, No. 138. Sketch, Duke of Devon- 
shire. Engraving in Grosvenor Gallery. 
Companion to Golden Calf. Painted for 
Signer Monpiore ; bought of W. E. Agar in 
1806. Pattison, Claude Lorrain, 218, 235 ; 
Waagen, Treasures, ii. 171 ; Smith, viii. 266. 

(1464-90). Lombard school. He and his 
brother Filippo described in a decree of 
1464 as famous painters of Cremona, wor- 
thy of praise for their success in painting 
the loggia of the public palace. A Ma- 
donna by Francesco, dated 1489, National 
Gallery, London, shows a tendency to imi- 
tation of the Vivarini ; but in his pictures 
on the shutters of the organ of S. Marco, 
Venice (1490), now in the lumber room, the 
style is feeble Squarcionesque. C. & C., 
N. Italy, ii. 439 ; Siret, 901 ; Burckhardt, 

TACKE, LUDWIG, born at Brunswick, 
Dec. 6, 1823. Architecture painter, pupil 

of Dilsseldorf Academy (1849-51), and in 
Munich of Piloty. Works : Gothic Arcades 
of City Hall in Brunswick, Halberstadt 
Cathedral (1850) ; Interior of Cologne Ca- 
thedral (1851), Bamberg Gallery; The 
Entrance Hall of a Westphalian Peasant 
House (1851), Darmstadt Museum ; Mediae- 
val Council Chamber, Provinzial Museum, 
Hanover ; Mediieval Council Room (1854) ; 
Council Meeting in Thirty Years' War 
(1856) ; Faust in his Study (1863) ; Choir 
of Roman Church near Brunswick (1867) ; 
The Imperial Councillors thrown from the 
Window in Prague in 1618 (1869), Kiinigs- 
berg Museum ; Nuremberg in Diirer's Time. 
Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 865. 

TADEMA, ALMA. See ^ma-Tadema. 

TAFI, ANDREA, of Florence, born in 
1213 (?), died in 1294 (?). According to 
Vasari's doubtful account, he went to Venice 
and induced one Apollonius, a Greek, to re- 
turn with him to Florence to teach him the 
art of mosaic. The Baptistery there was 
adorned by them in common, one figure 
alone, the colossal Saviour in the cupola, 
being the unaided work of Tafi. It shows 
that he was a feeble artist, who combined 
the defects of the Italo-Byzantine school of 
the period. C. & C., Italy, i. 195 ; Meyer, 
Kiinst-Lex., i. 690 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., i. 
281 ; Burckhardt, 488. 

TAGPRET, PETER, flourished at Ra- 
vensburg, Wilrtemberg, about 1489. Ger- 
man school ; history painter in the manner 
of Zeitblom ; several of his works are in all 
probability attributed to other masters. 
Works: St. John the Evangelist, Nicode- 
mus and a Bishop, Pope Gregory the Great, 
Joseph of Arimathea and Mary Magda- 
len, Stuttgart Museum. Nagler, xviii. 88 ; 
Schnaase, viii. 460. 

at Blaye (Giroude) in 1746, died in Paris, 
Nov. 11, 1809. History painter, pupil of 
Vien ; won third grand prize for painting 
in 1769 ; went to Rome in 1773 and re- 
mained there four years. Member of Acad- 
emy, 1784. Works : Birth of Louis XHI. 



(1782) ; Ulysses and Neoptolemus (1784), 
Louvre, Paris ; Virgil reading the J3neid to 
Augustus, M. Dufresnoy ; Sabinus and Epo- 
nina discovered by Soldiers of Vespasian 
(1787); Cleopatra (1791); Sappho, Nero 
saves the Wife of Seneca (1793), Nantes 
Museum ; Leander and Hero (1798) ; Olym- 
pias (1799) ; Andromache (1800) ; Rhada- 
mistus and Zenobia (180G). He was the 
author of several works on art. Bellier, ii. 

at Livesey Hall, near Liverpool, Aug. 5, 
1819. Landscape and animal painter, pupil 
of Royal Institution, Manchester, but chiefly 
self-taught. Went to New York in 1850, 
and was elected N.A. in 1858 ; visited Eu- 
rope in 1874. Studio in New York City. 
Works : Duck and her Young (1868) ; Gor- 
don Setter, Charles Stewart Smith, New 
York ; Snowed In, Judge Hilton, ib. ; Halt 
on the Carry (1871) ; Racquette Lake (1873); 
There's a Good Time Coming (1878) ; 
Thoroughbreds (1879) ; October Sport, A. 
E. Orr ; Intruder Motherly Protection 
(1880), G. D. Cochran ; Still-Hunting in the 
Adirondacks, Anxious Time Study from 
Nature (1881), C. R. Flint ; Good Hunt- 
ing Ground Adirondacks (1882); Tres- 
passers (1883) ; Ruffed Grouse at Home, 
Summer, Little Pets, Happy Family at 
Home Adirondacks, Maternal Affection 
Summer in the Adirondacks (1884) ; 
Our Pets, Pleasant Memories of the 
Adirondacks (1885) ; Woodcock Shooting 

TAIT, JOHN ROBINSON, born in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, Jan. 14, 1834. Landscape 
painter ; graduated at Bethany College, 
Virginia, in 1852, and spent the following 
three years in Europe, chiefly in Florence ; 
visited Europe a second time in 1859, and 
studied at Dtisseldorf under August Weber 
and Andreas Achenbach until 1871 ; made 
a third visit in 1873, and worked several 
years in the Bavarian Tyrol and in Munich 
under Adolf Lier and Hermann Baisch, 
under whom he studied cattle painting. 

He spent altogether fourteen years in Ger- 
many, during which his pictures were dis- 
posed of at the cyclical exhibitions. Medals : 
1871, 1872, Cincinnati Exhibition. Studio 
in Baltimore. Works : Waterfall in Pyre- 
nees, James Caird, Gourock House, Green- 
ock on the Clyde ; Meyringen, James Staats 
Forbes, Wickham Hall, Kent ; Waterfall, 
Prince Heinrich XVHI. of Reuss ; Lake of 
Wallenstadt, William Groesbeck, Cincin- 
nati ; Westphalian Landscape (figures by 
Ludwig Kuans), C. S. \Volff, Philadelphia ; 
A Mill (figures by Munkacsy), William H. 
Davis, Cincinnati ; Evening in Norway, 
George R. Vickers, Baltimore ; Evening on 
the Lake, Tyrolese Idyl, Summer (1876) ; 
Willowy Brook (1879); Cattle Resting, 
Watering Place (1880) ; After the Shower, 
Fisher Huts Sconsett (1882) ; Summer 
Afternoon Upper Potomac (1883). 

TAMAGNO. See Vincenzo da San Gimi- 

TAMAR, Alexander Cabanel, Luxembourg 
Museum ; canvas, H. 6 ft. X 8 ft. 1 in. Il- 
lustration of episode described in 2 Sam- 
uel xiii. Tamar, daughter of David, having 
been outraged by her brother Amnon, goes 
to her other brother Absalom and complains 
of the crime. Tamar, her hair dishevelled 
and her garments in disorder, is seated on 
a divan beside Absalom, across whose knees 
she has thrown herself in despair ; Absalom, 
who is dressed in a white tunic embroidered 
with gold, and a green and red turban, is 
raising his right hand in anger. A negress, 
standing with her head against the wall, ap- 
pears to partake of her mistress's shame and 
grief. Salon, 1875. Larousse, xv. 43. 

ert Leslie, South Kensington Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 1 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 4 in. Petruchio 
thrusts back the gown to the frightened 
tailor ; Katherine sits at left ; Hortensio in 
background. One of Leslie's best pictures. 
Royal Academy, 1832. Replica, Petworth. 

Dapper, born in Hamburg in 1658, died in 
Vienna in 1724. German school ; fruit and 



flower painter, pupil of Theodor van Soesten 
and Johann Pfeiffer. Studied in Borne un- 
der Mario Nuzzi, and when called to Vienna 
painted for the imperial court, in the style 
of Jan Weenix and Melchior Hondecoeter. 
Works : Flower-Piece, Flowers and Fruits 
(3), Dead Game and Dog (1706), Poultry 
and Rabbit, Huntsmen with Booty, Muse- 
um, Vienna ; Flower- and Fruit-Pieces (1715 
[3]), Dead Fowl (1706 [2]), Dead Game 
(1707, 1716 [2J, 1717), nine others, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, ib. ; Doves, Hen with 
Chickens, Dead Woodcock and other Birds, 
Pheasants and Dove, Dresden Gallery ; 
Turkish Duck attacked by Fox (1718), Dead 
Fowls (2), Turtle Doves Feeding, Fruit- 
Pieces (2, one dated 1712), Gotha Muse- 
um ; Fruit-Piece, Germanic Museum, Nu- 
remberg ; Dead Birds (2, 1705), two others, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Doves Billing (1724), 
Schwerin Gallery. Kugler (Crowe), ii. 533 ; 
Wurzbach, xliii. 37. 

sina, near Naples, in 1838. History painter, 
pupil of Mancinelli in Naples ; went in 1869 
to Florence, where he competed for the first 
historical prize. Order of Italian Crown. 
Works : Camoens with his Negro in Prison ; 
Buoso da Duero insulted by his Fellow- 
Citizens (1868), bought by the State ; Ad- 
miral Caracciolo hanged by Order of Nelson, 
King of Italy ; Ferdinand IV. of Naples re- 
turning from the Chase. Mailer, 515. 

Knille, National Gallery, Berlin ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. 10 in. X 9 ft. 3 in. ; signed, dated 
1873. Tannhiiuser, the minnesinger, hav- 
ing become sated with pleasure during his 
visit to the Venusberg, determines, notwith- 
standing the entreaties of Venus, to return 
to Lisaura, whose love he had won at Man- 
tua. He is represented as starting up from 
the flower-strewn couch in the crystal 
grotto, with one hand on his lyre and the 
other pressing his forehead, while Venus, 
rising nude from her draperies, endeavours 
to detain him by seizing his shoulder ; 
above, two cupids hold him by his mantle ; 

at left, one shoots an arrow at Tannhiiuser, 
while another gazes reproachfully, and in 
front a fifth has rolled off the couch ; in the 
background, all manner of enchanting splen- 

TARAVAL, HUGUES, born in Paris in 
1728, died there, Oct. 19, 1785. History 
painter, son and pupil of Thomas Raphael 
Taraval (portrait painter to King of Sweden, 
died at Stockholm in 1750). He won the 
1st prix de Rome in 1756 ; member of 
Academy, 1769 ; professor, 1785 ; sub-in- 
spector of the Gobelins. Works : Job re- 
proached by his Wife (1756), Marseilles 
Museum ; Venus and Adonis (1765), Comte 
de Kreutz ; Repast of Tantalus (1767), Cha- 
teau de Belle- Vue ; Triumph of Bacchus 
(1769), Gallery of Apollo, Louvre, Paris ; 
Marriage of St. Louis (1773), Chapel of 
Ecole Militaire ; Triumph of Amphitrite 
(1777), Louvre; Cumsean Sibyl (1781), 
Chapel of Fontainebleau ; Artist's Portrait, 
Stockholm Museum. Bellier, ii. 541. 

Cochin, born in Paris, Sept. 3, 1765, died 
there, April 3, 1830. History painter, son 
of Jacques Nicolas Tardieu (engraver, 1716- 
91), and pupil of J. B. Regnault. Won 
2d grand prix de Rome in 1790. Works : 
Tarquin and Lucretia (1793) ; Death of 
Correggio (1806) ; Napoleon receiving the 
Queen of Prussia at Tilsit (1808), Henry IV. 
before Paris, Halt of French Army at Syene 
in Egypt, Versailles Museum ; Allegory on 
Birth of Due de Bordeaux (1822), Rouen 
Museum ; Trophenius and Agameda, Be- 
sancon Museum ; Ulysses recognized by 
Euryclea, Marseilles Museum ; Susanna at 
the Bath, Havre Museum. Bellier, ii. 543. 

re tia. 

TASSAERT, JAN PETER, born at Ant- 
werp, March 7, 1651, died there, Sept. 29, 
1725. Flemish school ; history and genre 
painter, Master of the guild in 1690, dean 
in 1701. For the guild room of the dia- 
mond polishers he painted eight scenes 
from the lives of SS. Peter and PauL Li 



the Antwerp Museum is a capital genre 
scene: The Philosophers. Cat. du Mus. 
d'Anvers, 379 ; Van den Branclen, 1037. 
OCTAVE, born in 
Paris, July 26, 1800, 
died there, by sui- 
cide, April 22, 1874. 
History and portrait 
painter, pupil of 
Pierre Girard, Guil- 
lon Lethiere, and of 
the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts. Medals: 2d 
class, 1838; 1st 
class, 1849 ; 3d class, Exposition universelle, 
1855. Works : Death of Correggio (1834) ; 
Vicar of Wakefield (1835) ; Death of Heloise 
(1838) ; Diana at the Bath (1842) ; Christ 
in the Garden of Olives (1844) ; Erigone, 
Slave Merchant (184G) ; Temptation of St. 
Anthony (1849) ; Unhappy Family (1849), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Gardens of Armida 
(1850); Communion of Early Christians 
in Catacombs (1852), Bordeaux Museum ; 
Sleep of Jesus, Son of Louis XVI. in the 
Temple (1855) ; Magdalen, Pygmalion and 
Galatea (1857) ; Funeral of Dagobert in St. 
Denis (1838), Louis X., Portrait of Gaspard 
de Saulx, do. of Charles le Blanchefort, do. 
of Philippe de Comines, Versailles Muse- 
um ; Heaven and Hell (1850), Artist's Por- 
trait, Ariadne, Convalescent Mother, Young 
Woman with Glass of Wine, Painter's Studio, 
Suicide, Return of Prodigal Son, and others, 
Montpellier Museum. Alexandre Dumas 
lias forty-five of Tassaert's pictures anc 
sketches, and many others are owned in 
Paris. Clare tie, Peintres, etc. (1882), i. 25 
Bellier, ii. 544; Gaz. des B. Arts (1886) 
xxxiii. 28. 

TASSI, AGOSTINO, born in Perugia in 
1566, died in Rome in May, 1644. Roman 
school. Real name Buonamiei, but adoptee' 
that of the Marquis Tassi, whose page h< 
had been ; pupil of Paul Brill, under whose 
care he became an excellent landscape 
painter. He was a man of infamous char 

xcter, who paid the penalty of his crimes 
n the galleys at Leghorn ; when the part 
if his sentence condemning him to hard 
abour had been remitted, he soon made 
limself known throughout Italy as a paint- 

of marine views. After his liberation he 
was employed in painting frescos in the 
Quirinal and in the Palazzo de' Lancel- 
otti. Tassi was the master of Claude Lor- 
:ain. Lanzi, i. 484 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole om- 

sia, about 1813. Battle painter, son of a 
serf in the Borissov Government ; attracted 
;>y his sketches the attention of his mas- 
ter, who educated him, but was forced by 
lie successor in the estate into the army, 
where he served fifteen years ; in 1854 took 
part in the Crimean War ; drudged for his 
livelihood until 1870, when a tourist, who 
saw his sketch-book, induced him to paint 
some pictures for the Exposition in Moscow 
in 1873. These, which represented scenes 
in the Crimean War, brought him into prom- 
inence, and they were bought for 60,000 
rubles for the Winter Palace of St. Peters- 

ronne (Somme) ; contemporary. Genre and 
portrait painter, and engraver ; pupil of C. 
Crauck, Lepic, Jules Lefebvre, and Bou- 
langer. Medals : 2d class, Paris and Mu- 
nich, in 1883. Works : Herring Fishing, 
Coup d'epaule (1879) ; Return from Fish- 
ing (1880) ; Femme aux epaves, Artist's 
Portrait (1881) ; We are Lost, Landing the 
Herrings (1882) ; The Mourners at Etaples 
(1883) ; Convalescent (1884). 

Paris, Feb. 10, 1755, died there, March 20, 
1830. History and landscape painter, pupil 
of Brenet, Casanova, and Lepicie. Won 
grand prix de Rome in 1784, and spent 
three years there with the help of his 
patron, M. Angiviller. Won grand medal, 
and became member of Academy in 1796. 
Medal, 1803; L. of Honour; Order of 
Christ in Portugal. In 1816 he went with 



Lebreton and Montigny to found an Acad- 
emy of Art in Rio de Janeiro, and returned 
in 1824. Works : St. John Preaching, Mili- 
tary Hospital in Italy (1789), Peter the Her- 
mit preaching First Crusade, Taking a City 
(1800), Louvre, Paris ; Battle of Nazareth, 
Crossing the St. Bernard, Napoleon I. enter- 
ing Munich, Battle of Ebersburg, Halt on 
the Slope of the Alps, Bonaparte visiting 
the Battle Field of Lodi, Versailles Mu- 
seum ; Woman taken in Adultery, Grenoble 
Museum ; Ball Play, Village Fete, Shepherds 
Reposing, Montpellier Museum ; Shepherds 
competing for the Prize of Pan, Clorinda 
with the Herdsmen, The Lion of Androcles, 
Brother Philip's Geese, Proclamation of 
Henry of Burgundy as first King of Portu- 
gal (Lisbon and Rio ._ 
de Janeiro) ; Military ^CWhfiy t 
Camp, Hermitage, St. *~T *+ 
Petersburg. Many of \jC(JUUt/JCt^\J 
his works have been / 
engraved. Bellier, ii. 
546 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole 
franyaise ; Biog. uni- 
verselle ; Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Jal, 1176 ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 138. 

TAURISCUS, painter, date unknown. 
Pliny names (xxxv. 40 [144]) among his 
works a Discobolus, a Clytsemnestra, a Pan, 
a Polynices claiming the Sovereignty, and a 
Capaneus. Possibly identical with Tauris- 
cus of Tralles, the sculptor. Pliny, xxxvi. 
4 [33] ; Sillig, 434 ; Brunn, ii. 287. 

TAVARONE, LAZZARO, born in Genoa 
in 1556, died there in 1641. Genoese 
school ; favourite pupil and assistant of 
Luca Cambiaso ; went with his master to 
Spain, and continued in the Escorial the 
works left unfinished by him at his death 
(1585). Returned to Genoa in 1594, and 
painted many frescos in the cathedral and 
other churches, and in various palaces, espe- 
cially the Palazzo Adorno, where he exe- 
cuted a fresco on the ceiling, The Doge 
Adorno receiving the Pope. He left but 
few oil pictures. Lanzi, iii. 248 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole genoise ; Lavice, 89. 

TAVERNTER, PAUL, born in Paris ; con- 
temporary. Animal, genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Cabanel and Guillaumet. 
Medal, 3d class, 1883. Works: Cafe in 
Algiers (1878) ; Arabs Bathing Horses in 
the Sea (1879) ; Hallali (1880) ; The Model 
(1881) ; An Inquiry (1882) ; Stag Hunt, The 
Chase (1883) ; Bat 1'eau, Wild Boar Hunt 
(1884) ; The Stag at Bay, A False Start 
(1885) ; Amazone aux ecoutes, Rentree des 
poulinieres (1886). 

TEERLJNK, ABRAHAM, born at Dor- 
drecht in 1777, died in Rome in June, 1857. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Michiel Ver- 
steeg, of Jan Kelderman (1741-1820), and 
of Arie Lamme ; then studied in Paris under 
David in 1808-9, and thence went to Rome. 
He ranks among the more esteemed of 
modern landscape painters. Order of Lion, 
1839. Member of Amsterdam Academy. 
Works: Italian Landscape (1823), Falls of 
Tivoli (1824), Amsterdam Museum ; View 
of Aricia near Rome (1855), New Pinako- 
thek, Munich. Immerzeel, iii. 129 ; Kramni, 
vi. 1606. 

Brunswick in 1812. Historical genre paint- 
er, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy in 1834-36, 
after having studied while travelling in Hun- 
gary, North Italy, and Tyrol. His pictures 
show great feeling for noblo forms and fine 
grouping, but are rather weak in drawing 
and colouring. Works : Albrecht Diirer 
painting (1834) ; Singer on the Battlement 
of a Castle (1835) ; Auerbach's Cellar, Wood 
Gatherer by Forest Chapel (1836) ; Portrait 
of Emperor Otto H. (1836), ROmer, Frank- 
fort ; Greek Prisoners guarded by Mame- 
lukes (1837), Mr. Geisberg, Miinster ; Libera- 
tion of Christians through Crusaders (1837); 
Henry the Lion taking Leave of his Wife ; 
Scene in Hamlet (1840) ; Richard Coaur de 
Lion taking Corsair's Ship (1840) ; .Charles 
V. denying Exhumation of Luther (1845) ; 
Last Banquet of the Girondists (1849), 
Stettin Museum. Cotta's Kunstbl., 1835 
45 ; Elustr. Zeitg., 1849 ; Nagler, xviii. 



TELEPHANES, painter, of Sicyon, early 
period. Mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 5 [16]) 
in connection with Ardices of Corinth as 
first to use shading lines within outline 
drawings. Sillig, 436 ; Brunn, ii. 4. 

W. Tamer, National Gallery, London ; can- 
vas, H. 2 ft. 11 in. x 3 ft. 11 in. The Tume- 
raire.a three-decker, mounting 98 guns, capt- 
ured from the French in 1759, had acquired 
the title of " Fighting " before she took so 
conspicuous a part at Trafalgar. She was 
put out of commission soon after the peace 
of 1815, and, being condemned as unservice- 
able, was sold in 1838 and towed to Rother- 
hithe to be broken up. The picture repre- 
sents her in tow of a tug, the sun setting in 
a blaze of glory behind. One of the finest of 
Turner's later works. Royal Academy, 1839. 
Engraved by J. T. Willmore. Art Journal 
(1864), 108 ; Hamerton, Life ; Cat. Nat. Gal. 

at Leeuwarden in 1622 or 1623, died in 
Amsterdam, May 13, 1672. Dutch school. 
Real name Abraham Lambert Jacobse. Por- 
trait painter, pupil of his father, Lamberts 
Jacobse, and in Leyden of Joris van Schoo- 
ten, but followed more the later manner of 
Van der Heist. A light and pleasing colour- 
ing and broad treatment characterize his 
pictures. Works : Three Portraits, Amster- 
dam Museum ; Portraits of Man and Wife 
(1660), Hague Museum ; Regents of the 
Orphan Asylum (1669), Three Allegories, 
Leyden Museum ; Portraits of an Admiral 
and his Wife (1671), Rotterdam Museum ; 
Portrait of Hendrik van Westerhout, Man 
and Wife in their Park, Berlin Museum ; 
Female Portrait, Cassel Gallery ; Dutch 
Patrician Family (1672), Hamburg Gallery. 
Immerzeel, iii. 130 ; Kramm, vi. 1607 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 362 ; Havard, A. & A. 
holl., ii. 85, 180 ; Burger, Musues, ii. 124 ; 
Jahrb. d. preuss. Kunstsammlg., iv. 

TEMPERELLO, IL. See Caselli, Cristo- 

born in Florence in 1555, died in Rome, 

Aug. 5, 1630. Roman school ; pupil of 
John Stradanus, and of Santo de Titi ; af- 
terwards worked in company with Cigoli. 
About 1575 went to Rome and painted in 
the Vatican, the Palazzo Giustiniani, and 
other public buildings. Painted chiefly 
battles, cavalcades, hunting scenes, and 
other figure pieces ; and left more than 

1,500 etchings. Ch. Blanc, ICcole ombri- 
enne ; Burckhardt, 185, 757 ; Siret, 905. 


NIUS, Joseph M. W. Turner, Mr. Goupil (?) ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 9 in. x 7 ft. 9 in. The Tem- 
ple of Jupiter at 2Egina restored on the 
general plan of the Athenian Acropolis, 
which is seen in the distance, at left ; in 
foreground, peasants dancing the Romaika. 
Royal Academy, 1816. Bought by Moon, 
Boys & Graves, who sold it to Wynn Ellis ; 
at his sale (1876), 2,100. Engraved (1828) 
by John Pye ; J. B. Allen, in Turner Gal- 

gelo, Sistine Chapel, Rome ; fresco on ceil- 

TENIERS, DAVID, the elder, bom in 

Antwerp in 
1582, died 
there, July 
29, 1649. 
school ; 

genre, and 
land scape 
pupil of his 
elder brother Juliaen (1572-1615), of Ru- 
bens, and in Rome of Adam Elsheimer ; 
master of Antwerp guild in 1606 ; painted 
chiefly peasant scenes, combined with land- 



scape, but occasionally biblical and mytho- 
logical subjects ; his earlier works are heavy 
tone and crude in colour, while in his 


later pictures he approached, in freedom of 
treatment and harmony of colour, the man- 
ner of his famous son. Works : Rocky 
Landscape, Conversation, Playing at Bowls, 
National Gallery, London ; Christ on Mount 
of Olives, Seven Works of Mercy, St. Paul's, 
Antwerp ; Transfiguration (1615), Church 
at Dendermonde ; Landscape, Brussels Mu- 
seum ; do. with Castle, Brunswick Gallery ; 
Bleachery, Interior of Peasant Boom, Bam- 
berg Gallery ; Temptation of St. Anthony, 
Berlin Museum ; Peasant's Frolic by a Tav- 
ern, Cassel Gallery ; do., Darmstadt Muse- 
um ; Dutch Kirmess (2), Landscapes (4), 
Dutch Bleachery, Dresden Gallery ; Smoker 
and Tippler, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; 
Kocky Ravine with Figures, Peasant carry- 
ing a Pole, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Tav- 
ern Interior, Oldenburg Gallery ; Tempta- 
tion of St. Anthony, Gypsy Women in a 
Ravine, Schwerin Gallery ; Smoking Room 
(2), Stockholm Museum ; A Painter at his 
Easel (1641), Two Landscapes, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Pan with Nymphs and Sa- 
tyrs, Vertumnus outwitting Pomona, Juno 
demanding lo of Jupiter, Mercury putting 
Argus to Sleep (1638), Landscapes (4), Vi- 
enna Museum ; Physician with a Bottle, 
Uffizi, Florence ; Temptation of St. An- 
thony, Dutch Kitchen, New York 
Museum. F. J. van den Branden, 
752; Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; 
Immerzeel, iii. 130 ; Kramm, vi. 1608 ; vii. 
145 ; Michiels, vii. 428 ; Rooses (Reber), 
385 ; Van den Branden, 750. 

TENIERS, DAVID, the younger, born 
in Antwerp, baptized Dec. 15, 1610, died at 
Perck, near Brussels, April 25, 1690. Flem- 
ish school ; genre, landscape, and portrait 
painter, son and pupil of David the elder ; 
developed under the influence of Rubens, 
and especially of Brouwer. Master of Ant- 
werp guild in 1632, its dean in 1644-45, was 
made court painter to Archduke Leopold I 
Wilhelm, governor of the Netherlands, and j 

settled, between 1648 and 1652, in Brus- 
sels, where he was received into the guild 
in 1675. He 
was the prime 
mover in the 
foundation of 
the Antwerp 
Academy in 
1663. Equally 
favoured by 
Leopold Wil- 
helm 's suc- 
cessor, Don 

Juan of Austria, who is said to have studied 
under him ; he received important commis- 
sions from Philip IV. of Spain, and marks 
of esteem from Queen Christina of Sweden 
and the great in England and other coun- 
tries. The Count of Fuensaldana sent him 

I to England to buy works by the Italian 
masters. He holds the first position among 
the genre painters of Flanders. Picturesque 
arrangement, exquisite harmony of colour- 
ing in all details, and a light and sparkling 
touch characterize his pictures, in which 

! two periods may be distinguished the ear- 
lier, up to 1640, in which a somewhat heavy 
brown tone prevails, gradually attaining, up 
to 1644, a luminous golden tone, and the 
later, up to 1660, in which he changed into 
a cool silvery hue ; after that he again 
adopted a decided golden tone. In 1660 
he published in Brussels a work containing 
about 200 engravings of pictures of the 
Italian and Flemish schools in the Arch- 
duke's gallery, executed from small copies 
made by himself from the originals. Of 
these copies 120 were sold in the Blenheim 
Palace sale (1886) for 2,002 10s. Works : 
Music Party, Boors Regaling, The Money- 
Changers. Players at Tric-Trac, eleven oth- 
ers, National Gallery, London ; Boors Danc- 
ing (1645), Frolic in Village Courtyard 
(1649), Detachment of Civic Guard (1657), 
seven others, Buckingham Palace, ib.; Al- 
chemist, Village Festival, five others, Bridge- 
water Gallery, ib. ; Landscape (1649), Farm- 
er's Family, two others, Grosvenor Gallery, 



ib. ; Witch before Cauldron, Group of Ducks, 
Stafford House, ib.; Village Fute, Apsley 
House, ib.; Seven Works of Mercy, Artist's 
Portrait, three others, Lord Ashburton, ib.; 
five, Mr. Baring, ib.; do., Mr. Holford, ib.; 
three, Mr. Phipps, ib.; do., Lord Colborne, 
ib.; two, Lord Ward, ib.; Marriage of Ten- 
iers, Alfred de Rothschild, ib. ; Prodigal Son 
(1644), Denial of St. Peter (1646), Seven 
Works of Mercy, Temptation of St. An- 
thony (2), twenty-nine others, Louvre ; Fish 
Market, Mendicant, Comte Henri de Gref- 
fulhe, Paris; Temptation of St. Anthony, 
Lille Museum ; do., Kirmess (masterpiece, 
1652), The Five Senses, Interior of Arch- 
duke Leopold William's Gallery, four oth- 
ers, and (with Lucas van Uden) Preparing 
for the Market, Brussels Museum ; Pano- 
rama of Valenciennes, four others, Antwerp 
Museum ; Guard Room (1641), Kirmess, 
Rustic Pursuits, four others, Amsterdam 
Museum ; The Good Table (1644), Alche- 
mist, Hague Museum ; Musicians in a Tav- 
ern, three others, Basle Museum ; Smoker, 
Musi3e Rath, Geneva ; Mountainous Land- 
scape, Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; 
Daniel in Lions' Den (1640), Soldiers at 
Dice, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Repast (1630), 
Temptation of St. Anthony (masterpiece, 
1647), Flemish Kirmess, Artist with his 
Family, four others, Berlin Museum ; Al- 
chemist, four others, Brunswick Museum ; 
Supper in the Barn (1634), Doctor's Visit 
(1640), Country Physician, Caiisruhe Gal- 
lery ; Barber Shop, Entry of Archduchess 
Isabella into Vilvoorden, do. into Brussels, 
five others, Cassel Gallery ; Temptation of 
St. Anthony, Gallery, Copenhagen ; do., 
and Rustic Flemish Interior (1640), Do- 
mestic Occupation (1660), Unpleasant Dis- 
covery (1667), Kitchen Interior (1674), 
Moltke Collection, ib.; Old Scholar (1637), 
Darmstadt Museum ; Village Fair (1641), 
Peasants playing Dice (1646), Peasants at 
Dinner (1648), twenty-one others, Dresden 
Museum ; Landscapes with Figures (3), St. 
Jerome in the Desert, three others, Stiidel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Peasant's Frolic, five 

others, Gotha Museum ; Interior with Peas- 
ants, Landscape by Moonlight, Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Kitchen Interior, Ferdinande- 
um, Innsbruck ; Landscape, Konigsberg 
Museum ; Gypsy Family (attributed, but 
probably by David, the elder), Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; Tavern Scenes (6, three dated 1643, 
1645, 1650), Peasant's \Vedding (1651), Al- 
chymist (1680), Great Fair near Florence, 
Views in the Gallery of Archduke Albrecht 
at Brussels (4), fifteen others, Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Village Festival (1649), Ol- 
denburg Gallery ; Guard Room (1642), 
Archers of Antwerp (1643, masterpiece), 
Kitchen Interior (1646), Village Festival (2, 
one dated 1648), Wedding Dinner (1650), 
Flemish Amusements (1654), thirty-three 
others, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Fifteen 
Scenes in Life of the Virgin, Holy Family, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Company in Artist's 
House, Daniel in Lions' Den (1649), six 
others, Schwerin Gallery ; Peasants at the 
Inn, Stuttgart Museum ; Peasant Wedding 
(1648), Robbers plundering Village (1648), 
Shooting at the Shawfowl in Brussels (1652, 
masterpiece), Village Festival (masterpiece), 
Abraham's Sacrifice (1653), Room in Gallery 
of Archduke Leopold William at Brussels, 
thirteen others, Museum, Vienna ; Tavern 
Scene (1670), thirteen others, Liechtenstein 
Gallery, ib. ; six pictures,Harrach Gallery, ib. ; 
three, Czernin Gallery, ib.; two, Schunborn 
Gallery, ib. ; four, Stockholm Museum ; St. 
Peter Weeping, Uffizi, Florence ; Peasant 
Wedding (1637), History of Ewaldo and 
Armida, and forty-one others, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Marriage Festival, Judith with Head 
of Holofernes, Museum, New York ; Incan- 
tation Scene, Village Fete (2), Boors Regal- 
ing, Charles V. leaving Dort, Parable of the 
Labourer, Landscape, Historical Society, ib. 
His brother Abraham (1629-71) and his son 
David HL (1638-85) were his pupils and 
imitators. By Abraham are, in the Madrid 
Museum : A Guard Room, and a Depository 
of Arms ; in the Hermitage at St. Peters- 
burg : A Prelate's Library ; in the Harrach 
Gallery at Vienna : Monkeys as Shoemakers 






in the Shop, and do. as Tailors ; in the Tu- 
rin Gallery : A Guitar Player. Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole flamande ; Cat. 
du Mus. d'Anvers, 
382 ; Dohme, li. ; Im- 
merzeel, iii. 130; 
Journal des B. Arts 
(1864), 171 ; Kramm, 
vi. 1609 ; vii. 145 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 7-^ 
321; Messagerdes Ls - 
sciences hist. (1854), 
381; (1868), 263; (1878), 331; Michiels, 
vii. 441 ; viii. 3 ; Rooses (Reber), 385 ; Van 
cleu Branden, 981 ; Vermoelen, Teniers le 
jeune, etc. (Antwerp, 1865) ; Vlaamsche 
school (1864), 173 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, v. 

ters, Alfred de Rothschild Collection, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 10 in. ; 
dated 1651. A pleasure garden, adorned 
with trees, bowers, and a fountain, through 
which Teniers and his bride are being con- 
ducted to their chateau by a procession of 
about twenty persons, attended by youths 
bearing refreshments ; at left, a man playing 
a guitar. Collection of Paignon Dijonval, 
1821 ; sold to T. Emmerson ; then in collec- 
tion of John Lucy, Esq., Charlcote. Art 
Journal (1885), 242 ; Smith, iii. 382. 


Emanuel Leulze, Amos Binney, Boston, Mass. 
The attack by Cortes on the great teocalli 
or temple of Huitzilopotchli, in the city of 
Mexico, as narrated by Fresco tt in his " Con- 
quest of Mexico " (v. cap. 2). It represents 
the Spaniards forcing their way up the great 
stone steps of the pyramid in spite of the 
heroic valour of the Aztecs. Loaned to 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in 1883. 

TEPIDARIUM, IN THE, Laurenz Alma- 
Tadema. A girl, nude, reclining on a mar- 
ble bench covered with a wild beast's skin 
and with cushions, in the tepidarium (warm- 
ing room) of a Roman bath, resting before 
proceeding to the calidarium, or hot bath ; 

in one hand she holds a feather fan, in the 
other a strigillus for scraping the skin ; at 
her feet is a pot of flowers. Painted in 1881. 

TERBRUGGHEN (Terbrtlggen), HEN- 
DRIK, bora at Deventer in 1588, died at 
Utrecht, Nov. 1, 1629. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Abraham Bloemaert, then 
studied in Italy, where Rubens knew him ; 
in 1614 he was in Milan and returned in the 
same year to Utrecht, where he became 
master of the guild in 1616. Works : Four 
Evangelists (1621), Town Hall, Deventer ; 
Two Flute Players (1621), Cassel Gallery ; 
Man at Breakfast (1627), Augsburg Gallery ; 
Esther and Vashti (1628), Cologne Museum ; 
Christ Crowned with Thorns, Gallery, Co- 
penhagen ; Angel appearing to St. Peter in 
Prison, Moltke Collection, ib. ; do. (1629), 
Schwerin Gallery. Immerzeel, iii. 132 ; 
Krarnrn, vi. 1613 ; Schlie, 624. 

TERBURG (Ter Borch), GERARD, born 
at Zwolle, 
1613 and 
1617, died 
at Deven- 
ter, Dec. 
8, 1681. 
D u t c h 
genre paint- 
er ; received his first instruction from his 
father, Geert Terburg (1584-1662, who 
had studied in Rome), then formed himself 
in Amsterdam and especially in Haavlem, 
where he entered the guild in 1635, under 
the influence of Frans Hals, and through 
independent study of the masterworks by 
Titian, Rembrandt, and Velasquez ; trav- 
elled through Germany, Italy, Spain, Eng- 
land, and France, and painted everywhere 
portraits and genre pieces. In 1646-48, at 
Milnster, he became, through the favour of 
the Spanish envoy, the painter of the diplo- 
matic circle and executed the famous por- 
trait group of the Peace Congress ; followed 
the Spanish envoy to Madrid, where he 


painted the king and many courtiers and 
ladies ; returned via England and France to 
bis native country, and settled at Deventer, 
where he obtained the citizenship in 1655, 
and afterwards became burgomaster. He 
was the inventor of the interiors, and of the 
satin gown, so much used by Mieris and 
Metsu ; a first-rate and thoroughly original 
master. Works : Peace of Miinster (1648), 
Guitar Lesson, National Gallery, London ; 
Girl reading Letter to her Mother, Girl at 
Table inviting Gentlemen to drink, Buck- 
ingham Palace, London ; Paternal Counsel, 
Bridgewater Gallery, ib. ; Girl with Guitar 
and Two Gentlemen, Lord Ashburton, ib. ; 
Military Man by Fireside, Officer Writing, 
Music Lesson, Mr. Hope, ib. ; Group of 
Three, Girl Drinking, Mr. Munro, ib. ; Girl 
Writing, Girl Drinking, Mr. Baring, ib. ; 
Officer and Girl, Music Lesson (1660), Con- 
cert, Assembly of Priests, Reading Lesson, 
Louvre, Paris ; Mandolin Player, Antwerp 
Museum ; Paternal Advice, Boy with Dog, 
Portrait of Artist and his Wife, Museum, 
Amsterdam ; Card Players, Van Loon Col- 
lection, ib. ; Musical Couple, Six Collec- 
tion, ib. ; Two Portraits, Haarlem Muse- 
um ; The Dispatch (1655), Artist's Portrait, 
Hague Museum ; Large Group Portrait, 
Town Hall, Deventer ; Lady at Toilet, Goth- 
ic Church Interior, Suermondt Museum, 
Aix-la-Chapelle ; Players at Tric-Trac, Bre- 
men Gallery ; Portraits of Man and Wife, 
Old Widow Lady, Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Young Lady with Lute, Music Lesson, Cas- 
sel Gallery ; Paternal Exhortation, Knife 
Grinder's Family, Smoker, Consultation 
(1635), Four Portraits, Berlin Museum ; 
Officer Writing, Young Woman washing 
her Hands, Music Lesson, Lady Standing 
by Table, Dresden Gallery ; Young Woman 
with Glass of Wine, Stiidel Gallery, Frank- 
foil ; Messenger waiting for Answer, Gotha 
Museum ; Portrait of a Burgomaster of Am- 
sterdam, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck; Boy 
with Dog, Trumpeter bringing letter to a 
Lady, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Glass of 
Lemonade, Musical Jew, Rustic Messenger, 

, t 

Lady reading Letter, Duet, Barmaid, Por- 
trait of a General, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Two Couples (1658), Young Man read- 
ing, Violin Player, Schwerin Gallery; Young 
Woman peeling Apple, Museum, Vienna ; 
Portraits in Liechtenstein and Czemin (2) 
Galleries, ib. ; do. in Stettin, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence, and Turin Galleries (2) ; Artist's Por- 
trait, Museum, New York ; Portrait of Will- 
iam of Orange, two others, Historical So- 
.*~j ciety, ib. ; Degustation 

( TT T '"TT (Narischkine sale, 

\J3. L~D iCiy. Paris, 1883). Ch. 
* / Blanc, cole hollan- 

&TOI/WO daise ; Bode, Studien, 
s S 176, 614 ; Burger, 
Musees, i. 118, 244 ; 
ii. 102, 256 ; Dohme, lii. ; Immerzeel, iii. 
132 ; Jahrb. der Kongl. pr. Kunstsammlg., 
ii. 144 ; Kramm, v. 1612 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 394 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iv. 141 ; v. Ill ; 
vii. 196 ; x. 36 ; xii. 84 ; xviii. 350, 370, 406 ; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1886), xxxiv. 388 et seq. 

TERNITE, WILHELM, born at Neustre- 
litz, Mecklenburg, in 1786, died in 1871. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Gros 
in Paris after having been an officer during 
the wars of independence, 1813-15 ; went 
in 1823 to Rome and Naples, where he made 
excellent copies of the frescos at Pompeii. 
He was aulic councillor and, from 1826, in- 
spector of the Royal Gallery at Potsdam. 
Works : St. John the Baptist, Schloss Belle- 
vue, Berlin ; Portrait of Emperor Francis 
I. of Austria (1837), Royal Palace, ib. ; do. 
Queen Louise in Riding Habit (1827) ; do. on 
her Death-Bed ; do. of the Composer Spon- 
tini ; do. of Prof. Ottfried Miiller. Cotta's 
Kunstbl., 1829-38 ; Nagler, xviii. 248. 

Snip, born at The Hague in 1649, died in 
Berlin, Jan. 21, 1717. History painter, pu- 
pil of Nicolaas Wieling (died in Berlin in 
1689), and of Willem Doudyns (1630-97), 
then studied for six years in Rome and Ven- 
ice after Raphael, Titian, and Tintoretto, 
and after his return, via Germany, painted 
many ceilings and other decorative works 



with subjects from Ovid, and from history, 
sacred and profane. In 1682-83 he did 
much towards the revival of the Academy 
of Design at The Hague, and in 1690 was 
called as court painter to Berlin, where he 
decorated the electoral palaces, helped to 
found the Academy, and became professor. 
In the Royal Palace at Berlin is his Death 
of Adonis. His brothers and pupils, Eli- 
as (1651-1729) and Matheus (1670-1757), 
painted the former, flowers and animals at 
The Hague and in Rome, where he died ; the 
latter, history and portraits, studied also un- 
der Doudyns and Daniel Mytens, then as- 
sisted his brother in Berlin, and completed 
his studies in Rome and Venice. Immer- 
zeel, iii. 134 ; Kranim, vi. 1615 ; Nagler, xviii. 

TESCHENDORFF, EMIL, born in Stet- 
tin in 1823. History, genre and portrait 
painter, pupil in Munich of Piloty ; at first 
painted realistic scenes from life of Luther, 
then in Berlin portraits ; executes especial- 
ly single figures in picturesque attitudes. 
Assistant secretary at Berlin Academy since 
1877. Works : Conradin's Farewell of his 
Mother (1868) ; Husband's Bequest ; Juliet 
with the Potion ; Cleopatra ; Ariadne ; 
(Edipus and Antigone (1879) ; Pastime 
(1880). Mtiller, 516 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1881), 
ii. 257 ; Land und Meer (1883), ii. 700. 

Berlin in 1816, died there, Aug. 9, 1878. 
History painter, pupil of Berlin Academy 
under Herbig, with Wach, after whose death 
he devoted himself to religious art in the 
style and under the influence of Cornelius ; 
visited Rome in 1857. Great gold medal of 
Hohenzollern, 1865. Works: Ecce Homo 
(1853), church at Perleberg ; Pieta (1878), 
Emperor William, Berlin ; cartoons for 
stained-glass windows in Cathedrals of Mag- 
deburg, Stralsund, Aix-la-Chapelle, etc. 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 247. 

TESTA, PIETRO, born in Lucca in 1611, 
died in Rome in 1650. Florentine school ; 
supposed pupil at Lucca of Pietro Paolini. 
Went to Rome when young, and studied un- 

der Domenichino and afterwards under Pie- 
tro da Cortona. He was of a morose and 
melancholy dispo- 
sition, and made 
many enemies by 
his adverse criti- 
cism of the works 
of other painters. 
His body was 
found floating in 
the Tiber, but 
whether he was 
_ murdered or committed suicide 

LJ " is unknown. Among his works 
are : Joseph sold by his Breth- 
~"~ ren, Capitol Museum, Rome; 
Death of Dido, Uffizi. Lanzi, i. 236 ; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole florentine. 

umph of Religion, Garofalo, Ferrara Gal- 
lery ; fresco transferred to canvas, H. 21 ft. 
4 in. x 26 ft. 11 in. A quaint allegorical 
composition, illustrating the victory of Chris- 
tianity over the Mosaic dispensation. In 
the middle is Christ on the cross ; at his 
right hand is the New Testament, at his left 
the Old, the latter placed on an ass ; from 
the cross proceed arms, which place a crown 
on the New Testament, hold the keys of 
Paradise, deliver the patriarchs from hell, 
and slay the Old Testament. Through the 
hands of a figure representing religion flow 
streams of blood, which fall on the sacra- 
ments, and opposite to these are seen the 
sacrifices of the Old Testament. Solomon's 
temple has also a place in the composition, 
and opposite to it is the preaching of St. 
Paul. Over the whole is the Almighty seated 
on a rock. Painted in 1524 on the wall of 
the refectory of S. Andrea, Ferrara ; trans- 
ferred to canvas in 1841 by the painter Pel- 
legrino Succi, by order of Gregory XVI. 
Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 466 ; Baruffaldi, i. 332. 

TESTFTJN (Tettelin), HENRI, born in 
Paris in 1616, died at The Hague, April 17, 
1695. French school ; history and por- 
trait painter, brother of Louis Testelin, and 
pupil of Vouet. He became one of the 



founders of the French Academy in 1648, 
secretary in 1650, professor in 1658 ; bore 
the title of first painter to the king, with 
lodgings in the Gobelin factory, of which 
he was superintendent until the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes (1681), when, being 
a Protestant, he fled to Holland. Works : 
Portrait of Louis XTV. (2), do. of Pierre 
Seguier, Versailles Museum ; Time clipping 

the Wings of Love. Bellier, ii. ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole franjaise ; Biog. universelle ; Jal, 

TESTELIN (Tettelin), LOUIS, born in 
Paris in 1615, 
died there, Aug. 
19, 1655. French 
school ; genre 
painter, pupil of 
his father Gilles 
Testelin (court 
painter to Louis 
Xni.), of Vouet, 
and imitator of 
Le Brun. Did 
much decorative work in the Palais Royal, 
the Luxembourg, Fontainebleau, and other 
public and private buildings. Member of 
Academy, 1648 ; professor, 1650. Works : 
Resurrection of Tabitha (1652), Rouen Mu- 
seum ; Flagellation of St. Paul and St. Silas, 
Notre Dame, Paris ; Passage of the Rhine 
in 1672, Keys of Marsal delivered to the 
King, Marriage of Louis XIV., Capture of 
Dole in 1668, Versailles Museum ; Magda- 
len, Grenoble Museum ; Syrinx and Pan, 
Rennes Museum. Bellier, iL; Ch. Blanc, 
cole franaise ; Jal, 1179. 

Amsterdam in 1831. Architecture and land- 
scape painter, son of the engraver Johan 
Baptist Tetar van Elven ; pupil of Jacobus 
E. J. van den Berg, then studied in Paris, 
where he settled, after having lived for 

several years in Turin. Italian Order of 
Maurice and Lazarus. Works : View of 
Westminster ; Interior of the Lateran in 
Rome ; View of Genoa ; Interior of St. 
James's, Liege ; Place de 1'Opera in Paris 
(1880), Amsterdam Museum. By his father 
(born in 1805) : Old Skipper with Bottle, 
Ruins of Church at Lisbon (1870), Ham- 
burg Gallery. Kramm, vi. 1618 ; Kunsfc- 
Chronik, xviii. 578. 

TEXTOR, FRANZ JOSEF, born in Sua- 
bia, died at Innsbruck, Nov. 9, 1741. Ger- 
man school. Real name Weber, translated 
into Latin. History, genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy, then set- 
tled at Innsbruck ; he was an unusually 
gifted artist of great versatility, and painted 
in the manner of the best old masters, so 
that many of his works were taken for pro- 
ductions of Callot, Brueghel, Teniers, etc. 
Works : Seven Works of Mercy, Fair in 
Holland (2), Genre Scenes (2), Card Players, 
Dice Players, Conversation (3), Peasants' 
Frolic, Monkeys at Cards, Monkeys at 
School, Still-lives and Landscapes (10), 
Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck. Nagler, xviii. 
289; Wurzbach, xliv. 104. 

THALES, painter, of Sicyon, mentioned 
by Diogenes Laertius (i. 38) as a man of no- 
ble birth. R. R, Schom, 414 ; Sillig, 438. 

THANN, MORITZ VON, born at O'-Becse, 
Hungary, in 1828. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
Fiihrich and Rahl, visited Belgium and 
Paris in 1855, then studied in Rome (1856- 
59) ; greatly influenced by Cornelius, Over- 
beck, Riepenhausen, and Wagner ; returned 
to Hungary, and with Karl Lotz painted 
frescos in the Museum, besides others in 
public buildings, at Pesth. Order of Fran- 
cis Joseph in 1867 ; medal, Vienna, 1873. 
Works : Episode in Conquest of Szolnok in 
1552 (before 1855) ; Ulysses and Nausicaii, 
Ulysses and Penthesilea (1857-59), Baron 
Sina, Vienna ; Angelica and Medor, Tragedy 
of Man, Fata Morgana (1867), Recruiting, 
Meeting of King Ladislaus IV. and Rudolph 
von Hapsburg after Battle at Marchegg, 



King Emerich taking his Brother Prisoner, 
St. Cecilia, and others, Pesth Museum ; 
Scenes from Hungarian Legends, The Four 
Great Rivers of Hungary, Attila's Banquet, 
Redouten Saal, Pesth. In fresco : Episodes 
in^ Hungarian History, National Museum, 
ib.; Portraits of Emperor Francis Joseph 
and Empress Elizabeth (1868), Council 
Room, ib.; Portrait of Francis Desik (1877), 
Academy of Sciences, ib. ; many altarpieces 
for churches in Hungary. Wurzbach, xliv. 
168 ; Graph. K, v. 16 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
xii. (Mittheilungen, v. 12). 

in Boston, Mass., Aug. 12, 1849. Animal 
and landscape painter, pupil in Boston of 
Henry D. Morse, in Brooklyn of J. B. 
Whittaker (1867-68), and in Paris in the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts under Lehmann and 
Gerome (1875-79). Studio at Cornwall-on- 
Hudson. Works: Young Lions of Central 
Park ; Cows coming from Pasture ; Feeding 
the Cows ; Boy and Dog ; Shamming Sick 
(1876) ; Autumn Cornfield ; View on the 
Seine ; Alderney Herd in Guernsey ; Moun- 
tain Pasture ; Sleep, Childhood (1878) ; 
Autumn Morning on the Housatonic, Por- 
trait of O. H. Palmer (1880). 

ter Dietrich, flourished in Prague during 
the reign of the Emperor Charles IV. (1348 
-78), as one of his court painters. German 
school. Probably of Czech rather than Ger- 
man origin, judging from the pictures attrib- 
uted to him, which are of a Bohemian type. 
His name is mentioned as master of the guild 
as early as 1348, and again in a document of 
1367. Ho evidently had a long and influ- 
ential career, and may be considered as one 
of the founders of the school of Prague. 
Works : St. Augustine, St. Ambrose, Vi- 
enna Museum ; series of one hundred and 
twenty-five half-length figures of Saints, 
Apostles, etc., Chapel of Karlstein, near 
Prague; two half-length Saints, University 
Library, Prague. Kugler (Crowe), i. 38 ; 
Schnaase, vi. 438 ; W. & W., i. 396 ; Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1873), vii. 148. 

THEODORUS, painter, of Samos or 
Ephesus (?). Mentioned by Theophanes in 
his essay on painting, according to Diogenes 
Laertius (ii. Arist., xix.). Two other paint- 
ers of this name are spoken of by Diogenes, 
one as mentioned by Polemo and the other 
by Menodotus as of Athena Sillig, 439. 

THEODORUS, painter, of Samos, pupil 
of Nicosthenes, mentioned by Pliny (xsxv. 
40 [146]) as of some reputation. Sillig, 

THEODOTUS, Greek painter of common 
subjects, lived at Rome first half of third 
century B.C. Mentioned in a comedy by 
Nsevius as the painter of a rude picture of 
the Lares at play on an altar. Nscvius, in 
Festus (p. 250, ed. Mailer) ; Brunn, ii. 503. 

THEOLOGY, llaphael, Camera della Se- 
gnatura, Vatican ; fresco, medallion on ceil- 
ing. Allegorical figure seated on clouds, 
with book in left hand. Two little genii, 
on either side, holding tablets, inscribed 
"Knowledge of Divine Things." Painted 
in 1512 ; shows hand of a pupil. Engraved 
by B. Audran ; R. Morghen. Passavant, ii. 
88 ; Mttntz, 311, 316, 350 ; Perkins, Essay, 

See, also, Dispute of the Sacrament. 

THEOMNESTUS, Greek painter, 4th 
century B.C. Pliny says (xxxv. 36 [107]) 
that Mnasou, tyrant of Elatea, paid twenty 
minaj apiece for his pictures of the heroes. 
Brunn, ii. 256. 

THEON (Theorus, Theodorus), painter, 
about 360 B.C. Pliny mentions (xxxv. 40 
[138]) among his works : A Man anointing 
himself ; Murder of jEgisthus and Clytem- 
nestra by Orestes ; Cassandra, in the Tem- 
ple of Concord, Rome ; Leontium, Mistress 
of Epicurus, in Meditation ; King Deme- 
trius ; and a series of pictures of the Trojan 
War, in the Portico of Philippus at Rome. 
Brunn (ii. 255) thinks him probably identi- 
cal with Tlieon of Samos. 

THEON, a famous Greek painter, of Sa- 
mos, contemporary of Apelles, 4th century 
B.C. Pliny mentions (xxxv. 40) among his 
works, The Frenzy of Orestes which Plu- 



tarch says (De And. Poet., 3) represented 
Orestes slaying his mother and a Thamy- 
ris playing the Lyre. Quintilian (xii. 10, 6) 
gives him credit for a prolific fancy, and 
^lian, speaking (V. H., ii. 44) of his picture 
of a Soldier rushing to Battle, says that 
Theon sought theatrical effect by having 
trumpets blown before drawing the curtain 
from before it. 

THEORUS, painter. See Theon. 


THERBUSCH. See lAscewska, Anna 

THERIMACHUS, painter and sculptor, 
about 350 B.C. No works known. Pliny, 
xsxv. 36 [78] ; Sillig, 198. 

THESEUS, pictures. See Aristolaus, Eu- 
phranor, Micon, Pancenus, Parrhasius. 

THEVENIN, CHARLES, born in Paris, 
July 12, 1764, died there, Feb. 21, 1838. 
History painter, pupil of Vincent. In 1793 
won the 1st grand prix de Rome ; was direc- 
tor of the French School of Art in Rome for 
a number of years, and later keeper of Prints 
in Royal Library, Paris. Member of Acad- 
emy, 1825 ; L. of Honour, 1825. Works : 
Capture of the Bastilo (1793) ; Auguereau 
on the Bridge of Arcola (1798), Versailles 
Museum ; (Edipus and Antigone (1799) ; 
General Hey taking Gaeta (1800) ; Passage 
of St. Bernard (1806) ; Preparations for 
crossing St. Bernard (1808) ; Battle of Jena, 
Attack on Ratisbon, Taking of Ratisbon 
(1810), Surrender of Ulm (1815), Versailles 
Museum ; Henri IV. giving Audience to the 
Professors of the Royal College (1827) ; 
Martyrdom of St. Stephen (1827), S. Eti- 
enne du Mont ; Joseph recognized by his 
Brethren, Angers Museum ; Justification of 
Susanna, Douai Museum. Larousse ; Bel- 
lier, ii. 557 ; Cotta's Kunstblatt (1838). 

born at Lyons ; contemporary. Portrait and 
figure painter, pupil of Leon Cogniet and 
of Joseph Paris. Medals: 3d class, 1849, 
1859, 1861. Works: Flora Mac Ivor and 
Rose Bradwardine (1848) ; Portrait of Abbe 
Jacquet (1859) ; Portrait of a Lady (1881). 


born in Paris ; contemporary. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of iSmile Bin, Caba- 
nel, and of Lequien fils. Medal : 3d class, 
1885. Works : Death of Antigone and 
Hremon (1878) ; After the Bath (1882); Mis- 
ery (1883) ; Portraits (1884) ; Le dejeuner, 
A Philosopher (1885) ; Portrait (1886). 

THIELE, ARTHUR, born in Dresden, 
June 11, 1841. Landscape and animal 
painter, pupil of Dresden Academy, then of 
Julius Hiibner and of Ludwig Richter ; 
studied also in Munich, and in 1868-72 at 
Diisseldorf. Works : Deer on Autumn 
Morning ; Deer in Winter ; Stag before 
Hunter's Statue ; Dead Hare (1864), Winter 
Hunt, Wood Clearing with Deer (1881), 
Dresden Gallery. Kaulen, 251. 

ANDER, born at Erfurt, March 26, 1685, 
died in Dresden, May 22, 1752. Landscape 
painter ; at first a soldier ; studied from nat- 
ure, and painted in water-colours. After- 
wards instructed in oil painting by C. L. 
Agricola and Manyocki, and settled in 
Dresden, where, in 1747, he was appointed 
court painter to King Augustus of Poland. 
Works : Landscape with Cattle and Herds- 
men, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Castle on Fire, 
Bamberg Gallery ; View in Saxony (1740), 
Gotha Museum ; Evening Landscape, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Landscapes (15, three 
dated 1745, 1746, 1749), Views of Dresden 
(3, one dated 1747), View of Meissen (1747), 
Two Views in Mecklenburg (1750), Herd 
driven through River, Schwerin Gallery ; 
Landscapes (2), Rocky Cavern with Monu- 

ments, Animal-Pieces (3), Weimar Museum. 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 566 ; Schlie. 625. 

Rigouldts, born at Mechlin, baptized April 



1, 1618, died at Boisschot in 1667. Flem- 
ish school ; flower painter, pupil of Theodor 
Bombouts, and of Daniel Seghers in Ant- 
werp, where he was master of the guild in 
1641. Like Seghers, he painted garlands and 
flowers to enframe subjects by other artists. 
Works much esteemed by the King of Spain. 
Works : Bouquet, Lille Museum ; Garland, 
do. with Madonna (16G7), Antwerp Museum ; 
Flowers around Statuette of St. Jacob, Ma- 
drid Museum; Madonna with Garland (1648), 
Flowers (2), Vienna Museum ; Flower-Pieces 
in Amsterdam and Hermannstadt (1661) 


Museums, and ft \.\ 
Liechtenstein J J Y 
Gallery, Vienna A . 

(2, 1659). -ch. ya% 

Blanc, Ecole fla- Jj? 

mande ; Kugler v 

(Crowe), ii. 347 ; Immerzeel, iii. 137 ; 

Kramm, vi. 1623 ; Van den Brandon, 1132. 

DEE, born at Lyons, March 11, 1789, died 
there, April 17, 1870. Genre, landscape, and 
flower painter, pupil of Revoil. Medals : 2d 
class, 1817, 1822. In 1827 became professor 
in Lyons, and gave up painting. Works : 
Interior of Old Cloister of St. Andre-le-Bas 
(1817) ; Bunch of Flowers (1820) ; Recrea- 
tion ; Soldier Retreating ; Religious Festi- 
val; Funeral of a Monk (1827). Larousse. 

SIRE), born in Paris, March 13, 1812, died 
there, Oct. 11, 1866. Landscape painter 
and decorator, pupil of Gros, later of Phi- 
lastre. He is best known as a scene paint- 
er in partnership with Cambon, at the Grand 
Opera and the Opera Comique. Medals : 
3d class, 1844 ; L. of Honour, 1863. Works : 
Party of Workmen picking up a Drunkard, 
Police Patrol (1853) ; Edge of a Forest, Car- 
avan Road (1855) ; Wandering Jew (1857) ; 
The Story (1859) ; Arrival of the Wedding 
Party, Fairies' Kingdom (1863) ; Ruins of a 
Temple (1865); Faust (1866). Larousse ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 275, 417, 510. 

THIERSCH, LUDWIG, born in Munich, 
April 12, 1825. History and genre paint- 

er, pupil of Munich Academy, at first in 
sculpture under Schwan thaler, then in paint- 
ing under Heinrich Hess, Schnorr, and es- 
pecially under Karl Schorn ; went to Rome, 
and in 1852 to Athens, where he painted 
frescos in St. Nicodemus ; returned in 1855 ; 
the year following was called to Vienna to 
decorate the Greek church there, and in 
1860 to St. Petersburg to paint pictures in 
the chapels of Grand Dukes Nicholas and 
Michael and in St. Catharine's Church. 
Member of St. Petersburg Academy ; Ba- 
varian Order of St. Michael ; Greek Order 
of the Redeemer ; Russian Order of Stanis- 
laus. Works : Sakuntala (1848) ; Camisard 
Scene ; Charon, Entry of Bacchus into Grove 
of Colonos, Lament of Thetis, Baron Sina, 
Vienna ; Daughter of Jairus, Christ at Geth- 
semane (1865) ; St. Paul Preaching (1866), 
City Hall, Athens ; Christ at Pool of Be- 
thesda ; Ceres seeking her Daughter ; Christ 
in the Desert (1874) ; Alaric as Victor in 
Athens (1879); Temptation of Christ Mey- 
er, Conv. Lex., xvii. 894 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xvii. 435. 

Paris, May 19, 1839. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Picot, Fromentin, and 
Cabanel. Paints chiefly religious pictures. 
His work is admired for good modelling 
and fine colour. Medals : 1866, 1868, 1869 ; 
2d class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1872. Works : 
Death of St. Mary the Egyptian (1863), Li- 
sieux Museum ; St. Sylvain (1864), Tours 
Museum ; The Levite of Ephraim cursing 
the City of Gaba (1865), Perpignan Muse- 
um ; St. Vincent (1866), Bordeaux Museum ; 
Perseus (1867) ; St Paul the Hermit and 
St. Anthony (1868) ; St. Severin distribut- 
ing Alms (1869) ; Eruption of Vesuvius 
(1872) ; Judith's Return to Bethulia (1873), 
Tours Museum ; Rebekah at the Well (1874); 
St Sebastian (1875), Ministry of Fine Arts ; 
Joan of Arc (1876) ; Euterpe (1880) ; Orien- 
tale (1881); Poet at the Source (1882); 
L'fipave du vengeur (1883) ; Napolitaine 
(1884) ; Exposure of Moses (1885), Luxem- 
bourg Museum. He has painted also mural 



pictures in the Church of the Trinity and 
decorative panels in the Ministry of War. 
L'Art (1878), xiii. 144 ; Bellier, ii. 565. 

Incredulity of St. Thomas, Cima da Conegllano, Venice 

THISBE, Edwin Long, Gibbs Collection, 
England. The tragic amour of Pyramus 
and Thisbe, in Bablyon, has been immortal- 
ized by Ovid in his "Metamorphoses " (IV.), 
and burlesqued by Shakespeare in "Mid- 
summer Night's Dream." Royal Academy, 
1884 ; at William Graham sale, London, 
1886, to Gibbs for 840 guineas. Engraved 
by G. Bertinot (1886). 

United States ; contemporary. Landscape 
and genre painter, pupil in Paris of iDdou- 
ard Frere ; first exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, London, in 1864. Works : Re- 
turning from the Wood (1864) ; Love in 
the Kitchen ; Return of the Conscript ; Go- 
ing to Church, Christmas Eve (1876) ; Le 
jour de la Toussaint (1878) ; Watering his 
Horse, Morning Ride (1880) ; Rustic Sport, 

Summer Afternoon (1882); Old Farm House, 
South River, River Bank (1884) ; The Pets 

THOMAS, ADOLF, born at Zittau, Sept. 
28, 1834. Landscape painter, pupil of Dres- 
den Academy and of Ludwig Richter ; then 
studied in Munich, where he was greatly 
influenced by Lier and Friedrich Voltz. 
Works : View near Brannenburg (1866), 
Dresden Gallery ; Landscape (1867) ; Even- 
ing in Capri (1872); Landscape with Mytho- 
logical Figures. Mailer, 519. 

medy, Belgium, in 1820. History painter, 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy. Officer of 
Order of Leopold. Works : Judith ; Chil- 
dren of Edward ; Solomon's Judgment ; 
Descent from the Cross ; Judas on Night 
before the Crucifixion (1854), Barabbas at 
the Foot of Calvary (1857), Brussels Mu- 
seum. Muller, 519. 

in Paris; contemporary. Still-life painter, 
pupil of Leclaire. Medal, 3d class, 1886. 
Works : June Flowers (1880) ; Corner of 
the Conservatory (1881) ; The Cellar of Pere 
Jacquemin (1882) ; Gay Morning (1883) ; 
Still-life (1884) ; At the Studio (1885) ; Eve 
of Festival (1886). 

in London, Dec. 17, 1824, died at Boulogne, 
France, July 21, 1868. History and por- 
trait painter, began as a wood engraver in 
London and afterwards in Paris, whence he 
went to New York to aid in illustrating a 
pictorial journal. In 1848 he returned to 
Europe and went to Italy to study ; was in 
Rome during its siege by the French, of 
which he furnished sketches to the Illus- 
trated London News ; and represented that 
paper in the Crimea in 1854. On his re- 
turn to London he obtained the patronage 
of the Queen, for whom he painted Mar- 
riage of the Prince of Wales at Windsor, 
Marriage of the Princess Alice at Osborne, 
The Princess Royal at the Coronation of 
the King of Prussia, Distribution of the 
Victoria Medals, and others. He illustrat- 



ed, among other books, Wilkie Collins'H 
" Armadale " and Mrs. Stowe's " Uncle Tom's 
Cabin. " Redgrave. 

Incredulity of St. Thomas, Guercino, Vatican, Rome. 

THOMAS, JAN, born at Ypres, baptized 
Feb. 5, 1617, died in Vienna in 1673. Flem- 
ish school ; history and genre painter, pu- 
pil of Rubens ; master of Antwerp guild in 
1641 ; visited Italy, and in 1662 became 
court painter to Emperor Leopold I. Works : 
St. Francis adoring Madonna, Carmelite 
Church, Antwerp ; Madonna and Penitent 
Sinners, Ypres Museum ; Painter's Studio, 
Physician in his Study, Gotha Museum ; 
Triumph of Bacchus (1656), Museum, Vi- 
enna ; Alchemist, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; 
Beaching for the Purse (2, 1661), Harrach 
Gallery, ib. ; others in Berlin and Kiel Gal- 
leries. Immerzeel, iii. 138 ; Kramm, iv. 
1625 ; Michiels, viii. 239. 

(John, xx. 25). 

By Cima da Conegliano, Venice Academy ; 
wood, H. 6 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft. 7 in. Christ, 
standing under an arched portico, with St. 
Thomas touching his wound ; on other side, 
St. Magnus ; background, landscape with a 
horseman. Formerly in the Scuola de' Mu- 
ratori at Venice. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 242 ; 
Zanotto, Pinac. dell' Accad., PI. 16 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iii. 665. 

By Guercino, Vatican, Rome ; canvas, life- 
size, half-length. Thomas placing his finger 
on Christ's wound ; in background, three 

disciples. Carried to Paris ; returned in 
1815. Landou, Musee, xii. PI. 4 ; Pistolesi 
Vaticano, vi. PL 67. 

By Johann Friedrich Overbeck, Beresford 
Hope, London ; canvas, H. 10 ft. x 5 ft. ; 
signed, dated 1851. Christ and Si Thomas, 
figures life-size, standing in a landscape, 
with a mountain in background ; the for- 
mer, with arm uplifted, is speaking to Si 
Thomas, who approaches reverently but 
doubtingly. Painted for Church of St. 
Thomas, Leeds, but not giving satisfaction 
was sold for 300 to present owner. Ex- 
hibited at Royal Academy in 1853, and at 
the Manchester Exhibition in 1857. Atkin- 
son, 79. 

By Rembrandt, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; wood, H. 1 ft. xll in. Painted in 
1634. Waageu, Hermitage, 176 ; Vosmaer, 

By Cecchino del Kalviati, Louvre, Paris ; 
wood transferred to canvas, H. 8 ft. 10 in. x 
7 ft 6 in. Christ, at right, standing amongst 

Incredulity of St. Thomas, Cecchino del Slviati, Louvre. 

the apostles, shows his wounds to Si Thom- 
as, who kneels before him. Carried to France 
by Tommaso Guadagni, and placed hi Chap- 


el of the Florentines at Lyons. Villot, Cat. 
Louvre ; Landon, xiv. PL 41. 

Subject treated also by Girolamo Muzi- 
ano, Louvre, Paris ; Simone Cantarini, Mu- 
nich Gallery ; Gerard Honthorst, Madrid 
Museum ; Bernardo Strozzi, Palazzo Bri- 
gnoli sale, Genoa ; Padovannino, Eremitani, 
Padua ; Salvator Rosa, Church della Morte, 
Viterbo ; Santi di Tito, Cathedral of Borgo 
San Sepolcro ; Cavaliere Calabrese, Dresden 
Gallery ; Anton van Dyck, Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg ; Rubens, Antwerp Museum ; 
Cinia da Conegliano, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Alphonse Masson (Salon, 1839) ; Louis 
Lamothe (1855). 

OF, Benozzo Gozzoli, Louvre ; wood, H. 7 
ft. G in. x 3 ft. 4 in. Above, Christ in glory, 
surrounded by cherubim, witli St. Paul at 
his right holding a book and a sword, Moses 
at his left with the tables of the law, and 
the Evangelists in front ; in the middle, St. 
Thomas seated between Aristotle and Plato, 
with Guillaurne de St. Amour, doctor of the 
University of Paris, below them, overcome 
by St. Thomas's eloquence ; in lower part, 
Pope Alexander IV., assisted by two cham- 
berlains, presiding over the assembly held 
in 125G, concerning the mendicant orders, 
which were attacked by St. Amour and de- 
fended by Thomas Aquinas. Vasari, ed. 
Mil., iii. 50 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

rillo, Lord Ashburton, London ; canvas, H. 
G ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 9 in. The saint, represented 
as a boy six or seven years old, is taking 
off his garments to supply the wants of 
four ragged boys ; background, a street with 
buildings and figures. Painted about 1G78 
for Convent of St. Augustine, Seville ; sold 
by Monks to the Prince of the Peace, who 
presented it to General Sebastiani ; pur- 
chased in 1814 by Mr. Baring, an ancestor 
of present owner. One of the finest Muril- 
los in England. Sketch, Lord Ashburton, 
The Grange, Hants. Copies : Cadiz Cathe- 
dral ; Due de Montpeusier ; Condesa de la 
Mejorada ; Don Rodrigo de Quirios, Seville. 

C. Bermudez, ii. 60 ; Buchanan, Memoirs, 
ii. 264 ; Ponz, Viage, ix. 136 ; Jameson, 
Monastic Orders, 202 ; Curtis, 269 ; Waa- 
gen, ii. 101. 

By Murillo, Earl of Northbrook, London ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 5 in. The saint, 
wearing a mitre and accompanied by an at- 
tendant with a crozier, stands in an archway 
giving alms to a kneeling beggar, who is 
surrounded by other beggars ; above, the 
Virgin, seated on clouds, with Jesus in her 
arms and two children clinging to her lap ; 
on left, a church, seen through an opening. 
Painted about 1678 for Chapel of St. Thom- 
as in Convent of St. Augustine, Seville. 
Louis Philippe sale (1853), 710, to Thom- 
as Baring, uncle of Earl of Northbrook. 
Ford calls it " one of the finest sketches of 
Murillo in existence." Lithographed by A. 
Pin yon. Curtis, 270; Athenaeum (1853), 
655 ; Gaz. des B. Arts, April, 1875 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole espagnole. 

By Murillo, Seville Museum ; canvas, H. 
9 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 4 in. The Archbishop of 
Valencia, with mitre and pastoral staff, 
standing front under a Grecian portico, 
dropping a coin into the hand of a kneeling 
beggar ; in foreground, on left, an old wom- 
an seated, with a boy standing at her knee ; 
at right, two other beggars and a nun ; at 
left, an open book on a table ; background, 
architecture, with columns wreathed above 
with a curtain. Painted about 1676 for 
Capuchin Convent, Seville. Murillo called 
this his own picture, and it is one of his 
finest works. Curtis, 268 ; Jameson, Mo- 
nastic Orders. 

By Murillo, Sir Richard Wallace, Bart., 
London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. The 
saint, wearing a skull-cap, is giving money 
to a half-naked beggar sitting on a stone ; 
he is attended by an ecclesiastic holding a 
mitre, and another holding a crook ; before 
him, a boy examining a coin ; at right, a 
group of beggars ; and at left, architecture. 
Second manner. Bought by Mr. Irvine 
from Capuchin Convent, Genoa, and sold 
to Mi-. Wells, of Redleaf, for 1,000 ; sold 



at William Wells sale (1848) to Marquis of 
Hertford for .2,992 10s. Curtis, 270. 

THOMPSON, ALBERT, born at Woburn, 
Mass., in 1853. Landscape and animal 
painter ; pupil of W. E. Norton. In 1872 
and in 1874 he visited Europe, travelling 
through Great Britain, France, and Italy, 
and studying in the art galleries of the Con- 
tinent. Exhibits at the Boston Art Club. 
Works : Landscape and Cattle ; Summer 
Afternoon ; Apple Orchard Summer ; Cat- 
tle on a Hillside ; Lake Winnipiseogee from 
Wolfborough ; Wood Interior ; Study of 
Italian Boy. 

born in Middle borough, Mass., Aug. 3, 1809. 
Portrait and figure painter, sou and pupil of 
Cephas Thompson, but mostly self-taught. 
He has painted in Boston, Providence, Phil- 
adelphia, New York, and in other cities in 
the United States. In 1852 visited Lon- 
don, Paris, Florence, and Rome, where he 
spent seven years. In I860 he returned 
to America, and has since lived in New 
York. An associate of the National Acad- 
emy. Works: Guardian Angel, C. H. Rog- 
ers, New York ; Prospero and Miranda, Mr. 
Wales, Boston ; St. Peter delivered from 
Prison, Ex - Governor Padelford, Provi- 
dence ; Spring and Autumn, C. Sprague. 
Portraits : Sebastian Cabot (after Hans Hol- 
bein), Charles Fenno Hoffman, Historical 
Society, New York ; Dr. Francis ; Haw- 
thorne ; Dr. Matthews, New York Univer- 
sity ; Henry T. Tuckerman ; William C. 
Bryant ; Mrs. Bryant. 


THOMPSON, HARRY, born in London ; 
contemporary. Genre and landscape paint- 
er, pupil in Paris of Charles Frau9ois Mar- 
chal and Charles Busson. Medal, 3d class, 
Paris, 1884. Works : Tea a la russe (1876) ; 
Sheep (1878) ; Sheepfold, View at Allery 
(1879) ; Flock in Valley of the Somme, 
Landscape (1880) ; Corner of the Orchard, 
Cross Road (1882) ; Among the Dunes 
(1883) ; Old Road in Picardy, A Calvary- 
Sheep (1884) ; Corner of the Fortifications 

of Paris (1885) ; Old Cemetery at Hocquin- 
court (1886). 

THOMPSON, JEROME, born in Middle- 
borough, Mass., Jan. 30, 1814, died at Glen 
Gardner, N. J., May 2, 1886. Landscape 
and figure painter ; studied for a short time 
under his father, Cephas Thompson, and 
with Morse and Jarvis. Elected an A.N.A. 
in 1850. Painted in England and France in 
1851-52. Works : Land of Beulah ; Voice 
of the Great Spirit ; Woodman, spare that 
Tree (1871) ; Valley of Baca (1875) ; Dakota 
Cafion (1880) ; Gates Ajar (1881) ; Spring 
Trap (1882) ; Fallen Oak (1883) ; Indian 
Prayer (1884) ; Study from Nature (1886). 

Baltimore, Md., May 26, 1840. Genre and 
history painter, pupil of Charles Gleyre, 
Lambinet, and Passini, in Paris, 1861-64. 
Has sketched in Morocco, Algiers, and 
Spain. Elected an A.N.A. in 1873 and 
N.A. in 1874. Studio in New York. Works : 
Moorlands of Au-Fargi (1865); Annapolis in 
1776, Academy of Fine Arts, Buffalo ; View 
of Mt. Etna (1869); Desolation (1873); Mid- 
summer's Day on Long Island (1876) ; By 
the Sea Mentone (1877); Review at Phila- 
delphia in Aug., 1777 (1878) ; The Depart- 
ure Episode of Colonial Life in Virginia 
(1879) ; May-Day in Fifth Avenue New 
York (1880) ; Halt of a Diligence (1881) ; Pass- 
ing the Outposts, Union League Club, New 
York ; Old Stone Church Sleepy Hollow 
(1882), T. B. Clarke, ib. ; Market Place- 
Biskra, Moorish Hunters returning to Tan- 
gier (1884) ; Winter Morning's Ride, Ad- 
vance of the Enemy (1885) ; In the Port of 
Algiers (1886). 

THOMSEN, AUGUST, bom at Glflcks- 
burg, Sept. 3, 1813, died at Copenhagen, 
Sept. 6, 1886. History painter, pupil of 
Copenhagen Academy, where he won medals 
in 1837 and 1838. Works : Presentation in 
the Temple (1841) ; Christ among the Doc- 
tors (1843) ; Hans Tausen preaching the 
Gospel, Church of the Holy Ghost, Copen- 
hagen. Weilbach, 676 ; Kunst-Chrouik, 
xxi. 750. 


THOMSON, HENKY, born at Portsea, 
July 31, 1773, died there, April 6, 1843. 
Son of a purser in the navy ; pupil of Opie 
and student in 1790 at Royal Academy ; 
travelled and studied in Italy, and in Vi- 
enna and Dresden in 1793-99 ; became 
A.RA. in 1801, and R.A. in 1804. In 1825 
succeeded Fuseli as keeper of Academy, 
but resigned in 1827. Painted historical 
and fancy subjects and portraits. Works : 
The Dead Eobin (1809), National Gallery ; 
Christ raising Jairus's Daughter (1820) ; Mi- 
randa's First Sight of Ferdinand (1822) ; 
Juliet (1825). Art Union (1843), 147 ; Cat. 
Royal Academy ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole anglaise ; 
Redgrave ; Sandby, i. 326. 

THOMSON, Rev. JOHN, born at Dailly, 
Ayrshire, Sept. 1, 1778, died at Dudding- 
ston, Oct. 20, 1840. Called Thomson of 
Duddingston. Amateur landscape painter, 
pupil of Alexander Nasmyth ; first exhibited 
in 1808, with the Society of Associated Ar- 
tists, Edinburgh, to which he contributed 
one hundred and nine pictures, from 1808 
to 1840, inclusive. He was made an hono- 
rary member of the Royal Scottish Academy, 
having refused actual membership on ac- 
count of his profession. Work : Loch-an- 
Eilan at Rothiemurchus Inverness-shire 
(1835), National Gallery, London. Art 
Journal (1883), 78. 

THON, SIXT ARNIM, born at Eisenach, 
Nov. 10, 1817. Genre painter, pupil of 
Leipsic Academy, then in'Weimar of Prel- 
ler, with whom he visited the Isle of Riigen 
(1837), the Thuringian Forest (1840), Nor- 
way, and the Netherlands ; afterwards 
studied for one year in Antwerp, and after 
his return to AVeimar became instructor at 
the Grand-ducal School of Design and at 
the Sophienstift. Works : Adventure of 
Travel in Norway ; Gleaner AVoman ; Girl 
with Pitcher ; Two Citizens of Antwerp ; 
Musicians in Winter ; Sleeping Boy, Chris- 
tiania Gallei-y. Andresen, iv. 62. 

THORBURN, ROBERT, born in Dum- 
fries, March, 1818, died at Tunbridge 
Wells, Nov. 2, 1885. Portrait and figure 

painter, pupil of Royal Institute, Edin- 
burgh, and of Royal Academy, London, 
where he first exhibited in 1837 ; elected an 
A.R.A. in 1848. Was a successful minia- 
ture painter, having among his sitters the 
Queen (1846) and other members of the 
royal family, but on introduction of photog- 
raphy painted life-size portraits and ideal 
figures. Works : The Orphans (1866) ; Un- 
dine, Country Life (1869) ; John Baptist, 
Catherine of Aragon (1870) ; Concealment 
of Moses (1871) ; Rebekah at Well (1873) ; 
In the Meadow on the Hillside (1874); 
Christian descending the Hill Difficulty 
(1876); Slough of Despond (1878); The 
Two Marys at the Tomb (1879) ; Redi- 
viva (1880) ; Bonbons, The Fates, Eastern 
Water Carrier, Angel's Whisper (1882) ; 
Queen Catherine on the Eve of her Di- 
vorce, Babes in the Wood, Game of Chess 
(1883). Athen., Nov. 7, 1885, 610 ; Sand- 
by, ii. 221. 

"THOREN, OTTO VON, born in Vienna 
in 1828. Animal and landscape painter, 
studied in Brussels and Paris, taking up 
painting in 1857, after having served in the 
Austrian army in the campaigns of 1848-49 ; 
returned to Vienna in 1865 and afterwards 
settled in Paris. One of the best of living 
animal painters. Member of Vienna and 
St. Petersburg Academies. Medals : Paris, 
1865 ; Munich, 1869 ; Vienna, 1882. Order 
of Francis Joseph ; Russian Order of Vladi- 
mir. Works : Death of Gustavus Adolphus 
at Liitzen (1856) ; Horse in Stable, Cleaning 
the Horse (1857) ; Mare with Foal (1858), 
Ki'migsberg Museum ; After Battle (1859) ; 
Cows at Pasture, Horses Ploughing (1861) ; 
Cattle Thieves, Horse Thieves (1865) ; Au- 
tumn Morning in Flanders, Ploughing Oxen 
in Slovenia (1866) ; Near the Wolf (1870), 
Vienna Academy ; The Forsaken Ones, Ap- 
proaching Storm, Too Late (1867) ; Pasture 
in Normandy (1873); Cows attacked by 
Wolves, Museum, Vienna; Wood Land- 
scape with Hungarian Oxen, Two Hun- 
garian Peasants on Horseback, Czernin Gal- 
lery, ib.; Equestrian Portrait of Emperor 



Francis Joseph (1866). Wurzbach, xliv. 
261 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iv. 114 ; vi. 213 ; 
is. (Mittheilungen, ii. 11). 

in Boston in 1825. Landscape and marine 
painter ; studied in Paris in 1847. Pro- 
fessional life spent in Newport. An associ- 
ate of the National Academy, but rarely 
exhibits. Works : Lily Pond ; Swans in 
Central Park ; The Dumplings Newport ; 
Wayside Inn ; View near Stoekbridge 
Mass.; Longwood Marshes (1885). 

THORNHILL, Sir JAMES, born at Mel- 
combe Regis in 1676, died at Thornhill, 
near Weyrnoutb, May 13, 1734 Pupil in 
London of Thomas Highmore ; was patron- 
ized by Queen Anne, who made him her 
sergeant painter. When foreign painters, 
such as the Riccis, Laguerre, and La Fosse, 
were patronized, and native talent decried, 
he decorated walls and ceilings of public 
and private buildings with mythological 
and historical compositions, for which he 
was but poorly remunerated at so much per 
square yard. Of these the most important 
are eight compartments of the cupola at St. 
Paul's, the great hall at Blenheim, the ceil- 
ing and walls of the hall at Greenwich 
Hospital, and a saloon and hall at Moor 
Park, Herts. His Finding of the Law, an 
easel picture, is at All Souls' College, Ox- 
ford. His portrait of Sir Isaac Newton in 
his Old Age belongs to Lord Portsmouth. 
In 1720 he was knighted by George I., the 
first native painter, it is said, to receive that 
distinction. In 1724 he endeavoured to 
found a Royal Academy of Art, and failing, 
opened a drawing academy in his own 
house. Taylor, Fine Arts in Great Britain 
(London, 1841) ; Redgrave ; Sandby, i. 13 ; 
Portfolio (1872), 66. 

THREE AGES, Lorenzo Lotto, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; wood, H. 2 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in. 
Three figures, half-length, the middle one 
a youth in a black cap, with a sheet of music 
in his hand ; to right, a middle-aged bearded 
man ; to left, a bald-headed, gray-bearded 
man. Look like portraits ; handled with 

Giorgionesque skill. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 
502 ; Gal. du Pal. Pitti, i. PL 47. 

By Titian, Bridgewater House, London ; 
canvas, figures less than life-size. A shepherd 
lover beneath a tree is taught by a maiden 
crowned with flowers to place his fingers on 
the stops of the reed-pipe ; in the middle 
ground Cupid stepping over the forms of 
two sleeping children ; in the distance an 
old man dreaming over a pair of skulls on 
the ground. Painted about 1518 for Gio- 
vanni di Castelli, a gentleman of Faenza ; 
passed through the hands of the Cardinal 
of Augsburg into the collection of Queen 
Christina of Sweden ; thence into the Or- 
leans Collection, from which purchased by 
the Duke of Bridgewater. Copies in Pa- 
lazzo Doria and Palazzo Borghese, Rome ; 
another belonging to Earl Dudley. En- 
graved by Ravenet. Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 
435; C. & C., Titian, i. 204; Waagen, 
Treasures, ii. 31 ; Cab. Crozat, ii. PI. 145. 

THREE VIRTUES, Raphael. See Pru- 
dence., Fortitude, and Temperance. 

THUILLIER, PIERRE, born at Amiens, 
June 17, 1799, died there, Nov. 19, 1858. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Watelet and 
of Gudin, and a close student of nature. 
Medals : 3d class, 1835 ; 2d class, 1837 ; 1st 
class, 1839 ; L. of Honour, 1843. Works : 
Valley of the Drac, Ruins of Castle of 
Champ (1835), Amiens Museum ; Entrance 
to a Forest in the Ardennes (1836), Lyons 
Museum ; Rocks of Freilly (1836), Amiens 
Museum ; Timber near Chateau Ronard, 
Boulogne-sur-Mer Museum ; Ancient Abbey 
of Doue (1837), Due d'Aumale ; Castle and 
Bridge of Voute-sur-Loire (1838), Puy Mu- 
seum ; Ancient Tiburtine Road near Tivoli 
(1843); The Puyen-Velay (1844); River 
Duralle near Thiers (1845), Lyons Museum; 
Elbiar near Algiers, Spring in the Moun- 
tains of the Var (1848) ; Pasture in the 
Mountains of Dauphiny (1853), bought by 
Napoleon HI. ; Lake of Annecy (1854), 
Geneva Museum ; Valley of Thuily in Dau- 
phiny. His daughter Louise (Mme. Mor- 
nard), born at Amiens in 1829, is also a 



landscape painter. Medal, 3d class, 1847. 
Works: Entrance to Desert; Views in 
North Africa ; Fog on Coast of Normandy 
(1857) ; Portraits of Arab Sheiks. Meyer, 
Gesch., 767. 

VAN, born at Bois-le-Duc, baptized Aug. 9, 
1G06, died there about 1G76. Flemish 
school; history and genre painter, pupil 
of Abraham Blyenberch and of Kubens ; 
master of Antwerp guild in 1G25, its dean 
in 1G39-40 ; spent some time in Paris 
(about 1632-34 and 1647), worked at Lux- 
embourg and Fontainebleau ; returned to 
Antwerp in 1635, and married the daughter 
of Henry van Balen ; called to The Hague in 
1G48, to decorate the Palace in the Wood. 
Works : Christ appearing to the Virgin, 
Louvre ; do. (1GGO), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Time and the Fates, Mystical Subject (1647), 
Grenoble Museum ; Martyrdom of St. 
Adrian, St. Michael's, Ghent ; Mother's 
Jewels (1647), Museum, Tournay ; Christ on 
his Way to Calvary, Cathedral, ib. ; Two 
Sketches for Triumphal Arch, Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; Christ at the Pillar, Flemish Wed- 
ding, Brussels Museum ; Triumph of Gala- 
tea, Berlin Museum ; Game Vender, Peasant 
Woman with Fruit Basket (both with Jan 
Fyt), Darmstadt Museum ; Marriage of St. 
Catherine, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg; 
Thetis wreathing Peleus (1664), Amalien- 
stift, Dessau; Finding of Moses, David 
bringing the Head of Goliath to Jerusalem, 
Schwerin Gallery ; Reconciliation of Jacob 
and Esau, Visitation, Allegory (1654), Muse- 
um, Vienna ; A Tri- 
umphal Progress, 
o C7 Herodias with Head 
TvT. M.**?. of St. John, Liech- 
T v cun T u&) w, tenstein Gallery, ib. ; 
lCj2. Christ in the House 

, . of Simon, Wiesba- 
u.Ue* den Gallery ; Or- 
<yx. </\ c '-'4$ J J pheus charming the 

Animals, Discovery 

of Purple, Madrid Museum. Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole flamande ; Kramm, vi. 1620 ; Kugler 

jX/J^ , 

(Crowe), ii. 311; Michiels, viii. 116; Van 
den Branden, 771 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xiv. 

THUMANN, PAUL, born at Tschacks- 
dorf, Lusatia, Oct. 5, 
1834. Genre painter and 
illustrator, pupil of Berlin 
and (under Julius Hiib- 
ner) Dresden Academies ; 
worked in Leipsic as an 
illustrator in 1860-63, 
then studied in Weimar 
under Pauwels ; visited 
Italy (1865), England 
(1866), and France (1867), 
and became professor at the Weimar Art 
School in 1866, at Dresden Academy in 
1872, and at Berlin Academy in 1875. Gold 
medal, Berlin, 1879. Works : Departure of 
the Bride (1868) ; Luther's Wedding, Barn- 
berg Art Union ; Squire George with the 
Swiss Students at Jena ; Four Scenes in 
Life of Luther, Wartburg near Eisenach ; 
Return of the Germans after Battle in Teu- 
toburg Forest (1883), Baptism of Wittekind 
(1884), Gymnasium, Minden ; Inattentive 
Scholar, Stettin Museum ; Illustrations to 
Goethe's "Wahrheit und Dichtung," Cha- 
misso's and Heine's Poems, Voss's "Luise," 
Shakespeare's " Midsummer Night's Dream," 
Tennyson's "Enoch Arden." Rosenberg, 
Berl. Malersch., 314 ; Graph. K., ii. 49, 94 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xxi. 4 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
six. 19 ; xxi. 38. 

THUSNELDA. See Germanicus. 
THYS (Tyssens), PEETER, the elder, 
born in Antwerp in 1624, died there between 
June 2, 1677, and Feb. 14, 1679. Flemish 
school ; history and portrait painter, in man- 
ner of Van Dyck, pupil of A. Deurwaerder. 
Master of the guild in 1644-45, and dean 
in 1660. His historical pictures also show 
the influence of Gaspard de Craeyer. Was 
painter to the Emperor Leopold. Works : 
Apparition of Christ, Apparition of the Vir- 
gin, St. Francis receiving Indulgence, Icarus 
and Daedalus, Two Portraits, Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; Adoration of the Host, St. James's 



Church, Antwerp ; Martyrdom of St. Bene- 
dict, and Portrait, Brussels Museum ; Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony, Conversion of St. 
Hubert, Consolation of St. Sebastian, Ghent 
Museum ; Pieta, Basle Museum ; Marriage 
of St. Catherine, Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Achilles with Lycomedes, Stockholm Muse- 
um ; Portrait of David Teniers the young- 
er, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Venus bewail- 
ing Adonis, Vienna Museum ; Vulcan and 
Venus surrounded by various Weapons, Va- 
rus with do., Hermannstadt Museum ; Mer- 
cury and Herse (1664), Worlitz Gallery. 
His son, Pieter Paul (born, 1652), was also a 
painter. Kramm, vi. 1629 ; Kugler (Crowe), 

ii. 309 ; Michiels, ix. 13 ; Rooses (Reber), 
329 ; Van den Branden, 934 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, xiv. 319. 

logna, March 20, 
1577, died there, 
Feb. 8, 1668. Bo- 
lognese school ; pu- 
pil in Bologna of 
Prospero Fontana, 
and of Bartolom- 
meo Cesi ; fled, on 
account of a quar- 
rel, to Florence, 
where he studied 
with Passignano and assisted Poccetti. Af- 
ter painting in Pisa, Pescia, and other places, 
returned to Bologna, and improved his style 
by studying the works of the Carracci. His 
Miracle of St. Dominic, in S. Domenico, and 
his Presentation in the Temple, in S. M. de' 
Servi, established his reputation, and he soon 
had many commissions in Reggio, Modena, 
Cremona, Ferrara, and other cities, which 
brought him fame and fortune. His early 
pictures are in the style of Passignano ; 
his later ones show the influence of Lodo- 

vico Carracci. He was of a melancholy dis- 
position, and his subjects are generally pa- 
thetic and treated in sombre colours, but 
admirably harmonized. Among his best 
easel pictures are : Marriage of St. Cather- 
ine, St. Catherine in Ecstasy, Madonna in 
Glory and Saints, Deposition, Bologna Gal- 
lery ; Deposition, Brera, Milan. Malvasia, 
ii. 119 ; Lanzi, iii. 117 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole 
bolonaise ; Burckhardt, 764, 785, 788, 791 ; 
Lavice, 16, 154. 

Valdelsa, born at Val- 
delsa, near Milan, in 
1532, died in Milan in 
1592. Bolognese 
school ; real name 
Pellegrino di Tibaldo 
de' Pellegrini ; some- 
times called Pellegri- 
no da Bologna ; son 
of a poor mason, who 
removed to Bologna when his son was young. 
After studying in Bologna, Pellegrino went 
to Rome in 1547 and assisted Perino del 
Vaga in the Castle of St. Angelo, and Da- 
niele da Volterra in Trinita de' Monti. He 
studied carefully the works of Michelangelo, 
and imitated his style so successfully that 
he was called by the Carracci, Michelagnolo